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Pragmatic Transfer in Iraqi EFL Learners' Refusals
Ahmed Qadoury Abed
International Journal of English Linguistics , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijel.v1n2p166
Abstract: The present study deals with pragmatic transfer of Iraqi EFL learners' refusal strategies as reflected by their responses to a modified version of 12- items written discourse completion task; and compare with two groups ,namely Iraqi native speakers of Arabic and American native speakers of English. The task consisted of three requests, three offers, three suggestions, and three invitations. Each one of these situations included one refusal to a person of higher status, one to a person of equal status, and one to a person of lower status. Data analyzed according to frequency types of refusal strategies and interlocutor's social status. It is found that the frequency of use of refusals by Iraqi EFL learners is different from that of Americans, though they do share some similarities. Iraqi EFL learners are apt to express refusals with care and/or caution represented by using more statements of reason/explanation, statements of regret, wish and refusal adjuncts in their refusals than Americans. Americans are more sensitive to their interlocutor's higher and equal status, whereas Iraqi EFL learners to lower status. Evidences proved the existence of little difference between IEFL males and females in refusal frequency and refusal adjuncts.
The Effect of Collaboration on Iranian EFL Learners’ Writing Accuracy  [cached]
Narges Jafari,Dariush Nejad Ansari
International Education Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ies.v5n2p125
Abstract: This study aims at finding the effect of group work on Iranian EFL learners' writing accuracy. Moreover, the effect of gender on text production has also been investigated. Over a month, sixty Iranian EFL learners were chosen as the participants of this study. They were divided into two groups. The experimental group wrote collaboratively while the control group underwent individual writing tasks. Both groups participated in four essay writing sessions. The participants wrote on the same topics and genre. The results revealed that the students in the collaborative writing group outperformed the students in the control group, hence emphasizing the significant role of collaboration in L2 writing. Regarding gender effect, the data analysis showed the females in the collaborative group outperformed males in the same group proving that gender plays a significant role in Iranian EFL collaborative writing setting. The results have some implications for English writing instructors and learners.
Arab EFL Learners’ Writing Dilemma at Tertiary Level  [cached]
Al-Sadig Yahya Abdalla
English Language Teaching , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v3n4p33
Abstract: There is a general trend among researchers and speakers at conferences and symposia that Arab EFL Learners are primarily responsible for their weak writing performance. Educational policies usually evade criticism. This study is an attempt to provide an additional interpretation of Arab EFL learners’ writing problems. It posits that for the most part writing problems are caused by the employment of outdated approaches and resources. To this end, content analysis has been applied to existing writing courses in three Arab Universities. The examination of these courses has revealed that English Departments adopted approaches and materials characteristic of the 1940s and 1950s. Thus unless the new the developments into the linguistic theory are incorporated into the writing syllabus, Arab EFL learners will continue to suffer from writing problems.
Enhancing EFL Learners’ Writing Skill via Journal Writing  [cached]
Luu Trong Tuan
English Language Teaching , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v3n3p81
Abstract: “Frequently accepted as being the last language skill to be acquired for native speakers of the language as well as for foreign/second language learners” (Hamp-Lyons and Heasly, 2006: 2), English writing, for a number of EFL learners, appears to be challenging. This paper sought to investigate if learners can grow out of the writing difficulties by engaging in journal writing activity. 85 second-year students from the two writing classes, one treated as the experimental group (EG) and the other as the control group (CG), at the Faculty of English Linguistics and Literature of the University of Social Sciences and Humanities in Ho Chi Minh City (USSH-HCMC) were invited to participate in the study, whose findings substantiated the benefits of journal writing as an extensive activity to foster learners' writing motivation and enhance their writing skill as well as to build a close bonding between teachers and learners.
The Effect of Discourse Markers Instruction on EFL Learners’ Writing  [cached]
Nader Assadi Aidinlou,Hakimeh Shahrokhi mehr
World Journal of Education , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/wje.v2n2p10
Abstract: Writing is one of the four skills in language learning and it should be paid more attention. In this regard, creating contexts which is value coherence in pragmatic level, and cohesion in semantic level is important. Knowledge about the discourse Markers (DMs), amongst other things, be used to improve writing skill. DMs are expression such as “now, well, so, which signal a sequential relationship between the current basic message and previous discourse. The present paper focuses on the instruction of the DMs and its effect on learners ‘ writing ability. To do this, two groups as control and experimental were chosen from Shoukoh Iran English Institute in Tabriz, Iran. Both groups were asked to fill the gaps with the best option from among the DMs suggested. Then treatment sessions were conducted for experimental group while during that period, control group held back to receive such a treatment. Analyzing the misuse and inappropriateness of DMs occurring to their writing , pre-test, and investigating the relevant and suitable application of DMs appearing in their writing, post-test, and concludes with the suggestion that teaching text markers to learners should be paid more attention. And also the result reveals the effectiveness of teaching text markers to students in enhancing their awareness and sensitivity of discourse and consequently raising their writing levels.
Pragmatic Meaning and EFL Learners’ Text-understanding Ability  [cached]
Sorayya Behroozizad,Hossein Bakhtiyarzadeh
English Language and Literature Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ells.v2n1p28
Abstract: Reading comprehension occupies a very vital position as one of the skills in learning English as a foreign language. The ability to comprehend any reading text requires interpreting text through making accurate connection between the linguistic representations or meaning of words and sentences and their pragmatic outcomes. Thus, one of the challenging burdens of EFL learners is to capture the intended meaning of any reading text. This paper aims at introducing the significance of pragmatic meaning in reading L2 texts as an alternative to foster EFL learners’ text-understanding ability. In this regard, the researchers employed 4o students in the field of ELT to read two kinds of texts; namely semantically-oriented and pragmatically-oriented texts and answer the related questions. Findings of the study indicated that the majority of students were capable of answering the questions in simplified texts due to their familiarity with the passage when processing the reading material and the ease of the passage. However, only a small number of students was successful in answering the questions of original passages. Based on the results of the study, some guidelines are suggested to make students familiar with pragmatic meaning. In addition, this research enables the students (particularly less- gifted ones) to attend to pragmatic meaning in text-understanding, which in fact helps them to overcome the problem of text- understanding to a considerable extent.
Exploring students' EFL writing through hypertext design
López,María Eugenia;
Colombian Applied Linguistics Journal , 2006,
Abstract: this research analyzes the processes students undergo when writing hypertexts collaboratively. this qualitative case study provides an overall picture of students' efl writing through hypertext design. it is a collaborative experience which explores and documents how students deal with grammatical, textual and pragmatic aspects when writing hypertexts. this study draws upon data collected during a semester con ducted with engineering students at a university in 2003. students' hypertexts, audio recordings, students' reflection logs and an interview were used as main data collection sources. two main categories emerged as a result of triangulating evidence: "process of collaborative hypertext writing and negotiation" and "use of concept mapping and other strategies to overcome difficulties in hypertext writing".
WEB-BASED WRITING INSTRUCTION AND ENHANCING EFL LEARNERS' WRITING QUALITY  [PDF]
Hamid R. KARGOZARI,Hamed GHAEMI
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2011,
Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to determine whether Web-based Writing Instruction (WBWI) has any influence on the writing quality of Iranian EFL learners. Two groups of EFL learners who were studying English in an English Language Institute participated in the experiment. They were enrolled in an advanced writing course. Before instruction, both groups were pre-tested through writing essays. T-test results illustrated significant differences between two groups in writing ability. The experimental group made too many errors and had many writing problems. Both groups studied the same in-class material, and were given the same assignments and assessment. In addition, the experimental group used an online course, which was provided for them through establishing a so-called website, from home. Experimental students posted their points, wrote short essays and posted stories in the comment section of the so-called website. They located information in sites like “Yahoo Movies” and “webMD”. They processed their essays and checked their spelling through Microsoft Office Word (2007). At the end of the experiment, both groups were post-tested through writing an essay. ANCOVA results showed considerable differences between two groups. The experimental group made more gains as a result of web-based instruction. They became more proficient, and made few errors.
A Study on Strategy Instruction and EFL Learners’ Writing Skill  [cached]
Giti Mousapour Negari
International Journal of English Linguistics , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijel.v1n2p299
Abstract: Writing in a second or foreign language seems to be the most difficult language skill for language learners to acquire in academic contexts. While explicit instruction of strategies is not a usual practice in foreign language classrooms, it could be beneficial for language learners. The present study aims at investigating the effect of concept mapping strategy on EFL learners' writing performance. To this end, sixty Iranian students at the intermediate level of language proficiency participated in the study. Their language proficiency was determined by Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency. The results of the Analysis of Covariance revealed that the instruction of concept mapping strategy had a positive effect on EFL learners’ writing achievements. The findings have some pedagogical implications for teaching language skills and designing strategy-based syllabus leading to successful language performance.
The Effect of Teachers’ Self-reflection on EFL Learners’ Writing Achievement  [cached]
Azar Hosseini Fatemi,Majid Elahi Shirvan,Yasser Rezvani
Cross-Cultural Communication , 2011, DOI: 10.3968/j.ccc.1923670020110703.250
Abstract: The concept of teachers’ reflection refers to the extent to which EFL teachers contemplate and reflect on their teaching experience in the classroom in order to improve their teaching skills. This study sought to explore the effect of EFL teacher’s reflection on their learners’ writing achievement. Participants of the study included 100 EFL teachers teaching in Mashhad language institutes and their 1000 EFL learners. Reflective teaching instrument designed by Akbari and Behzadpour (2007) was administered to the teachers of the study. Also, their EFL learners’ Grade Point Averages (GPAs) of their writing scores were calculated. The results of the statistical analysis revealed that teacher’s reflection significantly affects EFL learners’ writing achievement. This paper concludes with some implications for teaching and directions for further research. Key words: Teacher; Self-reflection; Learner; Writing achievement Résumé Le concept de la réflexion des enseignants se réfère à la mesure dans laquelle les enseignants de l'APL contempler et réfléchir sur leur expérience d'enseignement en classe en vue d'améliorer leurs compétences pédagogiques. Cette étude visait à explorer l'effet de la réflexion EFL enseignant sur la réussite d'écriture de leurs apprenants. Les participants de l'étude comprennent 100 enseignants EFL l'enseignement à Mashhad instituts de langue. Instrument pédagogique réfléchissant con u par Akbari et Behzadpour (2007) a été administré aux participants de l'étude. Les résultats de l'analyse statistique révèle que la réflexion de l'enseignant affecte significativement atteinte écrit apprenants EFL. Mots-clés: Enseignant; Auto-réflexion; L'apprenant; La réalisation d'écriture
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