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Encountering the Familiarity of a Foreign Culture: Julie Dash's Novel Daughters of the Dust  [cached]
Gerund, Katharina
COPAS : Current Objectives of Postgraduate American Studies , 2010,
Abstract: This essay analyzes Julie Dash’s 1997 novel Daughters of the Dust with regard to its portrayal of the Gullah culture, its strategies of familiarizing an outsider readership with a foreign culture, and the way it depicts representations of culture in anthropology and literature. The analysis works on two levels: it examines how intercultural encounters are portrayed in the novel as well as how the novel itself functions as “entry point” to the Gullah culture. It argues that Dash presents cultures as distinct though not disclosed entities where boundaries can be transgressed though not transcended.
Southern Bahamian: Transported African American Vernacular English or Transported Gullah?  [cached]
Hackert, Stephanie,Holm, John Alexander
College of the Bahamas Research Journal , 2009,
Abstract: The relationship between Bahamian Creole English (BahCE) and Gullah and their historical connection with African American Vernacular English (AAVE) have long been a matter of dispute. In the controversy about the putative creole origins of AAVE, it was long thought that Gullah was the only remnant of a once much more widespread North American Plantation Creole and southern BahCE constituted a diaspora variety of the latter. If, however, as argued in the 1990s, AAVE never was a creole itself, whence the creole nature of southern BahCE? This paper examines the settlement history of the Bahamas and the American South to argue that BahCE and Gullah are indeed closely related, so closely in fact, that southern BahCE must be regarded as a diaspora variety of the latter rather than of AAVE.
Daughters of the Dust (Julie Dash, 1991), le récit d’esclave revisité  [cached]
Delphine Letort
Amnis , 2008, DOI: 10.4000/amnis.623
Abstract: Julie Dash dédie Daughters of the Dust aux femmes de la communauté noire, animée par le désir de lever le voile sur les secrets d’une histoire commune transformée en tabou par le silence qui entoure le concept de féminité à l’époque de l’esclavage. Le film se concentre sur la famille Peazant dont les membres sont divisés à la veille de migrer vers le nord : certains craignent l’éclatement de la famille (Nana) tandis que d’autres l’envisagent comme un renouveau (Viola, Haagar). Julie Dash utilise la figure de la migration pour explorer les complexités de l’identité afro-américaine. Tout en permettant aux femmes de faire face aux dilemmes les plus intimes (viol, couleur de peau, grossesse, sexualité, r les féminins/masculins), la réalisatrice s’efforce de faire mentir les stéréotypes hollywoodiens de femmes noires. Elle se tourne vers le passé non seulement pour y puiser une source d’inspiration et de création, mais elle évoque avec nostalgie une vie tribale idéalisée qui n’a jamais existé sinon dans l’imaginaire des Afrocentristes. Julie Dash dedica Daughters of the Dust a las mujeres de la comunidad negra, estimulada por el deseo de desvelar los secretos de una historia común, transformada en tabú por el silencio que rodea el concepto de feminidad en la época de la esclavitud. La película se articula en torno a la familia Peazant cuyos miembros están divididos entre ellos en vísperas de emigrar hacia el norte. Algunos temen la disgregación de la familia (Nana), mientras que para otros es una oportunidad de renovación (Viola, Haagar). Julie Dash utiliza la figura de la emigración para explorar la complejidad, en toda su diversidad, de la identidad afroamericana. La realizadora trata de desmentir los estereotipos hollywoodienses de mujeres negras y, de manera paralela, permite a las mujeres el enfrentarse a los dilemas más íntimos (violación, color de la piel, embarazo, sexualidad, roles femeninos y masculinos). Su mirada se detiene en el pasado no solamente para extraer una fuente creativa y de inspiración, sino también para evocar con nostalgia una vida tribal idealizada que sólo existió en el imaginario de los afrocentristas . Julie Dash dedicated Daughters of the Dust to the female members of the black community, endeavouring to uncover the secrets of their common history turned into a taboo subject by the silence that enshrouds the issue of femininity at the time of slavery. The film focuses on the Peazant family who are divided on the eve of their migration to the north: some are afraid to see the family spread apart (Nana) while others look forw
The linguistic significance of African proper names in Gullah
Salikoko S. Mufwene
Nieuwe West-Indische Gids , 1985,
Abstract:
Characterization of African dust over southern Italy
A. Blanco, F. Dee Tomasi, E. Filippo, D. Manno, M. R. Perrone, A. Serra, A. M. Tafuro,A. Tepore
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2003,
Abstract: Dust samples from rainfall residues have been collected in southeast Italy (40o 20' N, 18o 6' E) during dust outbreaks occurred from April to June 2002 to characterize morphological and elemental particle composition by different techniques, and investigate the dependence of particle properties on source regions. Four-day analytical back trajectories and satellite images have been used to infer source regions of the investigated dust samples. It has been found that the TOMS absorbing aerosol index was in the range 0.7-2.2 over Southern Italy when samples have been collected. The particle-size and -shape analysis by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has revealed either that the particle-diameter distribution was between 0.3 and 30 mm with median-diameter values between 1.7-2.4 mm, and that the particles were characterized by a roundness factor varying from 0.8 to 2.5. The infrared transmission spectra have allowed recognizing that all dust samples contained a significant amount of illite. The X-ray energy dispersive (EDX) measurements have revealed that the Al/Si ratio of the transported dust varies from 0.41 to 0.50, and that the Al/Si, Ca/Al, K/Ca, and Fe/Ca ratios differ according to source regions and therefore can be used as indicators of dust source regions. Indeed, it has been found that dust samples with larger Ca/Al and Si/Al ratios and lower Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios, have been collected along dust events with a source region in northwestern Sahara. On the contrary, the samples collected along dust events with the origin mainly in Chad, Niger, Algeria and Lybia were characterized by larger Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios.
Characterization of African dust over southern Italy
A. Blanco,F. de Tomasi,E. Filippo,D. Manno
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2003,
Abstract: Dust samples from rainfall residues have been collected in southeast Italy (40°20' N, 18°6 E) during dust outbreaks occurred from April to June 2002 to characterize morphological and elemental particle composition by different techniques, and investigate the dependence of particle properties on source regions. Four-day analytical back trajectories and satellite images have been used to infer source regions of the investigated dust samples. It has been found that the TOMS aerosol index product was in the range 0.7–2.2 over Southern Italy when samples have been collected. The particle-size and -shape analysis by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has revealed either that the particle-diameter distribution was between 0.3 and 307μm with median-diameter values between 1.7–2.4 μm, and that the particles were characterized by a roundness factor varying from 0.8 to 2.5. The infrared transmission spectra have allowed recognizing that all dust samples contained a significant amount of illite. The X-ray energy dispersive (EDX) measurements have revealed that the Al/Si ratio of the transported dust varies from 0.41 to 0.50, and that the Al/Si, Ca/Al, K/Ca, and Fe/Ca ratios differ according to source regions and therefore can be used as indicators of dust source regions. Indeed, it has been found that dust samples with larger Ca/Al and Si/Al ratios and lower Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios, have been collected along dust events with a source region in northwestern Sahara. On the contrary, the samples collected along dust events with the origin mainly in Chad, Niger, Algeria and Lybia were characterized by larger Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios.
Relationships between mineral dust and cloud properties in the West African Sahel
L. Klüser,T. Holzer-Popp
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010,
Abstract: Aerosol cloud interactions are known to be of great importance to many parts of the climate system. Five years of observations from three different satellites (Aqua, ENVISAT and Meteosat Second Generation) are used to statistically analyse the relationship of mineral dust aerosol, separated from other aerosol species, with monsoon season cloud state in the West African Sahel domain. Additionally, observations of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission are used for discrimination of dry and wet seasons. The aerosol-cloud-interactions are analysed separately by season and air mass in order to minimise spurious correlations with meteorological conditions. The detailed analysis uncovers different counteracting relationships of the mineral dust aerosol with the cloud state, which is also evident from an analysis of the spatial distribution patterns of cloud properties changes with dust activity. The aerosol-cloud relationships found from the analysis of this multiple year dataset are mainly consistent with the hypothesis of a suppression of convective activity, but also indications of lifetime enhancement and thus increased cloud cover and convective intensity are found in some subsets.
African Dust Influence on Atlantic Hurricane Activity and the Peculiar Behaviour of Category 5 Hurricanes  [PDF]
Victor M. Velasco Herrera,Jorge Perez-Peraza,Graciela Velasco H.,Laura Luna Gonzalez
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: We study the specific influence of African dust on each one of the categories of Atlantic hurricanes. By applying wavelet analysis, we find a strong decadal modulation of African dust on Category 5 hurricanes and an annual modulation on all other categories of hurricanes. We identify the formation of Category 5 hurricanes occurring mainly around the decadal minimum variation of African dust and in deep water areas of the Atlantic Ocean, where hurricane eyes have the lowest pressure. According to our results, future tropical cyclones will not evolve to Category 5 until the next decadal minimum that is, by the year 2015 +/- 2.
Patterns of North African dust transport over the Atlantic: winter vs. summer, based on CALIPSO first year data  [PDF]
Y. Ben-Ami,I. Koren,O. Altaratz
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2009,
Abstract: One of the most important factors that determine the transported dust effect on the atmosphere is its vertical distribution. In this study the vertical structure of North African dust and stratiform low clouds is analyzed over the Atlantic Ocean for the 2006–2007 boreal winter (December–February) and boreal summer of 2006 (June–August). By using the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) backscatter measurements over the dust routes, we describe the differences in dust transport between the seasons. We show a bi-modal distribution of the average dust plumes height in both seasons (it is less clear in the winter). The higher plume top height is 5.1±0.4 km, near the African coast line in the summer and 3.7±0.4 km in the winter. The lower plume merges with the marine boundary layer, in both seasons. Our study suggests that a significant part of the dust is transported near and within the marine boundary layer and interacts with low stratiform clouds.
The Three-Dimensional Structure of Transatlantic African Dust Transport: A New Perspective from CALIPSO LIDAR Measurements  [PDF]
Dong Liu,Yingjian Wang,Zhien Wang,Jun Zhou
Advances in Meteorology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/850704
Abstract: The lack of information on the vertical distribution of dust, in turn, results in large uncertainties when attempting to evaluate the impacts of dust on climate processes. We analyzed over two years of LIDAR measurements from NASA’s CALIPSO and CloudSat satellites to document the vertical pathways of transatlantic transport of Saharan dust. Our analysis overcomes the limitations of quantitative dust detections with passive satellite measurements over land and low clouds and provides the fine vertical resolved structures. The results show the strong seasonal shift in dust source regions and transportation pathways due to the meteorological and thermodynamical conditions, which also control the dust vertical distribution as well as the depth of the dust layer. The dust layer top descending rates of 35?m/degree in summer, 25?m/degree in autumn and spring, and 10?m/degree in winter are found, respectively, while the dust is being transported across the Atlantic. Comparison with the model simulation highlights the potentials of dust observations using CALIPSO LIDAR. The observed seasonal dependence of these pathways gives new insights into the transport of the Saharan dust and provides important guidance for simulations of the production and transport of the global dust aerosol. 1. Introduction Mineral dust is mainly generated from the continents and can be transported both horizontally and vertically into the atmosphere and affect vast area on the earth. Mineral dust plays an important role in climate processes by affecting radiation [1, 2], modifying cloud and precipitation processes by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), giant CCN (GCCN), and effective ice nuclei (IN) [3–8]. Also mineral is an important source of nutrition which modulates a variety of marine biogeochemical processes [9]. However, among different types of aerosols, there are large uncertainties in dust sources, sinks, and their long-range transports [10, 11]. The Sahara is a primary source of dust, the majority of which is transported westward across the Atlantic to the Southeastern United States, the Caribbean Sea, and South America [12–14]. African dust and its transport have been documented by several passive remote sensors, for example, the Advanced Vary High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), Meteosat, Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) [15–18]. Modeling and observation results also suggest that Saharan dust and dust containing Sahara Air Layer (SAL) could impact the hurricane formation and evolution in the region of
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