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Effect of Alpinia zerumbet components on antioxidant and skin diseases-related enzymes  [cached]
Chompoo Jamnian,Upadhyay Atul,Fukuta Masakazu,Tawata Shinkichi
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-106
Abstract: Background The skin is chronically exposed to endogenous and environmental pro-oxidant agents, leading to the harmful generation of reactive oxygen species. Antioxidant is vital substances which possess the ability to protect the body from damage cause by free radicals induce oxidative stress. Alpinia zerumbet, a traditionally important economic plant in Okinawa, contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this regard, we carried out to test the inhibitory effect of crude extracts and isolated compounds from A. zerumbet on antioxidant and skin diseases-related enzymes. Methods The antioxidant activities were examined by DPPH, ABTS and PMS-NADH radical scavenging. Collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase and tyrosinase were designed for enzymatic activities to investigate the inhibitory properties of test samples using a continuous spectrophotometric assay. The inhibitory capacity of test samples was presented at half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50). Results The results showed that aqueous extract of the rhizome was found to have greater inhibitory effects than the others on both of antioxidant and skin diseases-related enzymes. Furthermore, 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK), dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain (DDK) and 8(17),12-labdadiene-15,16-dial (labdadiene), isolated from rhizome, were tested for antioxidant and enzyme inhibitions. We found that DK showed higher inhibitory activities on DPPH, ABTS and PMS-NADH scavenging (IC50 = 122.14 ± 1.40, 110.08 ± 3.34 and 127.78 ± 4.75 μg/ml, respectively). It also had stronger inhibitory activities against collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase and tyrosinase (IC50 = 24.93 ± 0.97, 19.41 ± 0.61, 19.48 ± 0.24 and 76.67 ± 0.50 μg/ml, respectively) than DDK and labdadiene. Conclusion Our results indicate that the rhizome aqueous extract proved to be the source of bioactive compounds against enzymes responsible for causing skin diseases. Moreover, DK could be used as a potent inhibitor and be further exploited to be used in anti-skin disease formulations.
Protein Lysine Acetylated/Deacetylated Enzymes and the Metabolism-Related Diseases  [PDF]
Qilin Wang, Shangjing Guo, Yaman Gao
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2016.711044
Abstract: Lysine acetylation is a reversible posttranslational modifcation, an epigenetic phenomenon, referred to as transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl CoA to lysine ε- amino group of targeted protein, which is modulated by acetyltransferases (histone/ lysine (K) acetyltransferases, HATs/KATs) and deacetylases (histone/lysine (K) deacetylases, HDACs/KDACs). Lysine acetylation regulates various metabolic processes, such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, angiogenesis and so on. Thus disorders of lysine acetylation may be correlated with obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which are termed as the metabolic complication. With accumulating studies on proteomic acetylation, lysine acetylation also involves in cell immune status and degenerative diseases, for example, Alzheimer’s disease and Huntington’s disease. This review primarily summarizes the current studies of lysine acetylation in metabolism modulation and in metabolism-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and fat metabolism disorder.
Therapeutic Approach to Neurodegenerative Diseases by Medical Gases: Focusing on Redox Signaling and Related Antioxidant Enzymes
Kyota Fujita,Megumi Yamafuji,Yusaku Nakabeppu,Mami Noda
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/324256
Abstract: Oxidative stress in the central nervous system is strongly associated with neuronal cell death in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In order to overcome the oxidative damage, there are some protective signaling pathways related to transcriptional upregulation of antioxidant enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1/-2. Their expression is regulated by several transcription factors and/or cofactors like nuclear factor-erythroid 2 (NF-E2) related factor 2 (Nrf2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α). These antioxidant enzymes are associated with, and in some cases, prevent neuronal death in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. They are activated by endogenous mediators and phytochemicals, and also by several gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), and hydrogen (H2). These might thereby protect the brain from severe oxidative damage and resultant neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper, we discuss how the expression levels of these antioxidant enzymes are regulated. We also introduce recent advances in the therapeutic uses of medical gases against neurodegenerative diseases.
The Phenotype of Hormone-Related Allergic and Autoimmune Diseases in the Skin: Annular Lesions That Lateralize  [PDF]
Ramya Kollipara,Chetna Arora,Colleen Reisz
Journal of Allergy , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/604854
Abstract: Introduction. Sexual dimorphism with an increased prevalence in women has long been observed in various autoimmune, allergic, and skin diseases. Recent research has attempted to correlate this female predilection to physiologic changes seen in the menstrual cycle in order to more effectively diagnose and treat these diseases. Cases. We present five cases of cutaneous diseases in women with annular morphology and distributive features that favor one side over the other. In all cases, skin disease improved with ovarian suppression. Conclusion. Sexual dimorphism in the innate and adaptive immune systems has long been observed, with females demonstrating a more vigorous immune response compared to males. Female sex hormones promote T and B lymphocyte autoreactivity and favor the humoral arm of adaptive immunity. In addition to ovarian steroidogenesis and immunity, intricate pathways coexist in order to engage a single oocyte in each cycle, while simultaneously sustaining the ovarian reserve. Vigorous proinflammatory, vasoactive, and pigment-related cytokines emerge during the demise of the corpus luteum, influencing peripherical sex hormone metabolism of the level of the macrophage and fibroblast. We propose that annular and lateralizing lesions are important manifestations of hormone-related inflammation and recognition of this linkage can lead to improved immune and reproductive health. 1. Introduction Gender is an important variable in many diseases [1]. Women with asthma are at higher risk for developing severe disease in adulthood by a ratio of 2?:?1. Gender differences also exist in lupus, and other autoimmune diseases [2]. Similarly, there are gender differences in skin diseases such as granuloma annulare, palmoplantar pustulosis, and morphea. Attempts to explain these differences have focused on the variable physiologic changes seen in the menstrual cycle. Recent updates in fertility-based medicine have dramatically increased our understanding of the recruitment and development of a dominant follicle. Many of the events in the ovary provoke inflammatory cytokines and antibody formation that can affect organ systems unrelated to fertility. Physicians taking care of women with allergic, autoimmune, and skin diseases need to recognize gender influenced systemwide inflammation. The following is a case series of women with skin diseases that improved with ovarian suppression. We review the stage-specific molecular changes in the ovary. The behavior of estrogen receptors in immune cells varies under inflammatory conditions and can dysregulate T-cell
Protective roles of adiponectin in obesity-related fatty liver diseases: mechanisms and therapeutic implications
Wang, Yu;Zhou, Mingyan;Lam, Karen S. L.;Xu, Aimin;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-27302009000200012
Abstract: adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing adipokine possessing multiple beneficial effects on obesity-related medical complications. this adipokine is secreted from adipocytes into the circulation as three oligomeric isoforms, including trimer, hexamer and the high molecular weight (hmw) oligomeric complex. each oligomeric isoform of adiponectin possesses distinct biological properties and activates different signaling pathways in various target tissues. the hepato-protective activities have been demonstrated by many clinical and experimental studies. the decreased level of serum adiponectin represents an independent risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (nafld) and liver dysfunctions in humans. in animals, elevation of circulating adiponectin by either pharmacological or genetic approaches leads to a significant alleviation of hepatomegaly, steatosis and necro-inflammation associated with various liver diseases. in adiponectin knockout mice, there is a pre-existing condition of hepatic steatosis and mitochondria dysfunction, which might contribute to the increased vulnerabilities of these mice to the secondary liver injuries induced by obesity and other conditions. this review aims to summarize recent advances on delination of the structural, molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the hepato-protective properties of adiponectin.
芒果中褐变相关酶的酶学性质及结构表征
Enzymatic properties and structure characterization of browning related enzymes in mango skin
 [PDF]

胡婉峰,刘思宇,黄行健,单小飞,徐晓云,潘思轶,彭帮柱
- , 2016,
Abstract: 以芒果皮中的褐变相关酶为研究对象,研究纯化后的芒果褐变相关酶的酶学性质及结构。试验采用榨汁、离心、抽滤、浓缩等方法,从芒果皮中提取出粗蛋白,经层析柱纯化,得到纯度较高的2种同工酶P1和P2。以邻苯二酚为底物,采用分光光度法在420 nm下测定芒果皮中褐变相关酶的活性,其中P1的最适温度为55℃,最适pH值为7.0,最适底物为邻苯二酚,该酶的分子质量约为100 ku。P2活性极低。圆二色谱结果表明,2种酶分别含有32.1%和19.2%的α 螺旋以及43.4%和80.8%的β 折叠。荧光光谱结果表明,P1最大发射波长在358.4 nm处,相对荧光强度为207.9。P2最大发射波长在356 nm处,相对荧光强度为164.2,两者的荧光基团均处于亲水环境中。2种酶的粒径分布均较为集中,粒径分别在11.696 nm 与8.721 nm处,强度最大,分别达到29.686%与25.369%。
The browning related enzymes in mango skin were investigated.Crude proteins were extracted from mango juicing with centrifugation,filtration and concentration methods and purified by column chromatography.Two isoenzymes,P1 and P2,were purified.Using catechol as substrate,the activity of the enzyme was determined by spectrophotometry at 420 nm.The results showed that the optimal temperature,pH value,substrate for mango P1 was 55℃,7.0,and catechol,respectively.The molecular weight of P1 was 100 ku.The activity of P2 was very low.Results of circular dichroism showed that the content of α helix and β fold of the two enzyme was 32.1% and 19.2%,43.4% and 80.8%,respectively.Result of fluorescence excitation spectra showed that the maximum emission wavelength of P1 and P2 was at 358.4 nm and 356 nm with the fluorescence intensity of 207.9 and 164.2.The particle size distribution of the two enzymes was more concentrated at 11.696 nm and 8.721 nm,reaching 29.686% and 25.369%.
Mechanisms Regulating Skin Pigmentation: The Rise and Fall of Complexion Coloration  [PDF]
Jody P. Ebanks,R. Randall Wickett,Raymond E. Boissy
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/ijms10094066
Abstract: Skin pigmentary abnormalities are seen as aesthetically unfavorable and have led to the development of cosmetic and therapeutic treatment modalities of varying efficacy. Hence, several putative depigmenting agents aimed at modulating skin pigmentation are currently being researched or sold in commercially available products. In this review we will discuss the regulation of processes that control skin complexion coloration. This includes direct inhibition of tyrosinase and related melanogenic enzymes, regulation of melanocyte homeostasis, alteration of constitutive and facultative pigmentation and down-regulation of melanosome transfer to the keratinocytes. These various processes, in the complex mechanism of skin pigmentation, can be regulated individually or concomitantly to alter complexion coloration and thus ameliorate skin complexion diseases.
Pattern of skin diseases in Imphal  [cached]
Devi Th. Bijayanti,Zamzachin G
Indian Journal of Dermatology , 2006,
Abstract: Background and Aims: It is generally agreed that the pattern of skin diseases differs in different countries, and within various regions of a country depending on social, economic, racial and environmental factors. Many workers have reported various patterns of skin diseases in different parts of India. So far no such report is available for this border state of North East India. To fill the lacunae we decided to undertake a retrospective study of the skin disease pattern in this premier hospital of Manipur. Materials and Methods: All the newly diagnosed cases attending the OPD of Dermatology and Venereology, RIMS Hospital Imphal, during the period of 2 years starting from 1st January 1999 to 31st December, 2000 were included in the study. Diagnosis was done on clinical grounds and laboratory investigations were done whenever required. Results: Eczema (17.48%), fungal infections (17.19%), pyodermas (9.10%) and scabies (8.97%) were the major skin diseases. STD′s accounted for (3.60%) of the cases. Genodermatoses (0.01%) formed the minimal number of cases. Conclusion: Eczema was the commonest group of disorders. Out of the infective skin disorders fungal infections were the commonest group. Genodermatoses formed the least number of cases.
Molecular Mechanisms of UV-Induced Apoptosis and Its Effects on Skin Residential Cells: The Implication in UV-Based Phototherapy  [PDF]
Chih-Hung Lee,Shi-Bei Wu,Chien-Hui Hong,Hsin-Su Yu,Yau-Huei Wei
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms14036414
Abstract: The human skin is an integral system that acts as a physical and immunological barrier to outside pathogens, toxicants, and harmful irradiations. Environmental ultraviolet rays (UV) from the sun might potentially play a more active role in regulating several important biological responses in the context of global warming. UV rays first encounter the uppermost epidermal keratinocytes causing apoptosis. The molecular mechanisms of UV-induced apoptosis of keratinocytes include direct DNA damage (intrinsic), clustering of death receptors on the cell surface (extrinsic), and generation of ROS. When apoptotic keratinocytes are processed by adjacent immature Langerhans cells (LCs), the inappropriately activated Langerhans cells could result in immunosuppression. Furthermore, UV can deplete LCs in the epidermis and impair their migratory capacity, leading to their accumulation in the dermis. Intriguingly, receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) activation of LCs by UV can induce the pro-survival and anti-apoptotic signals due to the upregulation of Bcl-xL, leading to the generation of regulatory T cells. Meanwhile, a physiological dosage of UV can also enhance melanocyte survival and melanogenesis. Analogous to its effect in keratinocytes, a therapeutic dosage of UV can induce cell cycle arrest, activate antioxidant and DNA repair enzymes, and induce apoptosis through translocation of the Bcl-2 family proteins in melanocytes to ensure genomic integrity and survival of melanocytes. Furthermore, UV can elicit the synthesis of vitamin D, an important molecule in calcium homeostasis of various types of skin cells contributing to DNA repair and immunomodulation. Taken together, the above-mentioned effects of UV on apoptosis and its related biological effects such as proliferation inhibition, melanin synthesis, and immunomodulations on skin residential cells have provided an integrated biochemical and molecular biological basis for phototherapy that has been widely used in the treatment of many dermatological diseases.
Bullous Skin Diseases: Classical Types of Autoimmune Diseases  [PDF]
Jan Damoiseaux
Scientifica , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/457982
Abstract: The prototypic bullous skin diseases, pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus foliaceus, and bullous pemphigoid, are characterized by the blister formation in the skin and/or oral mucosa in combination with circulating and deposited autoantibodies reactive with (hemi)desmosomes. Koch’s postulates, adapted for autoimmune diseases, were applied on these skin diseases. It appears that all adapted Koch’s postulates are fulfilled, and, therefore, these bullous skin diseases are to be considered classical autoimmune diseases within the wide and expanding spectrum of autoimmune diseases. 1. Introduction The bullous skin diseases, including pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid, affect the skin and/or oral mucosa. Since the skin is a vital organ in the protection of the body against dehydration and infections, these skin diseases may be life threatening. The bullous skin diseases are being divided in two categories based on whether the skin is affected within the epidermis or at the epidermal-dermal interphase. The first category is referred to as pemphigus and entails 4 disease entities: pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus foliaceus, paraneoplastic pemphigus, and IgA pemphigus. Altogether, the yearly incidence of this category is about 0.3/100,000 and the age of onset of these diseases is primarily in the fifties and sixties. The second category entails multiple disease entities. When considering dermatitis herpetiformis, a bullous skin manifestation of celiac disease, as a distinct subcategory of the pemphigoid skin diseases, the overall yearly incidence of the second category is about 1.0/100,000. These diseases typically become manifest at an age >65 years [1–3]. The diagnosis of the bullous skin diseases is based on the typical skin manifestations, which may be objectified by the Nikolsky sign and characteristic direct immunofluorescence (DIF) patterns in skin biopsies (Table 1). The presence of skin-specific autoantibodies in the circulation will further add to the diagnosis [1]. Table 1: Clinical and laboratory characteristics of bullous skin diseases. In the current paper Koch’s postulates for defining infectious diseases and adapted for autoimmune diseases are applied on both categories of bullous skin diseases [4, 5]. Since these skin diseases fulfil all criteria, they can be considered to belong to the small number of unequivocal autoimmune diseases within the ever expanding number of diseases that are supposed to be autoimmune. 2. Koch’s Postulates Adapted for Autoimmune Diseases While Koch’s postulates were originally intended to define the infectious origin of a
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