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Hemorragia digestiva alta associada ao consumo de ácido acetilsalicílico e de anti-inflamatórios n o-esteróides em Portugal Upper gastrointestinal bleeding associated with acetylsalicylic acid and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs in Portugal
Bento Albuquerque Charrua
Jornal Português de Gastrenterologia , 2010,
Abstract:
Hemorragia digestiva alta associada ao consumo de ácido acetilsalicílico e de anti-inflamatórios n?o-esteróides em Portugal Resultados do estudo PARAINES
Couto,Gilberto; Macedo,Guilherme; Ribeiro,Filipe;
Jornal Português de Gastrenterologia , 2010,
Abstract: introduction: acetylsalicylic acid (asa) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaids) are amongst the most prescribed drugs in the world and may lead to peptic ulcer related bleeding and death. patients and methods: paraines study was a multicentre and retrospective study whose objective was to characterize the magnitude and management of asa/nsaids related upper gastrointestinal bleeding in portugal (9 centres; referral population 2.5 million) in 2006. results: we report 291 hospitalizations for 280 patients (estimated incidence 145.5/100000 asa/nsaids consumers/year). two thirds were male; 68.7% were older than 65 years and 24.1% had a previous history of peptic ulcer. low-dose asa was the most prescribed drug. fifteen per cent of the patients with gastrointestinal risk were taking a proton pump inhibitor for gastric protection. 237 peptic ulcers were diagnosed, 51% with endoscopic high-risk stigmata, usually treated with dual injection therapy (77.2%) and iv proton pump inhibitors (33% high dose continuous infusion). ten patients died during hospitalization (3.6%; estimated incidence 5/100000 asa/nsaids consumers/year). conclusions: hospitalization and in-hospital mortality incidence of asa/nsaids related upper gastrointestinal bleeding in portugal were lower than expected; only a few patients with associated risk factors are actually on proton pump inhibitors prophylaxis; peptic ulcer bleeding treatment may be further optimized.
Prescription monitoring of management pattern of osteoarthritis with non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs at PUHC, Chandigarh in India  [cached]
Bishnoi M,Kumar A,Kulkarni S
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: The present prospective study was conducted in order to establish the drug-prescription trend of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs in the management pattern of osteoarthritis at Panjab University Health Centre, Chandigarh, India. The study was carried out in between the months of November 2003 and March 2004. Data was collected from outpatients who visited Panjab University Health Centre. WHO based prescription-auditing performa was used for data collection. Demographic analysis of this prospective and observational study revealed that out of 84 patients most were females (63.1%) and maximum patients were in the age group of 40-60 (59.5%). Most of the patients at Panjab University Health Centre had primary generalized Osteoarthritis with the back (50%) being the site most commonly affected followed by knee (45.23%) and hips (14.3%). Pain and joint stiffness was the common feature of the clinical presentation. Non-Steroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs were mostly prescribed during the observation period predominantly for pain relief. The most commonly prescribed agents were nimesulide, paracetamol, diclofenac and ibuprofen. Mostly the drugs were administered in the tablet form (86.05%) with least use of gels/creams and capsules. The use of non-drug therapies including physiotherapy and exercise was least found. The present study represents the current prescribing trend of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs for osteoarthritis at Panjab University Health Centre and it also suggested that there is still considerable scope for improvement, particularly in prescribing non-drug therapies and improving dispensing habits.
Helicobacter pylori infection in bleeding peptic ulcer patients after non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug consumption  [cached]
Francesco Manguso,Elisabetta Riccio,Germana de Nucci,Maria Luisa Aiezza
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2011, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v17.i40.4509
Abstract: AIM: To establish the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in patients with a bleeding peptic ulcer after consumption of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). METHODS: A very early upper endoscopy was performed to find the source of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and to take biopsy specimens for analysis of H. pylori infection by the rapid urease (CLO) test, histological examination, and bacterial culture. IgG anti-CagA were also sought. The gold standard for identifying H. pylori infection was positive culture of biopsy specimens or contemporary positivity of the CLO test and the presence of H. pylori on tissue sections. RESULTS: Eighty patients, 61 males (76.3%), mean age 61.2 ± 15.9 years, were consecutively enrolled. Forty-seven (58.8%) patients occasionally consumed NSAIDs, while 33 (41.3%) were on chronic treatment with low-dose aspirin (LD ASA). Forty-four (55.0%) patients were considered infected by H. pylori. The infection rate was not different between patients who occasionally or chronically consumed NSAIDs. The culture of biopsy specimens had a sensitivity of 86.4% and a specificity of 100%; corresponding figures for histological analysis were 65.9% and 77.8%, for the CLO test were 68.2% and 75%, for the combined use of histology and the CLO test were 56.8% and 100%, and for IgG anti-CagA were 90% and 98%. The highest accuracy (92.5%) was obtained with the culture of biopsy specimens. CONCLUSION: Patients with a bleeding peptic ulcer after NSAID/LD ASA consumption frequently have H. pylori infection. Biopsy specimen culture after an early upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy seems the most efficient test to detect this infection.
Steroidal antiinflammatory drugs: glucocorticoids
S?nia Maria Alvarenga Anti,Rina Dalva Neubarth Giorgi,Wiliam Habib Chahade
Einstein (S?o Paulo) , 2008,
Abstract: Glucocorticoids are largely used drugs because of theirimmunosuppressive and anti-infl ammatory effects in the treatment ofmany rheumatic and other infl ammatory diseases. However, their useis sometimes limited by numerous adverse reactions. In this chapterphysiologic and pharmacological aspects as well as their mechanismof action and administration are presented. The use of glucocorticoidsin old age is specially discussed. Drug interaction and adverse effectsare also reviewed.
Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs: facts and fallacies
R Wiseman
Continuing Medical Education , 2003,
Abstract:
Acetylsalicylic acid: Incoming 150 years of the first synthesis  [PDF]
Mijin Du?an ?.,Stankovi? Milena,Petrovi? Slobodan D.,Blagojevi? Milorad
Hemijska Industrija , 2002, DOI: 10.2298/hemind0210401m
Abstract: Acetylsalicylic acid is one of the most fascinating and versatile drugs known to medicine, as well as one of the oldest. Acetylsalicylic acid is a drug which is safe, with analgetic, antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory antiplatelet and antithrombotic action. It may be applied not only in clinical practice, but also as prevention. The first known use of an acetylsalicylic acid-like preparation can be traced to ancient Greece. In 1853 Charles Gerhardt published the first synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid. Felix Hoffmann, a chemist for Friedrich Bayer, a German dye company obtained a patent on acetylsalicylic acid some 40 years later. Bayer coined the name Aspirin for the new product. The 20 in century was the century in which many researchers in many companies tried to improve the synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid not only in terms of yield but also purity. This paper describes the history, use, mechanism of action, synthesis and production as well as the purification and stability of acetylsalicylic acid.
Antiinflammatory Effect of Several Umbelliferae Species  [PDF]
SUWIJIYO PRAMONO
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2005,
Abstract: A screening for antiinflammatory effects was performed on several Indonesian Umbelliferae plants based on the contents of saponins and flavonoids. They were compared with Bupleurum falcatum L. as an introduced antiinflammatory plant. Roots and grains of each plant were collected, dried, and extracted with ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were then analyzed for their saponin and flavonoid contents by gravimetric and UV-vis spectrophotometric method. Antiinflammatory activity test was conducted on carragenin induced rat paw oedema. The results showed that the highest contents of saponin and flavonoid were found in the grains of Apium graveolens L. and showed antiinflammatory effect that was equivalent to that of the root of B. falcatum.
Analgesic and antiinflammatory activity of Amukkarac curanam  [cached]
Saraswathy A,Devi S,Pradeep Chandran R
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Amukkarac curanam a polyherbal Siddha formulation was examined for its analgesic and antiinflammatory activity at a dose of 500 mg/kg, p.o. The experimental methods used were tail immersion and acetic acid induced writhing method for analgesic and cotton pellet induced granuloma formation for antiinflammatory activity. Pentazocine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and aspirin (150 mg/kg, orally) clinically used analgesics were used as standard analgesics. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, orally) was used as standard for antiinflammatory study. Amukkarac curanam showed significant analgesic and antiinflammatory activity in the above study.
Antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects of Teucrium hyrcanicum aqueous extract in male mice and rats  [cached]
Amir Farshchi,Golbarg Ghiasi,Akbar Abdollahuasl
Physiology and Pharmacology , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects of Teucrium hyrcanicum aqueous extract in male mice and rats. Methods: To assess the antiinflammatory effect, we used carrageenan- and dextran-induced paw oedema and for determination of the antinociceptive effect, acetic acid-induced writhing, tail flick and formalin pain tests were used. Results: The extract of T. hyrcanicum (50–200 mg/kg) and acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg) produced a significant inhibition of the second phase response in the formalin pain model (P<0.01), while only the high dose of the extract (200 mg/kg) showed an analgesic effect in the first phase. The extract also inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes in a dose-dependent manner. The tail flick latency was dose dependently enhanced by the extract but this was significantly lower than that produced by morphine 10 mg/kg (P<0.05). The extract (25–250 mg/kg) administered 1 h before carrageenan-induced paw swelling produced a dose dependent inhibition of the oedema. No effect was observed with the dextran-induced oedema model. Conclusion: The obtained data suggest antiinflammatory and analgesic effects for the aqueous extract of Teucrium hyrcanicum, which may be mediated via both peripheral and central mechanisms. The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids might be responsible for the antiinflammatory activity of this plant.
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