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Hardware Implementation of a Spline-Based Genetic Algorithm for Embedded Stereo Vision Sensor Providing Real-Time Visual Guidance to the Visually Impaired  [cached]
Dah-Jye Lee,Jonathan D. Anderson,James K. Archibald
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/385827
Abstract: Many image and signal processing techniques have been applied to medical and health care applications in recent years. In this paper, we present a robust signal processing approach that can be used to solve the correspondence problem for an embedded stereo vision sensor to provide real-time visual guidance to the visually impaired. This approach is based on our new one-dimensional (1D) spline-based genetic algorithm to match signals. The algorithm processes image data lines as 1D signals to generate a dense disparity map, from which 3D information can be extracted. With recent advances in electronics technology, this 1D signal matching technique can be implemented and executed in parallel in hardware such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to provide real-time feedback about the environment to the user. In order to complement (not replace) traditional aids for the visually impaired such as canes and Seeing Eyes dogs, vision systems that provide guidance to the visually impaired must be affordable, easy to use, compact, and free from attributes that are awkward or embarrassing to the user. ¢ € Seeing Eye Glasses, ¢ € an embedded stereo vision system utilizing our new algorithm, meets all these requirements.
Offline Stereo Camera Calibration of Raspberry Pi Compute Module
Shrugal Varde, Prof. M.S. Panse
International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science (IJLTEMAS) , 2017, DOI: -
Abstract: Computer vision has become a very popular field due to its numerous applications. Stereo imaging, one of the areas of computer vision is frequently used in many applications like autonomous robots to calculate the free path, 3D reconstruction of environment, automatic cars, travel aid for visually impaired and many more. The major step in stereo imaging is establishing correspondence between multiple images. Errors within the camera and the method of arrangement of cameras can lead to wrong correspondence. Hence the depth information calculated will be incorrect. To increase the accuracy of depth matching in stereo imaging, we need to correct the camera imperfections. Stereo camera calibration is a method that can help predicting the internal and external parameters of the camera. There are many methods to perform camera calibration. In this paper, we explain the method of calibrating stereo raspberry pi cameras connected to raspberry pi compute module using 2D calibration object.
Low vision Aids provision for visually impaired Egyptian patients - a clinical outcome  [cached]
Shaaban Sherin,El-Lakkany Ahmad,Swelam Ashraf,Anwar Ghada
Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology , 2009,
Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate a low vision rehabilitation service implemented for heterogeneously diverse group of Egyptianpatients with vision loss in terms of improving their visual performance and fulfilling their visual needs. Methods: Fifty patients with low vision were included in a prospective study. History taking, ophthalmic examinationand evaluation of the visual functions were performed for all patients. The required magnification was calculated, andsubsequently a low vision aid was chosen after counseling with patients. Low vision aids were tried in office, followedby a period of training before patients received their own low vision aids. Follow up was done for 6 months. Results: All patients who were referred to the low vision unit were not satisfied with their current spectacles or lowvision aids. After training and prescription of suitable LVAs, the improvement in distance and near visual acuity wasstatistically significant (p< 0.001). Fifty-six per cent of the patients (n=28) showed improvement in distance visualacuity of 5 lines or more, and 57% of the patients (n=27) could discern N8 print size or better. The most commonlyused aids were high powered near adds. Despite the complaints about the appearance and use of LVAs, 76% of thepatients reported being moderately to highly-satisfied with their aids. Conclusions: The significant improvement in the visual performance of patients with low vision after the prescriptionand training on the use of LVAs, associated with patients′ satisfaction, confirms the importance of expanding lowvision rehabilitative services and increasing the public awareness of its existence and benefits.
A Graphical User Interface for the Visually Impaired – an evaluation  [cached]
David Veal,S. P. Maj
Modern Applied Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/mas.v4n12p83
Abstract: The majority of visually impaired blind and deafblind people retain some degree of residual vision. Software called Dynamic Pattern System (DPS) was developed to utilize this residual vision by generating a range of different patterns, colors and shapes unique to each individual’s residual vision – called a pattern set. This pattern set can then be mapped to printable alphanumeric characters. Limited trials with the visually impaired suggested DPS may have value. This paper is a more detailed evaluation of DPS undertaken by a normally sighted person using low vision simulators that mimic different visual handicap conditions.
Assisting the Visually Impaired: Obstacle Detection and Warning System by Acoustic Feedback  [PDF]
Alberto Rodríguez,J. Javier Yebes,Pablo F. Alcantarilla,Luis M. Bergasa,Javier Almazán,Andrés Cela
Sensors , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/s121217476
Abstract: The aim of this article is focused on the design of an obstacle detection system for assisting visually impaired people. A dense disparity map is computed from the images of a stereo camera carried by the user. By using the dense disparity map, potential obstacles can be detected in 3D in indoor and outdoor scenarios. A ground plane estimation algorithm based on RANSAC plus filtering techniques allows the robust detection of the ground in every frame. A polar grid representation is proposed to account for the potential obstacles in the scene. The design is completed with acoustic feedback to assist visually impaired users while approaching obstacles. Beep sounds with different frequencies and repetitions inform the user about the presence of obstacles. Audio bone conducting technology is employed to play these sounds without interrupting the visually impaired user from hearing other important sounds from its local environment. A user study participated by four visually impaired volunteers supports the proposed system.
Embedded Glove’ To Aid The Visually Impaired
Sankar Kumar S, Abarna J, Lavanya G, Nithya Lakshmi S
International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication , 2013, DOI: march
Abstract: This paper presents a model of ‘Embedded Glove’, a hand mounted tactile (vibration mechanism) feedback Sound Navigation And Ranging (SONAR) obstacle avoidance system, by warning through vibration motors for visually impaired to whom traveling in indoor/outdoor environments is really a difficult task. This system acts as an Electronic Travelling Aid (ETA) providing independent mobility of the visually impaired. This model comprises of a glove strapped to the wrist, embedded with ultrasonic sensors, battery, microcontroller and vibrator motors. Along with being completely reliable, this system also provides to be a cost-effective guidance mechanism for the visually impaired. The system is designed to scan a wide area with a set of ultrasonic sensors which also provides a good range and speed in the detection of the obstacle. The detected obstacle is immediately notified to the possessor thereby the presence of obstacle along with its direction is conveyed to the visually impaired person by means of a tactile system. The energy consumption for the whole system is controlled by a Photovoltaic (PV) panel, making it more efficient. The analysis described in this paper helps to estimate the distance at which the obstacle is present based on the reliability of measurement performed with ultrasonic sensors. It is also possible to detect the speed of moving objects in addition to direction with increased accuracy, with the enhanced response timings and varying intensities in the vibration mechanism.
Design of a Mobile Face Recognition System for Visually Impaired Persons  [PDF]
Shonal Chaudhry,Rohitash Chandra
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: It is estimated that 285 million people globally are visually impaired. A majority of these people live in developing countries and are among the elderly population. One of the most difficult tasks faced by the visually impaired is identification of people. While naturally, voice recognition is a common method of identification, it is an intuitive and difficult process. The rise of computation capability of mobile devices gives motivation to develop applications that can assist visually impaired persons. With the availability of mobile devices, these people can be assisted by an additional method of identification through intelligent software based on computer vision techniques. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a face detection and recognition system for the visually impaired through the use of mobile computing. This mobile system is assisted by a server-based support system. The system was tested on a custom video database. Experiment results show high face detection accuracy and promising face recognition accuracy in suitable conditions. The challenges of the system lie in better recognition techniques for difficult situations in terms of lighting and weather.
Information Service Delivery to the Visually Impaired: A Case Study of Hope for the Blind Foundation Wusasa, Zaria (Nigeria)
A.T. Lucky,N.E.E. Achebe
Research Journal of Information Technology , 2013,
Abstract: This study investigated the information service delivery to the visually impaired. Persons in the vision loss encountered by persons with visual impairment which limits them from the opportunities to access information especially those available in print. Scientific and technological innovations have however brought about various information communication devices that can convert print to speech for them to hear and also convert print to Braille for them to feel. Other devices include computer, Internet, CCTV. This study also centers on meeting the reading needs of persons with visual impairment through various assistive technology devices which include Braille printer, low vision aid, screen reader to help them to achieve their academic career. The findings of this study are only applicable to the visually impaired in Wusasa, Zaria, but it may have some relevance to other visually impaired in the country. Recommendations were made with a view to improving on the information service delivery to the visually impaired persons.
An Indoor Navigation System for the Visually Impaired  [PDF]
Luis A. Guerrero,Francisco Vasquez,Sergio F. Ochoa
Sensors , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/s120608236
Abstract: Navigation in indoor environments is highly challenging for the severely visually impaired, particularly in spaces visited for the first time. Several solutions have been proposed to deal with this challenge. Although some of them have shown to be useful in real scenarios, they involve an important deployment effort or use artifacts that are not natural for blind users. This paper presents an indoor navigation system that was designed taking into consideration usability as the quality requirement to be maximized. This solution enables one to identify the position of a person and calculates the velocity and direction of his movements. Using this information, the system determines the user’s trajectory, locates possible obstacles in that route, and offers navigation information to the user. The solution has been evaluated using two experimental scenarios. Although the results are still not enough to provide strong conclusions, they indicate that the system is suitable to guide visually impaired people through an unknown built environment.
Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation , 1998,
Abstract: The research included 200 visually impaired children of primary school during the period from 1992 to 1996. By means of adequate instruments we have tested the relation between the success at school of partially seeing children and hyperkinetic behavior, active and passive vocabulary richness, visuo-motoric coordination and the maturity of handwriting. Besides the already known factors (intellectual level, specific learning disturbances, emotional and neurotic disturbances, cultural deprivation), the success in class depends very much on the intensity of hyperkinetic behavior as well as its features: unstable attention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Visual-motor coordination eye-hand and the maturity of handwriting have a strong influence on their success at school.
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