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Antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINES).: Consideraciones para su uso estomatológico
Andrés A. Pérez Ruiz,Ana Marta López Mantecón,Ileana Grau León
Revista Cubana de Estomatolog?-a , 2002,
Abstract: Se realiza una revisión extensa y actualizada sobre los antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINEs), con el fin de actualizar al estomatólogo en su uso. Para ello se revisan aspectos importantes del proceso inflamatorio en estructuras de la boca que como las pulpitis, presentan sus peculiaridades. Se identifica a una de las 2 familias de autacoides provenientes de los fosfolípidos de membrana celular, es decir, los eicosanoides derivados a partir de algunos ácidos grasos polisaturados, en particular, ácido araquidónico, que tras la acción de enzimas da lugar a la formación de prostaglandinas, prostaciclinas, tromboxeno A2 y leucotrienos. Conocidos estos antecedentes, nos ocupamos de fármacos usados para combatir los síntomas y signos de la inflamación. Casi todos los antiinflamatorios no esteroideos utilizados en la actualidad, casi todos, inhiben las actividades de la ciclooxigenasa 1 constitutiva y la ciclooxigenasa 2, inducida en el sitio de la inflamación y con ello, la síntesis de prostaglandinas y tromboxanos. Se alude a la ventaja terapéutica de los inhibidores de la COX-2 que aparecen hoy en el mercado. Se expone las dosis y frecuencias de los AINEs, sus interacciones, así como las reacciones adversas al medicamento y contraindicaciones, y se proponen aquellos que son de interés en la práctica estomatológica. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Considerations about their dental use. An extensive updated review of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIN) was made to give an updated information to the dentist about their use. To this purpose, important aspects of the inflammatory process in mouth structures like pulpitis that present with their own peculiarities are reviewed. We identified one of the two autacoid families from cell membrane phospholipids, that is, eicosanoids derived from some polysaturated fatty acids, in particular, arachidonic acid, which, after the action of enzymes, give rise to the formation of prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxane A2 and leukotrienes. After having known these antecedents, we focused on drugs used to release inflammatory signs and symptoms. Almost all non-steroidal agents that are currently used inhibit the action of constitutive cyclooxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 induced in the site of inflammation; and thus the synthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The therapeutical benefit of COX-2 inhibitors present in today′s market is pointed out. Dose and frequencies of NSAIN, their interactions, adverse effects and counterindications are stated. Those NSAINs of interest for dental practice are sug
Estudio biofarmacéutico de geles antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINES)
María del Rosario Osorio,Margarita Restrepo,Margarita Restrepo
Iatreia , 2000,
Abstract: Los antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINES) son un grupo heterogéneo de compuestos con actividad analgésica, antipirética y antiinflamatoria que comparten efectos secundarios indeseables, tales como: ulceración gástrica e intestinal, anemia, bloqueo de la agregación plaquetaria, inhibición de la motilidad uterina e hipersensibilidad. Los AINES se utilizan por vía tópica con el fin de aliviar lesiones en tejidos blandos a los cuales puede llegarse directamente a través de la piel, evitando así los efectos colaterales indeseables. Actualmente para la gran mayoría de los medicamentos se exige valorar la Biodisponibilidad como criterio de calidad. Biodisponibilidad se define como la cantidad de fármaco que llega a sangre o plasma después de la administración del medicamento que lo contiene y la velocidad a la cual este proceso ocurre; esta determinación de Biodisponibilidad no resulta útil en el caso de medicamentos que se administran a través de la piel y no alcanzan circulación sistémica; la biodisponibilidad relativa o Bioequivalencia es la comparación de las biodisponibilidades de dos medicamentos para determinar si son similares en su comportamiento farmacocinético dentro del organismo. El presente trabajo pretende estandarizar y validar un método que permita determinar concentraciones de fármaco en tejidos, en este tipo de medicamentos administrados por vía tópica, que no alcanzan circulación sistémica y por lo tanto no pueden ser cuantificados en sangre o plasma; además pretendemos que esta metodología pueda ser propuesta como una técnica para determinar biodisponibilidad y/o bioequivalencia para este tipo de productos. Para lograr estos objetivos, inicialmente, se induce la inflamación a un grupo de animales de laboratorio mediante la técnica de inyección de carragenina aplicada en la pata trasera del animal. Se registra el tiempo al cual ocurre la máxima inflamación con el fin de determinar el momento en el cual debe administrarse el medicamento. Posteriormente, se desarrolla un ensayo piloto en el cual diferentes cantidades de gel antiinflamatorio son administradas a los animales previamente rasurados en el sitio de aplicación y edematizados a través de una inyección carragenina, lo anterior para seleccionar la cantidad efectiva de producto a administrar en los ensayos posteriores. Para la determinación de las concentraciones de fármaco en tejido subcutáneo y músculo, se administra la cantidad de gel determinada en el ensayo anterior, las muestras son extraídas con catéteres de microdiálisis (4-5 mm y 25-30 mm) a intervalos de tiempo diferentes,
Empleo de antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINEs) como coadyuvante en el tratamiento de la enfermedad periodontal
Ana Barrientos,César Chacón,Gabriela Luces,Patricia Notz Ilusión Romero
Acta Odontológica Venezolana , 2009,
Abstract: Estudios previos han indicado que las drogas antiinflamatorias no esteroideas (AINEs) actúan en la modificación de la respuesta inflamatoria por parte del huésped. El propósito del presente trabajo es presentar una revisión bibliográfica relacionada con el empleo de los AINEs y su efectividad comprobada sobre la enfermedad periodontal. Se desarrollarán diversos aspectos dentro de los cuales se mencionarán la etiología y patogenia de la enfermedad periodontal, características de los AINEs, su clasificación, farmacocinética, farmacodinamia (haciendo énfasis en el mecanismo como antiinflamatorio), uso terapéutico, así como diferentes estudios experimentales sobre el uso de los mismos en animales y en pacientes con enfermedad periodontal. This review presents information about nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs their clinical efficacy in the periodontal disease, doing emphasis on the indications, pharmaceutical preparations, classification and adverse effects which they can produce on the basis of scientific knowledge. This report describes the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs as an adjunct to scaling and root planning in periodontal disease.
Prevention of NSAID-related upper gastrointestinal toxicity: a meta-analysis of traditional NSAIDs with gastroprotection and COX-2 inhibitors
Alaa Rostom, Katherine Muir, Catherine Dube, et al
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DHPS.S4334
Abstract: evention of NSAID-related upper gastrointestinal toxicity: a meta-analysis of traditional NSAIDs with gastroprotection and COX-2 inhibitors Review (5090) Total Article Views Authors: Alaa Rostom, Katherine Muir, Catherine Dube, et al Published Date October 2009 Volume 2009:1 Pages 47 - 71 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DHPS.S4334 Alaa Rostom1, Katherine Muir2, Catherine Dube3, Angel Lanas4, Emilie Jolicoeur3, Peter Tugwell3 1University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; 2University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 3University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 4University Hospital Lozano Blesa, Instituto Aragones de Ciencias de la Salud, Zaragoza, Spain Background: Traditional NSAIDs (tNSAIDs) and COX-2 inhibitors (COX-2s) are important agents for the treatment of a variety or arthritic conditions. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the effectiveness of misoprostol, H2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs), and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for the prevention of tNSAID related upper gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity, and to review the upper gastrointestinal (GI) safety of COX-2s. Methods: An extensive literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of prophylactic agents used for the prevention of upper GI toxicity, and RCTs that assessed the GI safety of the newer COX-2s. Meta-analysis was performed in accordance with accepted techniques. Results: 39 gastroprotection and 69 COX-2 RCTs met inclusion criteria. Misoprostol, PPIs, and double doses of H2RAs are effective at reducing the risk of both endoscopic gastric and duodenal tNSAID-induced ulcers. Standard doses of H2RAs are not effective at reducing the risk of tNSAID-induced gastric ulcers, but reduce the risk of duodenal ulcers. Misoprostol is associated with greater adverse effects than the other agents, particularly at higher doses. COX-2s are associated with fewer endoscopic ulcers and clinically important ulcer complications, and have fewer treatment withdrawals due to GI symptoms than tNSAIDS. Acetylsalicylic acid appears to diminish the benefit of COX-2s over tNSAIDs. In high risk GI patients, tNSAID with a PPI or a COX-2 alone appear to offer similar GI safety, but a strategy of a COX-2 with a PPI appears to offer the greatest GI safety. Conclusion: Several strategies are available to reduce the risk of upper GI toxicity with tNSAIDs. The choice between these strategies needs to consider patients’ underlying GI and cardiovascular risk.
Hemorragia digestiva alta associada ao consumo de AAS e AINEs em Portugal. Relembrem-se da profilaxia! Upper bleeding associated to acetilsalicilic acid and NSAIDs in Portugal. Remember prophylaxis!
J. Alexandre Sarmento
Jornal Português de Gastrenterologia , 2010,
Abstract:
Gastroprotection of Suaveolol, Isolated from Hyptis suaveolens, against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Wistar Rats: Role of Prostaglandins, Nitric Oxide and Sulfhydryls  [PDF]
Carlos Vera-Arzave,Leticia Cruz Antonio,Jesús Arrieta,Gerardo Cruz-Hernández,Antonio Magdiel Velázquez-Méndez,Adelfo Reyes-Ramírez,María Elena Sánchez-Mendoza
Molecules , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/molecules17088917
Abstract: Hyptis suaveolens is a medicinal plant that is, according to traditional medicine, considered useful in the treatment of gastric ulcers. Although its gastroprotective activity was reported, the active compounds have not been identified. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify at least one active compound potentially responsible for the gastroprotective activity of H. suaveolens by using a bioassay guided study with an ethanol-induced gastric ulcer experimental model in rats. The results show that the hexane extract had protective activity (close to 70% when using doses between 10 and 100 mg/kg), and that the compound suaveolol, isolated from this extract, was one of the active gastroprotective agents. This is the first report about the gastroprotective activity of suaveolol. Rats treated with this compound at 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg showed 12.6, 21.3, 39.6 and 70.2% gastroprotection respectively. The effect elicited by suaveolol (at 100 mg/kg) was attenuated by pretreatment with either NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (70 mg/kg, i.p.), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, indomethacin (10 mg/kg, s.c.), a blocker of prostaglandin synthesis, or N-ethylmaleimide (10 mg/kg, s.c.), a blocker of sulfhydryl groups. This suggests that the gastroprotective mechanism of action of this compound involves NO, prostaglandins and sulfhydryl groups.
Presen a e impacto de Bemisia Tabaci (genn.) (homoptera: aleyrodidae) em culturas hortícolas em Portugal Presence and impact of Bemisia Tabaci (genn.) (homoptera: aleyrodidae) in vegetable crops in Portugal
Célia Mateus,Fernanda Amaro,Diamamtina Louro,António Mexia
Revista de Ciências Agrárias , 2008,
Abstract: Em Portugal, emisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) foi detectada pela primeira vez em 1992, em culturas hortícolas. Desde 1995, é uma praga importante no Algarve, onde está presente nas estufas durante todo o ano, com níveis de infesta o elevados no Ver o. A partir de 2006, foi considerada também estabelecida no Alentejo e em parte do Ribatejo e Oeste. A espécie constitui um grave problema em diversas culturas hortícolas, n o só pelos prejuízos directos, mas, principalmente, pela sua capacidade de transmitir vírus de plantas. As culturas mais atacadas s o as de tomate e de cucurbitáceas, em estufa. A protec o integrada é a melhor forma de minorar este problema de modo sustentável, embora a presen a de vírus dificulte a respectiva implementa o e sucesso. Neste trabalho, apresentam-se os resultados da investiga o desenvolvida em Portugal sobre esta espécie, nomeadamente: distribui o geográfica, bioecologia, identifica o de biótipos, transmiss o de vírus, estimativa do risco, prospec o de auxiliares e meios de luta. Sugerem-se ainda futuras linhas de trabalho. In Portugal, emisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) was first recorded in 1992, in horticultural crops. Since 1995, it has been an important pest in the Algarve, southern Portugal, where it is present the whole year round, in greenhouse crops, with high infestations during the summer. In 2006, it was installed in Alentejo and in part of Ribatejo e Oeste region. It is a serious problem to several vegetable crops, due to direct damages, but mainly by transmitting plant viruses. The most severely affected crops are greenhouse tomato and cucurbits. IPM is considered the best way to deal with the sustainable management of this problem, but the presence of viruses complicates the implementation of IPM programs. The work presented here gives an overview of the results obtained by the research activities carried out in Portugal concerning B. tabaci: geographical distribution, bioecology, biotypes identification, virus transmission, risk assessment, natural enemies’ survey and control methods. Future research work is suggested.
Prevention of NSAID-related upper gastrointestinal toxicity: a meta-analysis of traditional NSAIDs with gastroprotection and COX-2 inhibitors  [cached]
Alaa Rostom,Katherine Muir,Catherine Dube,et al
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety , 2009,
Abstract: Alaa Rostom1, Katherine Muir2, Catherine Dube3, Angel Lanas4, Emilie Jolicoeur3, Peter Tugwell31University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; 2University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 3University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 4University Hospital Lozano Blesa, Instituto Aragones de Ciencias de la Salud, Zaragoza, SpainBackground: Traditional NSAIDs (tNSAIDs) and COX-2 inhibitors (COX-2s) are important agents for the treatment of a variety or arthritic conditions. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the effectiveness of misoprostol, H2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs), and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for the prevention of tNSAID related upper gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity, and to review the upper gastrointestinal (GI) safety of COX-2s.Methods: An extensive literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of prophylactic agents used for the prevention of upper GI toxicity, and RCTs that assessed the GI safety of the newer COX-2s. Meta-analysis was performed in accordance with accepted techniques.Results: 39 gastroprotection and 69 COX-2 RCTs met inclusion criteria. Misoprostol, PPIs, and double doses of H2RAs are effective at reducing the risk of both endoscopic gastric and duodenal tNSAID-induced ulcers. Standard doses of H2RAs are not effective at reducing the risk of tNSAID-induced gastric ulcers, but reduce the risk of duodenal ulcers. Misoprostol is associated with greater adverse effects than the other agents, particularly at higher doses. COX-2s are associated with fewer endoscopic ulcers and clinically important ulcer complications, and have fewer treatment withdrawals due to GI symptoms than tNSAIDS. Acetylsalicylic acid appears to diminish the benefit of COX-2s over tNSAIDs. In high risk GI patients, tNSAID with a PPI or a COX-2 alone appear to offer similar GI safety, but a strategy of a COX-2 with a PPI appears to offer the greatest GI safety.Conclusion: Several strategies are available to reduce the risk of upper GI toxicity with tNSAIDs. The choice between these strategies needs to consider patients’ underlying GI and cardiovascular risk.Keywords: NSAID, gastrointestinal toxicity, COX-2 inhibitors
Imigra??o em Portugal
Machado, Igor José de Renó;
Estudos Avan?ados , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-40142006000200010
Abstract: this paper is an excogitation on brazilian immigration to portugal and on the relationship between the immigrants and various portuguese ethnic categories. seeing that the sites chosen by brazilian immigrants from among a hierarchy of portuguese alterities presume an ethnization of the entire brazilian migrant population, i have attempted to demonstrate that, hidden beneath the ethnicized label of "brazilians in portugal", one finds a diverse and extremely varied population in terms of how they build their identity. in addition, i have made a concise analysis of the political consequences of the ethnical-political discourse regarding the citizenship and integration of the brazilian immigrant population in portugal.
AINEs como tratamiento coadyuvante de la enfermedad periodontal NSAIDs in the treatment of periodontal disease  [cached]
T Beca,G Hernández,A Bascones
Avances en Periodoncia e Implantología Oral , 2007,
Abstract: Se presenta una revisión bibliográfica acerca de la aplicación de antiinflamatorios de forma coadyuvante en el tratamiento periodontal. Tras una breve introducción, se establecen las bases inmunológicas de la inflamación y destrucción periodontal, centrándonos en el metabolismo del ácido araquidónico y los cuatro mediadores más implicados actualmente en la destrucción periodontal: prostaglandina E2 (PGE2), prostaglandina F2a (PGF2a), leucotrieno B4 (LTB4) y factor activador de plaquetas (PAF), y estableciendo su mecanismo de acción, su relación con la destrucción periodontal a través de las metaloproteinasas (MMPs) y su relación con algunas interleuquinas de la cascada inflamatoria también relacionadas con la destrucción tisular. Después se expone una relación de los fármacos más empleados en la literatura para la inhibición de todos estos mediadores (Antiinflamatorios no esteroideos o AINEs, ácidos grasos omega3, tetraciclinas y bifosfonatos), explicando su mecanismo de acción y los estudios que los han investigado y posteriormente se ha llevado a cabo una recopilación de los escasos estudios que realizan mediciones clínicas para finalizar estableciendo una serie de conclusiones. SUMMARY A review about the application of antiinflammatories as an aid for the periodontal treatment is presented. After a brief introduction, we explain the immunological bases of periodontal inflamation and tissue destruction, focusing on arachidonic acid metabolism and the four most important inflammatory mediators now in periodontal tissue resorption: prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), prostaglandin F2a(PGF2a), leucotriene B4 (LTB4) and platelet activation factor (PAF), and explaining their actions and role in inflammation through matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) and their relation with some other mediators in the inflammatory chain also related with tissue resorption. After, we expound some of the most used drugs for the inhibition of all of these mediators (non-steroid antiinflammatory drugs or NSAIDs, omega3 fatty acids, tetracyclines and bisfosfonates), explaining their action and the papers wich investigated them and later we have made a compilation of the few studies making clinical measurements to finish establishing some conclusions.
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