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Self-rated health, work characteristics and health related behaviours among nurses in Greece: a cross sectional study
Noula A Pappas, Yannis Alamanos, Ioannis DK Dimoliatis
BMC Nursing , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6955-4-8
Abstract: To investigate the health profile of nurses working in hospitals in North West Greece and to examine the associations between self rated health (SRH) and health related behaviours and work characteristics in this group of hospital employees.A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of 443 nurses working in all the hospitals in North West Greece. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship of health related behaviours and work characteristics with self rated health among the nurses.A total of 353 responded to the questionnaire (response rate 80%) of which 311 (88%) were female and 42 (12%) male. The mean age (standard deviation) of the respondents was 36 years (5.6) and their mean years of working as nurses were 13.5 years (5.9). Almost half of the nurses' smoked, and about one third were overweight or obese. About 58% (206) of the nurses reported having poor health while 42% (147) reported having good health. Self-rated health was independently associated with gender, effort to avoid fatty foods and physical activity, according to multiple logistic regression analysis.The population studied presented a relatively poor health profile, and a high proportion of poor SRH. Though female gender and effort to avoid fatty foods were associated with poor SRH, and exercise and white meat consumption with good SRH, specific work characteristics were not associated with SRH.Self-rated health (SRH) has become one of the most common health indicators in Public Health research. Prospective and cross sectional studies have shown that a persons' own perception of their general health is a powerful predictor of subsequent mortality [1-3], incorporates psychological well being and social functioning [4-8], while cross sectional studies indicate that SRH is a significant predictor of health care utilization [9,10].Health behaviours such as smoking, alcohol consumption and leisure time exercise are associated with SRH [6,11,12]. When investigating
Factors associated with good self-rated health of non-disabled elderly living alone in Japan: a cross-sectional study
Wei Sun, Misuzu Watanabe, Yoshimi Tanimoto, Takahiro Shibutani, Rei Kono, Masahisa Saito, Kan Usuda, Koichi Kono
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-297
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a metropolitan suburb in Japan. Questionnaires pertaining to SRH and physical conditions, lifestyle factors, psychological status, and social activities, were distributed in October 2005 to individuals aged ≥ 65 years and living alone. Response rate was 75.1%. Among these respondents, a total of 600 male and 2587 female respondents were identified as non-disabled elderly living alone and became our subjects. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with good SRH and sex-specific effect was tested by stepwise logistic regression.Good SRH was reported by 69.8% of men and 73.8% of women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that good SRH correlated with, in odds ratio sequence, "can go out alone to distant places", no depression, no weight loss, absence of self-rated chronic disease, good chewing ability, and good visual ability in men; whereas with "can go out alone to distant places", absence of self-rated chronic disease, no weight loss, no depression, no risk of falling, independent IADL, good chewing ability, good visual ability, and social integration (attend) in women.For the non-disabled elderly living alone, sex-appropriate support should be considered by health promotion systems from the view point of SRH. Overall, the ability to go out alone to distant places is crucial to SRH of both men and women.Self-rated health (SRH) is a subjective assessment of individual health status and has been well documented as a reliable predictor of functional disability and mortality in aged populations [1-5]. To enhance the quality of life and survival of the elderly, SRH and related determinants have been examined in many populations worldwide. Studies performed in Japan [6-8] showed that SRH worsened with age and correlated with income, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and social support in the community-dwelling 47–77-year-old population and with chewing ability in 80-year-old
Self-Rated Health and Survival: A Seven-Years Follow-Up  [PDF]
Ofra Anson, Jenny Shteingrad, Ester Paran
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.29148
Abstract: The association between self-rated health and mortality has been well documented, but not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to search for the components of self-rated health among the elderly, drawing on the framework recently proposed by Jylhä (2009) and the degree to which these predict survival. 535 seniors were interviewed, of whom 121 passed away during the seven years that followed. Self-rated health was significantly related to a variety of health and social indicators, which appeared to be represented by five health and three social characteristics: chronic conditions, physical functioning, the ability to perform daily activity, mental health, body pain, economic state, expected future health, and peers’ health. Contrary to Jylhä’s (2009) suggestion, formal signs of illness and diagnosed life threatening conditions were not related to self-rated health. Self-rated health was related to mortality along with age, sex, physical and cognitive functioning, and systolic blood pressure. Only physical functioning predicted both mortality and self-rated health. It appears that self-rated health is comprised of health information that is not directly related to mortality.
The Increasing Predictive Validity of Self-Rated Health  [PDF]
Jason Schnittker, Valerio Bacak
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084933
Abstract: Using the 1980 to 2002 General Social Survey, a repeated cross-sectional study that has been linked to the National Death Index through 2008, this study examines the changing relationship between self-rated health and mortality. Research has established that self-rated health has exceptional predictive validity with respect to mortality, but this validity may be deteriorating in light of the rapid medicalization of seemingly superficial conditions and increasingly high expectations for good health. Yet the current study shows the validity of self-rated health is increasing over time. Individuals are apparently better at assessing their health in 2002 than they were in 1980 and, for this reason, the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is considerably stronger across all levels of self-rated health. Several potential mechanisms for this increase are explored. More schooling and more cognitive ability increase the predictive validity of self-rated health, but neither of these influences explains the growing association between self-rated health and mortality. The association is also invariant to changing causes of death, including a decline in accidental deaths, which are, by definition, unanticipated by the individual. Using data from the final two waves of data, we find suggestive evidence that exposure to more health information is the driving force, but we also show that the source of information is very important. For example, the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is smaller among those who use the internet to find health information than among those who do not.
Differences in self-rated health among older adults according to socioeconomic circumstances: the Bambuí Health and Aging Study
Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda;Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo;Uch?a, Elizabeth;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2005000300017
Abstract: self-rated health is influenced by socioeconomic circumstances, but related differences in its structure have received little attention. the objective of this study was to examine whether self-rated health structure differs according to socioeconomic circumstances in later life. the study included 1,505 individuals (86.4%) residing in bambui and aged 60 years or older. correlates of self-rated health among lower-income older adults (monthly household income < us$ 240.00) and higher-income seniors were assessed. social network stood out as a major factor in the structure of self-rated health among the poorest. psychological distress was independently associated with worse self-rated health among the poorest, while perceptions by the wealthiest were broader, including psychological distress, insomnia, trypanosoma cruzi infection, use of medications, and access to health services. physician visits and hospitalizations were associated with self-rated health in both groups. our results show important differences in the structure of self-rated health according to socioeconomic circumstances and reinforce the need for policies to reduce health inequalities in later life.
Differences in self-rated health among older adults according to socioeconomic circumstances: the Bambuí Health and Aging Study  [cached]
Lima-Costa Maria Fernanda,Firmo Josélia Oliveira Araújo,Uch?a Elizabeth
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2005,
Abstract: Self-rated health is influenced by socioeconomic circumstances, but related differences in its structure have received little attention. The objective of this study was to examine whether self-rated health structure differs according to socioeconomic circumstances in later life. The study included 1,505 individuals (86.4%) residing in Bambui and aged 60 years or older. Correlates of self-rated health among lower-income older adults (monthly household income < US$ 240.00) and higher-income seniors were assessed. Social network stood out as a major factor in the structure of self-rated health among the poorest. Psychological distress was independently associated with worse self-rated health among the poorest, while perceptions by the wealthiest were broader, including psychological distress, insomnia, Trypanosoma cruzi infection, use of medications, and access to health services. Physician visits and hospitalizations were associated with self-rated health in both groups. Our results show important differences in the structure of self-rated health according to socioeconomic circumstances and reinforce the need for policies to reduce health inequalities in later life.
Medical care usage and self-rated mental health
James E Rohrer
BMC Public Health , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-4-3
Abstract: This study involved a cross-sectional telephone survey of persons over 65 years of age in West Texas, a sparsely-populated 108-county region. Independent variables included number of medical visits, race/ethnicity, age, gender and ability to pay for care. Mental health was measured by asking subjects how often they felt downhearted or blue.Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that more medical visits were made by persons who were downhearted or blue. Females, persons who had difficulty paying for care, Hispanic respondents, and older persons were more likely to report poor mental health.Elderly persons in this region who use more medical care are at greater risk of being in poor mental health. Public health agencies that are planning population-based approaches to improving mental health should consider targeting persons who are high users of medical care as well as those of limited means, women, persons of Hispanic ethnicity, and people who are of greater age.Self-rated health may be more relevant to the goals of community health programs than mortality and morbidity rates. Self-rated health reflects the degree to which people are satisfied with their health and whether they can perform their usual activities, which is more important to most people than whether they are labeled with a particular diagnosis.The validity of self-rated overall health has been firmly established and frequently studied [1-8]. Self-rated mental health is important in its own right. However, the epidemiology of self-rated mental health has not been explored as extensively as overall self-rated health. The international public health community has placed increasing emphasis on mental health. Therefore, epidemiological studies such as the one reported here are of increasing relevance and importance.Modern societies are stressful, partly due to income inequalities, and the resulting damage to population health is consistent with the theories that drive the field of social epidemiolo
Gender differences in predictors of self-rated health in Armenia: a population-based study of an economy in transition
Demirchyan Anahit,Petrosyan Varduhi,Thompson Michael E
International Journal for Equity in Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-9276-11-67
Abstract: Introduction Self-rated health is a widely used health outcome measure that strongly correlates with physical and mental health status and predicts mortality. This study identified the set of predictors of fair/poor self-rated health in adult female and male populations of Armenia during a period of long-lasting socio-economic transition to a market economy. Methods Differences in self-rated health were analyzed along three dimensions: socioeconomic, behavioral/attitudinal, and psychosocial. The study utilized data from a 2006 nationwide household health survey that used a multi-stage probability proportional to size cluster sampling with a combination of interviewer-administered and self-administered surveys. Both female and male representatives of a household aged 18 and over completed the self-administered survey. Multivariate odds ratios (OR) for fair/poor self-rated health were calculated for different sets of variables and logistic regression models fitted separately for women and men to identify the determinants of fair/poor self-rated health. Results Overall, 2310 women and 462 men participated in the survey. The rate of fair/poor self-rated health was 61.8% among women and 59.7% among men. For women, the set of independent predictors of fair/poor self-rated health included age, unemployment, poverty, low affordability of healthcare, depression, and weak social support. For men, the set included age, lower education, depression, weak social support, and drinking alcohol less than once a week. For both genders, depression and weak social support demonstrated the strongest independent association with fair/poor self-rated health. Conclusions The prevalence of fair/poor self-rated health was similar among men and women in this study, but the sets of independent predictors of perceived health differed somewhat, possibly, reflecting lifestyle differences between men and women in Armenia. Nevertheless, psychosocial variables were the strongest predictors of fair/poor self-rated health for both genders, indicating the importance of improving the country’s psychosocial environment through social reforms and poverty reduction.
Social capital and self-rated health among adolescents in Brazil: an exploratory study
Carolina M Borges, Ana Cristina V Campos, Andrea D Vargas, Efigênia F Ferreira, Ichiro Kawachi
BMC Research Notes , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-3-338
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 among working adolescents supported by a Brazilian NGO. The sample comprised 363 individuals and data were collected using a validated structured questionnaire. The outcome, self-rated health, was measured as a dichotomous variable (poor/good health) and fourteen social capital indicators were investigated (cognitive, behavioral and bonding/bridging). Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Cognitive (social support and trust), behavioral (civic participation) and bridging social capital were associated with good self-rated health after adjustment of all the other social capital indicators and confounders (sex, age, skin color and educational background).Social capital was associated with self-rated health and the patterns of association differed according its specific dimensions. Cognitive, behavioral and bridging social capitals were protective for adolescents health living in a developing country context..Social capital can be understood as features of social structures - including norms, inter-personal trust, and mutual support - which act as resources for individuals and also facilitate collective action [1,2]. Although the concept originated in sociology to explain diverse phenomena such as educational success, labor market attachment, and the prevention of crime, an increasing number of studies in the last decade and a half have turned to the exploration of social capital in public health [3]. To date, studies have suggested that social capital may be a determinant of health based on its association with mortality [4], health behaviors [5], mental health [6] and self-rated health [7,8].Several mechanisms have been suggested by which social capital can influence health [9]. It is important to note that the influence of social capital on health can be either health-promoting or health-damaging, depending on the social context. Thus, social capital can enhance the diffusion of deleterious health pr
Social capital and self-rated health in 21 European countries
von dem Knesebeck, Olaf,Dragano, Nico,Siegrist, Johannes
GMS Psycho-Social-Medicine , 2005,
Abstract: Study objective: The aim of this paper is to explore the association between social capital and self-rated health in different European countries.Methods: For the cross sectional, comparative analyses data from 21 European countries were used. 40,856 people aged 15 years and older were personally interviewed in 2003 (European Social Survey). Perceptions of social trust, and membership, participation and voluntary work in civic organisations were used as social capital indicators. Analyses are conducted on an aggregate level (country) and on an individual level.Main results: Results indicate comparatively low levels of social capital in East and South European countries. Countries with low levels of social capital have a high percentage of residents reporting poor health. Social capital is significantly associated with self-rated health in most of the European countries on the individual level after accounting for gender and age. However, additional adjustment for socio-economic status results in a decrease of the associations between activities in voluntary organisations and health. Further adjustment for social contacts and emotional support results in only minor changes of the associations.Conclusions: Analyses reveal strong correlations between social capital and self-rated health in a number of European countries on the aggregate level. Associations on the individual level are weaker in East and South European countries. Moreover, association of self-rated health with perceptions of social trust seems to be more consistent than with activities in voluntary organisations.
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