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The Reversed Neighborhood Effects in Mental Arithmetic of Spoken Mandarin Number Words  [PDF]
Mingliang Zhang, Jiwei Si, Xiaowen Zhu
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.31009
Abstract: In the present study, under the spoken Mandarin number words format, we employed verification tasks to investigate the neighborhood effects in single-digit multiplication. The results revealed that, in the Arabic digits format condition, the neighborhood effects like as the former studies discovered is natural, however, the unexpected reversed neighborhood effects were found in the spoken Mandarin number words format. Specifically, RTs of higher neighborhood effects multiplication problems were longer than lower neigh- borhood effects.
Database Development and Analysis of Spoken Hindi Hybrid Words Using Endpoint Detection
Anand singh,Dr Dinesh Kumar Rajoriya,Vikash Singh
International Journal of Electronics and Computer Science Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: This paper describes the database development of spoken Hindi Hybrid words. The main focus is on the analysis of spoken Hindi Hybrid Words by using endpoint detection algorithm. The development is done in the robust environment. Male and Female speakers are selected from different states to analyze the acoustical variation in their utterances. Various emotions such as normal, happy, anger and surprise are taken for analysis of speech signal. Endpoint detection algorithm is used for the analysis purpose of various parameters such as Total Duration of time, Number of samples, Root Mean Square value and Mean Power (Intensity) in air of speech signal.
Mark My Words: Tone of Voice Changes Affective Word Representations in Memory  [PDF]
Annett Schirmer
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009080
Abstract: The present study explored the effect of speaker prosody on the representation of words in memory. To this end, participants were presented with a series of words and asked to remember the words for a subsequent recognition test. During study, words were presented auditorily with an emotional or neutral prosody, whereas during test, words were presented visually. Recognition performance was comparable for words studied with emotional and neutral prosody. However, subsequent valence ratings indicated that study prosody changed the affective representation of words in memory. Compared to words with neutral prosody, words with sad prosody were later rated as more negative and words with happy prosody were later rated as more positive. Interestingly, the participants' ability to remember study prosody failed to predict this effect, suggesting that changes in word valence were implicit and associated with initial word processing rather than word retrieval. Taken together these results identify a mechanism by which speakers can have sustained effects on listener attitudes towards word referents.
Normas brasileiras para o Affective Norms for English Words
Kristensen, Christian Haag;Gomes, Carlos Falc?o de Azevedo;Justo, Alice Reuwsaat;Vieira, Karin;
Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S2237-60892011000300003
Abstract: introduction: the present study translated and adapted the affective norms for english words (anew) to brazilian portuguese (anew-br) and collected emotionality measures for a set of 1,046 words in brazilian portuguese. method: a sample of 755 male and female undergraduate students used the valence and arousal scales of the self-assessment manikin to judge the emotionality of 1,046 words in brazilian portuguese. results: valence values ranged from 1.16 to 8.80, while arousal values ranged from 2.22 to 7.67. further analyses indicated that both valence and arousal measures were reliable and suggested that the method used was appropriate for the collection of emotionality measures. conclusion: the availability of brazilian norms for the anew represents a methodological advancement for brazilian investigators in the development of future studies about the effects of emotion on human cognition.
A Word by Any Other Intonation: FMRI Evidence for Implicit Memory Traces for Pitch Contours of Spoken Words in Adult Brains  [PDF]
Michael Inspector, David Manor, Noam Amir, Tamar Kushnir, Avi Karni
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082042
Abstract: Objectives Intonation may serve as a cue for facilitated recognition and processing of spoken words and it has been suggested that the pitch contour of spoken words is implicitly remembered. Thus, using the repetition suppression (RS) effect of BOLD-fMRI signals, we tested whether the same spoken words are differentially processed in language and auditory brain areas depending on whether or not they retain an arbitrary intonation pattern. Experimental design Words were presented repeatedly in three blocks for passive and active listening tasks. There were three prosodic conditions in each of which a different set of words was used and specific task-irrelevant intonation changes were applied: (i) All words presented in a set flat monotonous pitch contour (ii) Each word had an arbitrary pitch contour that was set throughout the three repetitions. (iii) Each word had a different arbitrary pitch contour in each of its repetition. Principal findings The repeated presentations of words with a set pitch contour, resulted in robust behavioral priming effects as well as in significant RS of the BOLD signals in primary auditory cortex (BA 41), temporal areas (BA 21 22) bilaterally and in Broca's area. However, changing the intonation of the same words on each successive repetition resulted in reduced behavioral priming and the abolition of RS effects. Conclusions Intonation patterns are retained in memory even when the intonation is task-irrelevant. Implicit memory traces for the pitch contour of spoken words were reflected in facilitated neuronal processing in auditory and language associated areas. Thus, the results lend support for the notion that prosody and specifically pitch contour is strongly associated with the memory representation of spoken words.
Semantic Processing of Out-Of-Vocabulary Words in a Spoken Dialogue System  [PDF]
Manuela Boros,Maria Aretoulaki,Florian Gallwitz,Elmar Noeth,Heinrich Niemann
Computer Science , 1997,
Abstract: One of the most important causes of failure in spoken dialogue systems is usually neglected: the problem of words that are not covered by the system's vocabulary (out-of-vocabulary or OOV words). In this paper a methodology is described for the detection, classification and processing of OOV words in an automatic train timetable information system. The various extensions that had to be effected on the different modules of the system are reported, resulting in the design of appropriate dialogue strategies, as are encouraging evaluation results on the new versions of the word recogniser and the linguistic processor.
Spatiotemporal Dynamics of the Processing of Spoken Inflected and Derived Words: A Combined EEG and MEG Study  [PDF]
Alina Leminen,Miika Leminen,Minna Lehtonen,P?ivi Nevalainen,Jyrki P. M?kel?,Teija Kujala
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2011.00066
Abstract: The spatiotemporal dynamics of the neural processing of spoken morphologically complex words are still an open issue. In the current study, we investigated the time course and neural sources of spoken inflected and derived words using simultaneously recorded electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) responses. Ten participants (native speakers) listened to inflected, derived, and monomorphemic Finnish words and judged their acceptability. EEG and MEG responses were time-locked to both the stimulus onset and the critical point (suffix onset for complex words, uniqueness point for monomorphemic words). The ERP results showed that inflected words elicited a larger left-lateralized negativity than derived and monomorphemic words approximately 200 ms after the critical point. Source modeling of MEG responses showed one bilateral source in the superior temporal area ~100 ms after the critical point, with derived words eliciting stronger source amplitudes than inflected and monomorphemic words in the right hemisphere. Source modeling also showed two sources in the temporal cortex approximately 200 ms after the critical point. There, inflected words showed a more systematic pattern in source locations and elicited temporally distinct source activity in comparison to the derived word condition. The current results provide electrophysiological evidence for at least partially distinct cortical processing of spoken inflected and derived words. In general, the results support models of morphological processing stating that during the recognition of inflected words, the constituent morphemes are accessed separately. With regard to derived words, stem and suffix morphemes might be at least initially activated along with the whole word representation.
Grasp It Loudly! Supporting Actions with Semantically Congruent Spoken Action Words  [PDF]
Rapha?l Fargier, Mathilde Ménoret, Véronique Boulenger, Tatjana A. Nazir, Yves Paulignan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030663
Abstract: Evidence for cross-talk between motor and language brain structures has accumulated over the past several years. However, while a significant amount of research has focused on the interaction between language perception and action, little attention has been paid to the potential impact of language production on overt motor behaviour. The aim of the present study was to test whether verbalizing during a grasp-to-displace action would affect motor behaviour and, if so, whether this effect would depend on the semantic content of the pronounced word (Experiment I). Furthermore, we sought to test the stability of such effects in a different group of participants and investigate at which stage of the motor act language intervenes (Experiment II). For this, participants were asked to reach, grasp and displace an object while overtly pronouncing verbal descriptions of the action (“grasp” and “put down”) or unrelated words (e.g. “butterfly” and “pigeon”). Fine-grained analyses of several kinematic parameters such as velocity peaks revealed that when participants produced action-related words their movements became faster compared to conditions in which they did not verbalize or in which they produced words that were not related to the action. These effects likely result from the functional interaction between semantic retrieval of the words and the planning and programming of the action. Therefore, links between (action) language and motor structures are significant to the point that language can refine overt motor behaviour.
Vocabulary Learning in a Yorkshire Terrier: Slow Mapping of Spoken Words  [PDF]
Ulrike Griebel, D. Kimbrough Oller
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030182
Abstract: Rapid vocabulary learning in children has been attributed to “fast mapping”, with new words often claimed to be learned through a single presentation. As reported in 2004 in Science a border collie (Rico) not only learned to identify more than 200 words, but fast mapped the new words, remembering meanings after just one presentation. Our research tests the fast mapping interpretation of the Science paper based on Rico's results, while extending the demonstration of large vocabulary recognition to a lap dog. We tested a Yorkshire terrier (Bailey) with the same procedures as Rico, illustrating that Bailey accurately retrieved randomly selected toys from a set of 117 on voice command of the owner. Second we tested her retrieval based on two additional voices, one male, one female, with different accents that had never been involved in her training, again showing she was capable of recognition by voice command. Third, we did both exclusion-based training of new items (toys she had never seen before with names she had never heard before) embedded in a set of known items, with subsequent retention tests designed as in the Rico experiment. After Bailey succeeded on exclusion and retention tests, a crucial evaluation of true mapping tested items previously successfully retrieved in exclusion and retention, but now pitted against each other in a two-choice task. Bailey failed on the true mapping task repeatedly, illustrating that the claim of fast mapping in Rico had not been proven, because no true mapping task had ever been conducted with him. It appears that the task called retention in the Rico study only demonstrated success in retrieval by a process of extended exclusion.
Long-term memory traces for familiar spoken words in tonal languages as revealed by the Mismatch Negativity
Wichian Sittiprapaporn,Chittin Chindaduangratn,Naiphinich Kotchabhakdi
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2004,
Abstract: Mismatch negativity (MMN), a primary response to an acoustic change and an index of sensory memory, was used to investigate the processing of the discrimination between familiar and unfamiliar Consonant-Vowel (CV) speech contrasts. The MMN was elicited by rare familiar words presented among repetitive unfamiliar words. Phonetic and phonological contrasts were identical in all conditions. MMN elicited by the familiar word deviant was larger than that elicited by the unfamiliar word deviant. The presence of syllable contrast did significantly alter the word-elicited MMN in amplitude and scalp voltage field distribution. Thus, our results indicate the existence of word-related MMN enhancement largely independent of the word status of the standard stimulus. This enhancement may reflect the presence of a longterm memory trace for familiar spoken words in tonal languages.
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