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The role of verbal working memory in second language reading fluency and comprehension: A comparison of English and Korean  [PDF]
International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education , 2011,
Abstract: This study examined the respective contribution of verbal working memory, which was operationalized as immediate digit and sentence recall, to bilingual children’s reading fluency and comprehension in the first language (L1) and second language (L2). Fifty children from two international sites took part in this study: One group was English-Korean bilinguals in the U.S., while the other was Korean-English bilinguals in Korea. The manifestation of the prediction model varied across the learning contexts or learner groups. L1 forward and backward digit spans accounted for the significant variances in L2 reading fluency and comprehension for the English-speaking children in the U.S., whereas L1 forward digit span was more predictive of L2 reading fluency and comprehension than backward digit span and sentence recall for the Korean-speaking counterparts in Korea. The results were interpreted with respect to the orthographic depth, linguistic differences, and cognitivedemands. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Brain Bases of Reading Fluency in Typical Reading and Impaired Fluency in Dyslexia  [PDF]
Joanna A. Christodoulou, Stephanie N. Del Tufo, John Lymberis, Patricia K. Saxler, Satrajit S. Ghosh, Christina Triantafyllou, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, John D. E. Gabrieli
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100552
Abstract: Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits are a persistent behavioral marker of dyslexia into adulthood. The current study identified the neural correlates of fluent reading in typical and dyslexic adult readers, using sentences presented in a word-by-word format in which single words were presented sequentially at fixed rates. Sentences were presented at slow, medium, and fast rates, and participants were asked to decide whether each sentence did or did not make sense semantically. As presentation rates increased, participants became less accurate and slower at making judgments, with comprehension accuracy decreasing disproportionately for dyslexic readers. In-scanner performance on the sentence task correlated significantly with standardized clinical measures of both reading fluency and phonological awareness. Both typical readers and readers with dyslexia exhibited widespread, bilateral increases in activation that corresponded to increases in presentation rate. Typical readers exhibited significantly larger gains in activation as a function of faster presentation rates than readers with dyslexia in several areas, including left prefrontal and left superior temporal regions associated with semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations. Group differences were more extensive when behavioral differences between conditions were equated across groups. These findings suggest a brain basis for impaired reading fluency in dyslexia, specifically a failure of brain regions involved in semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations to become fully engaged for comprehension at rapid reading rates.
Using Digital Recorders to Increase Reading Fluency  [cached]
Richard Booth,Deidre Hichens,Annette Kratcoski
Journal of the Research Center for Educational Technology , 2007,
Abstract: This project explored the use of digital recorders as a tool for targeting fluency instruction. The vignette documents the impact of the project on students’ fluency skills as well as their motivation for reading practice.
The Effectiveness of the Intervention Program on Reading Fluency and Reading Motivation of Students with Dyslexia  [cached]
Zeinab Mihandoost,Habibah Elias,Sharifah Nor,Rosnaini Mahmud
Asian Social Science , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v7n3p187
Abstract: The main purpose of this research is to examine the impact of an intervention program on motivation and reading fluency of dyslexic students. The research is an experimental one. The population included fourth and fifth grade male and female dyslexic students in Ilam, Iran. 64 students were randomly selected using simple random sampling method. The students were equally divided and assigned into a control and an experimental group respectively. The experimental group received the Barton intervention program for three months. The Reading Motivation Scale and Reading Fluency Test were administered for the measurement of motivation and reading fluency pre and post tests. The reliability of the reading motivation and reading fluency was found to be satisfactory. The content validity of the scales was investigated using the judgment of 10 psychology expert. The analysis of the finding through t-test found a significant difference between the control and experimental groups after the intervention program at ?< .01
Connected Text Reading and Differences in Text Reading Fluency in Adult Readers  [PDF]
Sebastian Wallot, Geoff Hollis, Marieke van Rooij
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071914
Abstract: The process of connected text reading has received very little attention in contemporary cognitive psychology. This lack of attention is in parts due to a research tradition that emphasizes the role of basic lexical constituents, which can be studied in isolated words or sentences. However, this lack of attention is in parts also due to the lack of statistical analysis techniques, which accommodate interdependent time series. In this study, we investigate text reading performance with traditional and nonlinear analysis techniques and show how outcomes from multiple analyses can used to create a more detailed picture of the process of text reading. Specifically, we investigate reading performance of groups of literate adult readers that differ in reading fluency during a self-paced text reading task. Our results indicate that classical metrics of reading (such as word frequency) do not capture text reading very well, and that classical measures of reading fluency (such as average reading time) distinguish relatively poorly between participant groups. Nonlinear analyses of distribution tails and reading time fluctuations provide more fine-grained information about the reading process and reading fluency.
Unique Screener of Reading Fluency and Comprehension for Adolescents and Adults  [PDF]
Sherry Mee Bell, Kelli Caldwell Miller, Ralph Steve McCallum, Michael Hopkins
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.31007
Abstract: Because there are few brief reading fluency screeners available for older adolescents and adults we developed one, then investigated its psychometric properties, obtained for 161 college students. Two experimental versions of this unique, silent, group-administered screener of reading fluency and comprehension require adolescents and adults either to read and identify ideas or words (i.e., word chaining) within connected text of increasing difficulty. Both instruments and the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (Brown, Fishco, & Hanna, 1993) were administered in counterbalanced order. Results indicate moderately strong relationships (r values ranged from .52 to .63) between both versions of the screener and Nelson-Denny comprehension and rate scores. These data provide preliminary evidence of validity for these screeners for this population. The format requiring examinees to identify ideas produced slightly higher correlations with Nelson-Denny comprehension scores than did the word chain format. Both may be useful because they can be created from existing curriculum materials and are efficient (i.e., group administered) and quick (requiring only 5 minutes).
Developing Reading Automaticity and Fluency: Revisiting What Reading Teachers Know, Putting Confirmed Research into Current Practice  [PDF]
Gail M. Wolf
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.96062
Abstract: This article revisits research on reading automaticity and fluency with the goal of helping beginning reading teachers put confirmed research findings into current classroom practice. The article examines the concepts of automaticity and fluency, how both impact the development of skillful reading. The article reviews research on: a) reading strategies children use, and b) repeat reading teaching strategies to develop fluency. Case scenarios illustrate key findings. Based on the research and case scenarios, four conclusions are drawn: 1) The terms automaticity and fluency are often interchanged; the concepts are not the same; 2) Understanding the differences between automaticity and fluency can impact repeat reading teaching strategies; 3) There is an assumption that rapid word recognition is the same cognitive process as automatic word decoding; and 4) There are two pathways to fluent reading, rapid word recognition, and automatic decoding ability. The article presents a theoretical model which aligns with childhood learning theories, offering teachers a variation in repeat reading teaching strategies. Rather than repeating reading the same text, opportunities to read slightly different, decodable text improves decoding, builds fluency, and thus strengthens children’s reading comprehension of complex text.
Examining Oral Reading Fluency Trajectories Among English Language Learners and English Speaking Students  [cached]
Shane R. Jimerson,Sehee Hong,Scott Stage,Michael Gerber
Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research , 2013, DOI: 10.7821/naer.2.1.3-11
Abstract: Students’ oral reading fluency growth from first through fourth grade was used to predict their achievement on the Stanford Achievement Test (9th ed.; SAT-9 Reading) using a latent growth model. Two conditional variables related to student status were used to determine the effects on reading performance - English language learners (ELLs) with low socioeconomic status and low socioeconomic (SES) status alone. Results revealed that both types of student status variables reliably predicted low performance on initial first grade oral reading fluency, which later predicted fourth grade performance on the SAT-9. However, the reading fluency trajectories of the ELLs and monolingual English students were not significantly different. In addition, when both student status variables and letter naming fluency were used to predict initial oral reading fluency, letter naming fluency dominated the prediction equation, suggesting that an initial pre-reading skill, letter naming fluency, better explained fourth grade performance on the SAT-9 than either ELL with low SES or low SES alone. The discussion focuses on how to better enable these readers and how oral reading fluency progress monitoring can be used to assist school personnel in determining which students need additional instructional assistance.

Zhang Jijia,Wang Huiping,

心理学报 , 1996,
Abstract: The present study explored the effects of orthographic depth on reading time of Chinese words by naming task.The results showed:(1)Orthographic depth has important effects on reading time of Chinese words.The subjects took different time to read different kinds of Chinese characters,shorter time to read regular XING SHENG characters,longer time to read irregular XING SHENG characters that have sound parts but the sound parts do not mark sounds.(2) Compared with one-sound words,naming Chinese homographes took longer time.There were also differences in naming time between superior responses and inferior responses.(3) There were interactions among word frequency,context and orthographic depth. The whole study suggested that orthographic depth has indeed a strong psychological reality in recognition of Chinese words, and has important effects on reading time of Chinese words.
An evaluation of the oral reading fluency of 4th graders with respect to prosodic characteristic  [cached]
Mustafa Y?ld?z,Kas?m Y?ld?r?m,Seyit Ate?,?etin ?etinkaya
International Journal of Human Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: This study examined the oral reading fluency of 4th graders with respect to prosodic characteristics. Seventy 4th graders participated in the study. They were initially asked to read a grade-level passage and their reading was video recorded. Their reading errors were identified and their word correct per minute (WCPM) was determined. Their oral reading skills were also evaluated with respect to prosodic characteristics by using the Multidimensional Fluency Scale criteria. The results showed that their WCPM was close to the norms of the 4th grade. However, a significant part of students (40%) were noted to have problems with prosodic reading skills. Further, a positive and meaningful relationship was observed between WCPM and prosodic reading skills. It was concluded that activities and studies promoting prosodic reading skills should be given more emphasis in primary schools.
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