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Intra-Industry Trade in Tourism Services  [PDF]
Nuno Carlos LEIT?O
Theoretical and Applied Economics , 2011,
Abstract: Usually the tourism flows are explained by demand, economic growth, and revealed comparative advantage (neoclassic trade theory).This manuscript examines the link between intra-industry trade and international tourism flows. We have examined the Portuguese intra-industry trade in this sector. The analysis apply the static (Grubel and Lloyd) and dynamic index (Brülhart). Our results show that the tourism services are important for a small economy such as Portugal. The intra-industry trade is very significant between Portugal and the following countries: Spain, USA, Italy, Greece, Turkey and Canada.
Nuno Carlos Leit?o,Muhammad Shahbaz
International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues , 2012,
Abstract: The recent trend of globalization has given rise to a new paradigm in international economics, i.e. the simultaneous exports and imports of a product within country or a particular industry called intra-industry trade (IIT) or two-way trade. This study examines country-levels determinants of intra-industry trade, in U.S. trade. The manuscript applies a static and dynamic panel data approach. In contrast to previous studies, this paper used a dynamic panel data to solve the problems of serial correlation and endogeneity. The results indicate that IIT occurs more frequently among countries that are similar in terms of factor endowments. We also introduce economic dimension; this proxy confirms the positive effect of IIT. Our results also confirm the hypothesis that trade increases if the transportation costs decrease.
Affortunato Francesca
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2012,
Abstract: The European integration process has always since markedly characterized by the increasing incidence of Intra-Industry Trade. This has been theoretically justified on the grounds of the new approaches emerging in international trade literature, based on imperfect competition and differentiated products. In recent years another distinctive economic feature of European Union is the importance gained by the so called a€ cultural and creative sectorsa€ , which are often studied and monitored by reports for their great growth potential. We provide here a systematic decomposition of world trade in a€ cultural/creative goodsa€ for the year 2009 (using harmonised bilateral flows for some 213 products defined as a€ cultural productsa€ by UNESCO, 2009) into three trade types: inter-industry, intra-industry (IIT) in horizontally versus vertically differentiated products. We show that the world trade in cultural goods is significantly characterised by two-way trade of vertically differentiated products. Moreover we specifically focus on the Italian peculiarities in the a€ cultural tradea€ : therefore we first work out which ones of the world countries are the a€ top exportersa€ of these categories of products and then we compute an indicator of the Italian goodsa€ quality relative to each of these competitors. Not surprisingly, we find that the most important bilateral IIT intensities in cultural products are observed in Europe. However the presence of developing countries is not unimportant. This can be explained partly to as a consequence of the increasing level of trade integration among some Asian countries and as a consequence of an increasing despecialization of firstly industrialized countries in the production and trading of these products. Finally, with reference to the relative quality of Italian cultural products compared with that of the other top-exporters in these sectors, we find that Italian performance are good relative to those of emerging countries (such as China and India), but not as much if compared to other European countries (such as Germany, France and United Kingdom).
An Essay on Intra-Industry Trade in Intermediate Goods  [PDF]
Rosanna Pittiglio
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.55045

This paper contributes to the debate on the effects of international fragmentation on two-way trade in several ways. Firstly, it is the first study on determinants of horizontal and vertical intraindustry trade in intermediate goods with regard to Italy. Secondly, it studies if and how country-specific factors affect intra-industry trade in intermediate goods when heterogeneity among sectors is allowed. The topic is very important for its policy implications. As is known, the early literature distinguishing vertical from horizontal intra-industry trade is especially concerned that their determinants are not the same, and that an expansion in two-way trade might have different adjustment implications depending on its nature. In the case of input trade, the same motivation applies (since intermediates are a subset of total goods traded) but to a greater extent. The analysis, on the one hand has produced results that support the theoretical hypotheses, on the other hand has confirmed the relevance of considering intersectoral heterogeneity in analyzing determinants of intra-industry trade in intermediate goods.

Intra-Industry Trade and Labour Market Adjustment in the Automobile Industry  [cached]
Horácio Crespo Faustino
International Journal of Economics and Finance , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ijef.v2n4p3
Abstract: This paper examines the effects of increased intra-industry trade on the labour market adjustment costs in Portugal’s automobile industry. Using a static and dynamic panel data approach, the results show a negative correlation between changes of employment and marginal intra-industry trade. These results confirm the smooth adjustment hypothesis (SAH). Whereas most of the empirical studies have tested the SAH considering all of the industries within an economy, the present paper tests the same hypothesis considering solely the reallocation of labour within the automobile industry (between sectors of this industry). The results also suggest that there is no great difference between static and dynamic results. Keywords: Adjustment costs, Automobile industry, Marginal intra-industry trade, Panel data JEL classification: F14; C33.
Pakistan Intra-industry Trade: A Panel Data Approach
Muhammad Shahbaz,Nuno Carlos Leitao,Muhammad Sabihuddin Butt
International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues , 2012,
Abstract: This study examines the determinants of intra-industry trade (IIT) between Pakistan and trade patterns in the period 1980-2006, using a static and dynamic panel data approach. In the recent years, the government of Pakistan had realized factors to liberalize the international trade. The literature of international economics demonstrates that this condition (trade liberalization) induces the IIT. The case study for Pakistan has been negligence in the economic literature. This study uses country-specific characteristics as explanatory variables. This study utilizes country-specific characteristics as explanatory variables. The empirical evidence indicates that IIT is a negative function of the difference in GDP per capita between Pakistan and her trading partners. Furthermore, econometric results point out that trading is influenced by the similar demand. We have also introduced an economic dimension; this proxy confirms the positive effects of IIT. Our findings reveal the importance of scales economies and the variety of differentiated products. The study supports to accept the hypothesis that trading increases if the transportation costs decrease.
Intra-industry Trade, Knowledge and Adjustment Costs  [PDF]
Nuno Carlos Leitao
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The international technology diffusions are associated with the changes in labour market. The empirical results show a negative correlation between the changes of employment and Marginal Intra-Industry Trade (MIIT). We also find a positive correlation between changes of employment and knowledge. The economic dimension and market structure are according to Smooth Adjustment Hypothesis (SAH).
Economic Development, Vertical Intra-Industry Trade and Gains from Trade  [PDF]
Le Duc Niem, Taegi Kim
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.51001

This paper investigates the impact of economic development on international trade and sources of gains from trade based on a theoretical model that considers consumers’ preference diversity for quality and economies of scale in production. We confirm that both the volume of trade and the share of intra-industry trade increase with increases in the level of economic development in the region. We also find that the intra-industry trade share increases as the technology levels of the two countries become similar. Additionally, we find that both countries can gain from trade and that those gains come from three sources: internal economies of scale, more consumption, and more variety of goods.

Labor Costs and Marginal Intra-Industry Trade: The Thailand Experience  [PDF]
Sujinda Chemsripong
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.41019

Thailand’s international trade, exports in particular, expanded considerably after the major policy changes in 1990. According to this expansion, there was also a significant increase in intra-industry trade even though the major characteristic of Thailand trade is still inter-industry. However, intra-industry trade is hypothesized to reduce adjustment costs due to trade expansion and changes in trade compared to inter-industry trade. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of increased Intra-Industry Trade (IIT) on the labor market adjustment cost, in view of the changes in Thailand’s pattern of trade over the post-1990 period. The study is focused on the hypothesis that Intra-Industry Trade (IIT) expansion entails lower factor adjustment costs (Smooth Adjustment Hypothesis-SAH). A dynamic panel data approach is employed. The results suggest a negative correlation between changes in employment and Marginal Intra-Industry Trade (MIIT) and confirmation of the SAH. Given the increase in IIT as a proportion of Thailand’s overall trade during the period under review, the adjustment in labor markets in the form of reduced employment from trade liberalization at that time is likely to have been less than that would have otherwise been expected.

The Effects of Free Trade Agreement on Intra-Industry Trade (A Case Study of Textile Sector in Turkey)
Zafer Gurler,Gulistan Erdal,Hilmi Erdal,Adnan Cicek
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: This research studies the effects of Free Trade Agreements on Intra-Industry Trade. The textile sector of Turkey which has an important role on Turkey`s external trade is based on while the effects of Free Trade Agreement on Intra-Industry Trade are studied. The textile sector has been examined in three subgroups as classified by SITC within the 1996-2003 time internal. These subgroups are SITC-26 which is made up of textile fibers (other than wool tops) and their wastes, SITC-65 made up of textile yarn, fabrics, made up articles, n.e.s related products and SITC-84 made up of apparel and clothing accessories. As a consequence of all studies done, it can be said that agreements have a positive effect on Intra-Industry Trade based on textile sector. And it also can be said that this effect is more intense on SITC-65 products.
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