Abstract:
The normal-mode analysis of the Reynolds-Orr energy equation governing the stability of viscous motion for general three-dimensional disturbances has been revisited. The energy equation has been solved as an unconstrained minimization problem for the Couette-Poiseuille flow. The minimum Reynolds number for every Couette-Poiseuille velocity profile has been computed and compared with those available in the literature. For fully three-dimensional disturbances, it is shown that the minimum Reynolds number is in general smaller than the corresponding two-dimensional counterpart for all the Couette-Poiseuille profiles except plane Couette flow.

Abstract:
Following previous work that discussed temperature fluctuations without flowing media a physical model of temperature oscillations into a Couette-Poiseuille flow was built. The temperature distribution into the flow was calculated according to oscillations constraints on the upper and lower plates, and heat dissipation due to shear stresses into the fluid. The physical model deals with different temperature amplitudes and different frequencies constraints on the upper and the lower plates. A physical superposition and complex numbers were used. It was shown that when the constraint frequency increases, its penetration capacity is reduced. Increasing gap width between plates leads to increased fluid temperature values due to enlarged fluid velocity. Increasing thermal diffusivity, increases constrains temperatures penetration intensity.

Abstract:
We present the problem of minimum time control of a particle advected in Couette and Poiseuille flows and solve it by using the Pontryagin maximum principle. This study is a first step of an effort aiming at the development of a mathematical framework for the control and optimization of dynamic control systems whose state variable is driven by interacting ODEs and PDEs which can be applied in the control of underwater gliders and mechanical fishes. 1. Introduction This paper represents a first step for the optimal control of dynamic systems whose state evolves through the interaction of ordinary differential equations and the partial differential equations, [1, 2], which will provide a sound basis for the design and control of new advanced engineering systems. In Figure 1, two representative examples of the class of applications are considered: (i) underwater gliders, that is, winged autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) which locomote by modulating their buoyancy and their attitude in its environment, and (ii) robotic fishes. Motion modeling of these two types of systems can be found in [3, 4] and [5], respectively. Figure 1: Underwater glider (a), robotic fish (b). In spite of the key roots of the Optimal Control Theory having been established in the sixties for control systems with dynamics given by ordinary differential equations, [6], its sophistication in multiple directions has been progressing unabated (see, among others, [7, 8]). However, there still remains a large gap in what concerns dynamic control systems driven by partial differential equations, [2], and it is largely inexistent for hybrid systems in the sense that the controlled dynamics involve both partial and ordinary differential equations. In this paper, we formulate and solve two optimal control problems. Each one of these problems corresponds to a particular solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation in two spatial dimensions. These particular solutions are, respectively, the steady Couette and Poiseuille flows. The Couette flow is the steady laminar unidirectional and two-dimensional flow due to the relative motion of two infinite horizontal and parallel rigid plates [9]. The liquid between these two plates is driven by the viscous drag force originated by the uniform motion of the upper plate which moves in the x-direction with velocity (the lower plate is at rest). In this case, the velocity of such a flow has a linear profile and is given by with , the plates being distance units apart (Figure 2(a)). Figure 2: Linear (a) and quadratic velocity field (b). The

Abstract:
We present a detailed study of the linear stability of plane Couette-Poiseuille flow in the presence of a cross-flow. The base flow is characterised by the cross flow Reynolds number, $R_{inj}$ and the dimensionless wall velocity, $k$. Squire's transformation may be applied to the linear stability equations and we therefore consider 2D (spanwise-independent) perturbations. Corresponding to each dimensionless wall velocity, $k\in[0,1]$, two ranges of $R_{inj}$ exist where unconditional stability is observed. In the lower range of $R_{inj}$, for modest $k$ we have a stabilisation of long wavelengths leading to a cut-off $R_{inj}$. This lower cut-off results from skewing of the velocity profile away from a Poiseuille profile, shifting of the critical layers and the gradual decrease of energy production. Cross-flow stabilisation and Couette stabilisation appear to act via very similar mechanisms in this range, leading to the potential for robust compensatory design of flow stabilisation using either mechanism. As $R_{inj}$ is increased, we see first destabilisation and then stabilisation at very large $R_{inj}$. The instability is again a long wavelength mechanism. Analysis of the eigenspectrum suggests the cause of instability is due to resonant interactions of Tollmien-Schlichting waves. A linear energy analysis reveals that in this range the Reynolds stress becomes amplified, the critical layer is irrelevant and viscous dissipation is completely dominated by the energy production/negation, which approximately balances at criticality. The stabilisation at very large $R_{inj}$ appears to be due to decay in energy production, which diminishes like $R_{inj}^{-1}$. Our study is limited to two dimensional, spanwise independent perturbations.

Abstract:
We show possibility of the Plane Couette (PC) flow instability for Reynolds number Re>Reth=140. This new result of the linear hydrodynamic stability theory is obtained on the base of refusal from the traditionally used assumption on longitudinal periodicity of the disturbances along the direction of the fluid flow. We found that earlier existing understanding on the linear stability of this flow for any arbitrary large Reynolds number is directly related with an assumption on the separation of the variables of the spatial variability for the disturbance field and their periodicity in linear theory of stability. By the refusal from the pointed assumptions also for the Plane Poiseuille (PP) flow, we get a new threshold Reynolds value Reth=1040 that with 4% accuracy agrees with the experiment contrary to more than 500% discrepancy for the earlier known estimate Reth=5772 obtained in the frame of the linear theory but when using the "normal" disturbance form (S. A. Orszag, 1971).

Abstract:
The steady state of a dilute gas enclosed between two infinite parallel plates in relative motion and under the action of a uniform body force parallel to the plates is considered. The Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model kinetic equation is analytically solved for this Couette-Poiseuille flow to first order in the force and for arbitrary values of the Knudsen number associated with the shear rate. This allows us to investigate the influence of the external force on the non-Newtonian properties of the Couette flow. Moreover, the Couette-Poiseuille flow is analyzed when the shear-rate Knudsen number and the scaled force are of the same order and terms up to second order are retained. In this way, the transition from the bimodal temperature profile characteristic of the pure force-driven Poiseuille flow to the parabolic profile characteristic of the pure Couette flow through several intermediate stages in the Couette-Poiseuille flow are described. A critical comparison with the Navier-Stokes solution of the problem is carried out.

Abstract:
The combined effect of viscous heating and convective cooling on Couette flow and heat transfer characteristics of water base nanofluids containing Copper Oxide (CuO) and Alumina (Al2O3) as nanoparticles is investigated. It is assumed that the nanofluid flows in a channel between two parallel plates with the channel’s upper plate accelerating and exchange heat with the ambient surrounding following the Newton’s law of cooling, while the lower plate is stationary and maintained at a constant temperature. Using appropriate similarity transformation, the governing Navier-Stokes and the energy equations are reduced to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. These equations are solved analytically by regular perturbation method with series improvement technique and numerically by an efficient Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg integration technique coupled with shooting method. The effects of the governing parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, skin friction, pressure drop and Nusselt number are presented graphically, and discussed quantitatively. 1. Introduction Studies related to laminar flow and heat transfer of a viscous fluid in the space between two parallel plates, one of which is moving relative to the other, have received the attention of several researchers due to their numerous industrial and engineering applications. This type of flow is named in honour of Maurice Marie Alfred Couette, a professor of physics at the French University of Angers in the late 19th century [1]. Couette flow has been used to estimate the drag force in many wall driven applications such as lubrication engineering, power generators and pumps, polymer technology, petroleum industry, and purification of crude oil. Literature survey indicates that interest in the Couette flows has grown during the past decades. Jana and Datta [2] examined the effects of Coriolis force on the Couette flow and heat transfer between two parallel plates in a rotating system. Singh [3] studied unsteady free convection flow of an incompressible viscous fluid between two vertical parallel plates, in which one is fixed and the other is impulsively started in its own plane. Kearsley [4] investigated the problem of steady state Couette flow with viscous heating. Jha [5] numerically examined the effects of magnetic field on Couette flow between two vertical parallel plates. The combined effects of variable viscosity and thermal conductivity on generalized Couette flow and heat transfer in the presence of transversely imposed magnetic field have been studied numerically by Makinde and

Abstract:
In the above paper by Bechtel, Cai, Rooney and Wang, Physics of Fluids, 2004, 16, 3955-3974 six different theories of a Newtonian viscous fluid are investigated and compared, namely, the theory of a compressible Newtonian fluid, and five constitutive limits of this theory: the incompressible theory, the limit where density changes only due to changes in temperature, the limit where density changes only with changes in entropy, the limit where pressure is a function only of temperature, and the limit of pressure a function only of entropy. The six theories are compared through their ability to model two test problems: (i) steady flow between moving parallel isothermal planes separated by a fixed distance with no pressure gradient in the flow direction (Couette flow), and (ii) steady flow between stationary isothermal parallel planes with a pressure gradient (Poiseuille flow). The authors found, among other, that the incompressible theory admits solutions to these problems of the plane Couette/Poiseuille flow form: a single nonzero velocity component in a direction parallel to the bounding planes, and velocity and temperature varying only in the direction perpendicular to the planes.

Abstract:
A model kinetic equation is solved exactly for a special stationary state describing nonlinear Couette flow in a low density system of inelastic spheres. The hydrodynamic fields, heat and momentum fluxes, and the phase space distribution function are determined explicitly. The results apply for conditions such that viscous heating dominates collisional cooling, including large gradients far from the reference homogeneous cooling state. Explicit expressions for the generalized transport coefficients (e.g., viscosity and thermal conductivity) are obtained as nonlinear functions of the coefficient of normal restitution and the shear rate.These exact results for the model kinetic equation are also shown to be good approximations to the corresponding state for the Boltzmann equation via comparison with direct Monte Carlo simulation for the latter

Abstract:
An equation previously proposed to describe the evolution of vortex line density in rotating counterflow turbulent tangles in superfluid helium is generalized to incorporate nonvanishing barycentric velocity and velocity gradients. Our generalization is compared with an analogous approach proposed by Lipniacki, and with experimental results by Swanson et al. in rotating counterflow, and it is used to evaluate the vortex density in plane Couette and Poiseuille flows of superfluid helium.