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The Effects of On-line and Pre-task Planning on Descriptive Writing of Iranian EFL Learners  [cached]
Massoud Rahimpour,Mohsen Safarie
International Journal of English Linguistics , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijel.v1n2p274
Abstract: The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects of pre-task planning (PTP) and on-line planning (OLP) on descriptive writing of EFL learners. It is discussed extensively that planning factor influences task performance of language learners. Thirty seven learners of English as a foreign language, aged between 19 and 24, were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups with pre-task and on-line planning conditions. The participants in PTP group were given 10 minutes to plan their performance before the main task performance, while the participants in OLP group had to begin writing immediately but they could take as much as time they liked. The collected data was then coded and analyzed using independent samples test statistical procedure. The results of data analysis showed planning time had no effect on complexity and accuracy of participants’ performance but it influenced positively the fluency of PTP group.
The effects of simultaneous use of pre-planning along +/-Here-and-Now dimension on fluency, complexity, and accuracy of Iranian EFL learners’ written performance  [cached]
Mohammadzadeh Mohammadabadi, AliReza,Dabaghi, Azizallah,Tavakoli, Mansoor
International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning , 2013,
Abstract: Nowadays, plethora of research on pre-task planning has attempted to find out the effect of planning time on oral production of L2 learners. By and large, it has been reported planning has had a positive impact on their task-performance. Nonetheless, there have been few bodies of research performed with regard to planning in writing contexts, and there has been no conclusive evidence to illustrate the fact that pre-task planning enhances L2 learners’ written performance in the ways which lots of researchers have reported for the context of L2 oral performance. The study reported was primarily aimed at investigating the effects of simultaneous use of planning along +/-Here-and-Now on fluency, accuracy, and complexity of written performance. Particularly, the effects of +/-planning merged with +/-Here-and-Now (i.e. planned here-and-now, unplanned here-and now and planned there-and-then as well as unplanned there-and-then conditions) on Iranian EFL learners` writing accuracy, fluency, and complexity were investigated. Study participants were 30 male and female Iranian of lower-intermediate EFL learners whose mother tongue was Persian and whose age group ranged between 18 and 26. Participants were assigned to four experimental conditions mentioned above. Participants in all four conditions were engaged in a written narrative task in which four different wordless picture stories were chosen for data collection and control of the practice effects. The results obtained from one-way ANOVAs revealed the fact that regarding accuracy, planning in both +/-Here-and-Now factors is more enhanced than unplanned here-and-now and there-and-then. Finally, just as fluency, with respect to complexity, the participants’ performances are statistically the same in the four different tasks.
The Role of Task Type in Foreign Language Written Production: Focusing on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy  [cached]
Mohsen Rezazadeh,Mansoor Tavakoli,Abbas Eslami Rasekh
International Education Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ies.v4n2p169
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two task types on foreign language written production. Particularly it addressed the issue of how three aspects of language production (i.e. fluency, complexity, and accuracy) vary among two different task types (i.e. argumentative writing task and instruction writing task). One hundred sixty eight intermediate learners of English were randomly selected and divided into two task type groups. Separate ANOVAs were conducted on each dependant variable to see whether there were any statistically significant differences across the groups. The findings revealed that participants in the instruction-task group performed significantly better than those in argumentative-task group in terms of fluency and accuracy. In addition, analysis of complexity measures showed that argumentative essays were produced with more complex language than the instruction essays. Possible explanations are provided and the pedagogical implications of these findings are discussed.
Planning Time, Strategy Use, and Written Task Production in a Pedagogic vs. a Testing Context  [cached]
Seyed Reza Meraji
Journal of Language Teaching and Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4304/jltr.2.2.338-352
Abstract: As there has been little attempt to delve into performance differentials occasioned as a function of planning time in pedagogic versus testing contexts, the present study, taking up a mixed methods approach, addressed the effects of pre-task planning on the written output of intermediate EFL learners under four conditions: 1) no planning in a pedagogic context, 2) pre-task planning in a pedagogic context, 3) no planning in a testing context, and 4) pre-task planning in a testing context. Results showed that provision of pre-task planning time fostered accuracy, syntactic complexity, and fluency in the pedagogic context. In the testing context, also, more accurate, syntactically complex, and fluent output was generated by planners compared to no-planners. Finally, the data gleaned through the interviews showed that metacognitive and cognitive strategies were the most used strategies and that no significant difference existed between planners in the two contexts in terms of strategy use.
The Effect of Different Types of Repeated Performance (Private Vs Public) as Post-Task Activities on The English Students’ Accuracy and Fluency in L2 Oral Production
Hossein Khodabakhshzadeh,Bi Bi Simin Mousavi ( Statistic counselor)
International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: This study aims at investigating the effect of post-task activities on the TEFL students’ fluency and accuracy in oral production. In particular, the study seeks to discover the effect of different types of repeated performance (i.e., public and private) as post-task activities on fluency and accuracy of oral production. Our premise is in line with Ellis’s (1994) idea that these types of activities can promote learning. The participants were all TEFL students studying at Iranian universities and institutes. They were assigned into four groups. They all participated in pre and post interview sessions. The students in group A repeated their performance in private. The students in group B repeated their performance in front of the class and the students in group C as the last experimental group repeated their performance both in public and private. The students in group D as the control group didn’t have any repeated performance. The results indicated that group B outperformed all other groups in fluency. Concerning accuracy, the students in group C outperformed the students in all other groups.
The Effects of Planning on Writing Narrative Task Performance with Low and High EFL Proficiency
Massoud Rahimpour,Roghayyeh Jahan
English Language Teaching , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v4n1p120
Abstract: The impetus of the present study was to scrutinize the impact of planning and proficiency on 172 EFL learners’ written task performance regarding concept load, fluency, complexity and accuracy. Planning was operationalized at two levels: pretask planning (PTP) and on- line planning (OLP). Participants of this study were two groups, high and low proficiency learners who were randomly chosen. The first group was required to plan for their performance for 10 minutes and take notes before they performed the tasks, whilst the participants in the second group began writing immediately and took time as long as they like. The participants’ performances were then analyzed utilizing paired samples t-test. The results of statistical analysis showed that low-proficiency learners appear to benefit more from planning time with respect to concept load, fluency, and complexity. On the other hand, high-proficiency learners were advantaged by planning time concerning concept load and accuracy.
On the Benefits of Careful Within-Task Planning and Task Repetition in EFL Classrooms  [cached]
Mohammad Javad Ahmadian,Mansoor Tavakoli,Saeed Ketabi,Zohreh Kasaian
English Language Teaching , 2010,
Abstract: This paper is aimed at reviewing the theoretical and practical issues regarding careful within-task planning and task repetition in EFL classrooms. In particular, the paper focuses on the combined effects for these two implementation variables on the enhancement of accuracy, complexity, and fluency in EFL learners’ oral production. Research shows that careful within-task planning has positive impacts on accuracy and complexity of learner language. Nonetheless, it is sometimes avoided because of its detrimental effects on fluency. Also, the practice of task repetition might be sometimes frowned upon given its superficial resemblance to what was prevalent in the Behaviorist era. However, both theory and teachers’ experience in the EFL context confirm that repeating tasks, with certain time-intervals in between, assists complexity and fluency. Careful within-task planning and task repetition, combined, have the potential to help learners attending to both form and meaning and thus enhancing accuracy, complexity, and fluency simultaneously.
Emotional Verbal Fluency: A New Task on Emotion and Executive Function Interaction  [PDF]
Katharina Sass,Karolina Fetz,Sarah Oetken,Ute Habel,Stefan Heim
Behavioral Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/bs3030372
Abstract: The present study introduces “Emotional Verbal Fluency” as a novel (partially computerized) task, which is aimed to investigate the interaction between emotionally loaded words and executive functions. Verbal fluency tasks are thought to measure executive functions but the interaction with emotional aspects is hardly investigated. In the current study, a group of healthy subjects (n = 21, mean age 25 years, 76% females) were asked to generate items that are either part of a semantic category (e.g., plants, toys, vehicles; standard semantic verbal fluency) or can trigger the emotions joy, anger, sadness, fear and disgust. The results of the task revealed no differences between performance on semantic and emotional categories, suggesting a comparable task difficulty for healthy subjects. Hence, these first results on the comparison between semantic and emotional verbal fluency seem to highlight that both might be suitable for examining executive functioning. However, an interaction was found between the category type and repetition (first vs. second sequence of the same category) with larger performance decrease for semantic in comparison to emotional categories. Best performance overall was found for the emotional category “joy” suggesting a positivity bias in healthy subjects. To conclude, emotional verbal fluency is a promising approach to investigate emotional components in an executive task, which may stimulate further research, especially in psychiatric patients who suffer from emotional as well as cognitive deficits.
The Impact of Task Complexity on L2 Learners’ Written Narratives
Massoud Rahimpour,Pakhshan Hosseini
English Language Teaching , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v3n3p198
Abstract: This main purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of task complexity on L2 learners’ written narratives. It is argued that L2 learners’ written performance is influenced by the complexity of task regarding accuracy, fluency, and complexity. 52 Iranian English learners were selected as the participants of the study. They were asked to write two narratives based on two different picture stories. First, they performed the here-and-now task (present tense and context-supported) and then, they performed the there-and-then task (past tense and context-unsupported). Next, the written narratives were coded to measure the accuracy, fluency, and complexity. The results of this study demonstrated that cognitively more demanding tasks were more fluent and no significant effects on written narratives were observed on measures of accuracy and complexity.
Novitas-ROYAL , 2011,
Abstract: Recent studies applying Conversation Analysis to classroom interaction have described language learning tasks as a local and collective accomplishment (e.g. Hellermann & Pekarek Doehler, 2010; Mondada & Pekarek Doehler, 2004; Mori, 2002). They highlight the gap that may exist between the intended purpose as materialized in task instruction and the actual performance of the task. Following this line of research, this paper investigates the relationship between task instruction, pre-task planning and task completion. Based on a corpus of French as a Foreign Language classroom interactions, we observe how six different groups that have received identical instructions organize and carry out the task. In a first analytical step, we show how the students engage in interactionally organized interpretative work regarding the task, and in organizing the distribution of roles and responsibilities for the task accomplishment. In a second step, we identify how participants orient to this initial distribution within the very course of accomplishing the task. Based on a sequential micro-analysis of participants’ conduct while planning and accomplishing the task, we show how Conversation Analysis contributes to a better understanding of language learning tasks from a participant-relevant perspective.
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