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Fluoride Concentration of Drinking Water in Babil-Iraq  [PDF]
Mohammed Hashim Matloob
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The role of fluoride in reducing the risk of dental caries is well documented and is the basis for current intake recommendations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluoride content of tap and bottled water currently consumed in Babil-Iraq and to determine whether fluoride intakes by Iraqi consumers fell within the recommended ranges. Fluoride concentrations of 50 samples of tap water (originated from the Euphrates River) and forty popular brands of bottled water currently sold in Babil-Iraq were determined using an Ion-selective electrode. The mean fluoride content of tap and bottled water were 0.1840.041 and 0.0730.066 mg L-1, respectively. The average volume of water consumed by Iraqi adults daily was estimated to be 800240 mL in winter to 2000650 mL in summer. Based on these data the average daily intake of fluoride by Iraqi consumer from tap and bottled water were 0.1470.055 to 0.3680.145 mg and 0.0580.056 to 0.1460.140 mg, respectively. These levels revealed that whether tap or bottled water are used as the primary source of drinking water, then Iraqi consumers are at a higher risk of tooth decay. Water fluoridation is recommended as a relevant public health measure to increase the resistance to dental caries.
Effect of high fluoride concentration in drinking water on children’s intelligence
Seraj B,Shahrabi M,Falahzade M,Falahzade F
Journal of Dental Medicine , 2006,
Abstract: Background and Aim: Human and animal studies linking fluoride with diminished intelligence have been published. Although adverse effects of high intake of fluoride on intelligence and mental acuity continue to be reported, they are still controversial. The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between fluoride in drinking water and children's intelligence. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 41 children were selected from the high fluoride area with 2.5mg/l (ppm) fluoride in the drinking water and 85 children were selected from low fluoride area with 0.4mg/l (ppm) fluoride in the drinking water. The intelligence quotient (IQ) of each child was measured by the Raven's test. The history of illnesses affecting the nervous system, head trauma, birth weight ( 2.5kg or 2.5kg), residental history, age and sex of children were investigated by questionnaires completed by the children's parents. Data were analyzed by Chi-Square test with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: In the high fluoride area the mean IQ of children (87.9 11) was significantly lower than in the low fluoride area (98.9 12.9) (P=0.025). Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, exposure of children to high levels of fluoride may carry the risk of impaired development of intelligence.
Concentration of Fluoride and Arsenic in Bottled Drinking Water in Durango City, Mexico  [PDF]
María Adriana Martínez-Prado, María Elena Pérez-López, María Guadalupe Vicencio-de la Rosa, Cecilia Corazón González-Nevarez
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.412A2002

Arsenic and fluoride are elements known to cause human health problems and it has been documented that both elements are found in high concentrations in the Guadiana Valley aquifer, in the state of Durango, Mexico. Since underground water is the source for potable water bottling companies commercialized in Durango City; such high concentrations reduced the quality of bottled water for human consumption according to NOM-041-SSA1-1993. Legislation establishes a maximum permissible limit (MPL) of 0.7 mg/L for fluoride and 0.025 mg/L for arsenic. In this research the main objective was to evaluate the quality of bottled water expended in Durango City with respect to the well from which water is extracted. Findings showed that the highest fluoride concentration was 5.86 mg/L (8.4 times MPL), with 100% of sampled brands exceeding the MPL (range: 1.09 to 5.86 mg/L). On the other hand, for arsenic, the highest concentration was 0.076 mg/L (threefold), with 38% exceeding the MPL (range: 0.001 to 0.076 ppm). Statistical analysis showed significant differences only for fluoride, according to Fisher LSD (Least Significant Difference) test, with an F value of 14.5 at a p value of 0.0005. According to the comparison between the quantified concentrations in bottled water and groundwater, it was found that groundwater was subjected to treatment; however, although a significant decrease in fluoride and arsenic concentration was observed, the removal processes used were not efficient to meet set standards.

The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water  [cached]
Prabhakar A,Raju O,Kurthukoti A,Vishwas T
Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry , 2008,
Abstract: Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Materials and Methods: Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, borewell water and tap water, these being commonly used by the people of Davangere City, Karnataka. The samples were collected before and after purification, and fluoride analysis was done using fluoride ion-specific electrode. Results: The results showed that the systems based on reverse osmosis, viz, reverse osmosis system and Reviva showed maximum reduction in fluoride levels, the former proving to be more effective than the latter; followed by distillation and the activated carbon system, with the least reduction being brought about by candle filter. The amount of fluoride removed by the purification system varied between the system and from one source of water to the other. Interpretation and Conclusion: Considering the beneficial effects of fluoride on caries prevention; when drinking water is subjected to water purification systems that reduce fluoride significantly below the optimal level, fluoride supplementation may be necessary. The efficacy of systems based on reverse osmosis in reducing the fluoride content of water indicates their potential for use as defluoridation devices.
Monitoring of fluoride concentration in ground water of North Nanded region Maharashatra, Indi  [PDF]
Juned A. Sayyed,Arjun B. Bhosle,Tambe H. Saleem
Advances in Environmental Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The occurrence of dental and skeletal fluorosis among the population are the motivation to investigate occurrence of fluoride in groundwater. Groundwater quality in Marathwada region of North Nanded city has special significance and needs great attention of all concerned since it is the major alternate source of domestic, industrial and drinking water supply. Fluoride concentration as well as pH, were monitored in 2010 from 35 ground water (23 Bore well and 12 Hand pump) sample water of the North Nanded city is used unevenly by different economic sectors. However, drinking water supply remains the primary use. Fluoride determinations were made with SPANDS method by spectrophotometer at the wavelength of 570 nm nearly 35 ground water samples collected at readily accessible sites of North Nanded city. The highest fluoride concentration was 2.78 mg L-1 of sample side S1 Bhawasr Chowk and the lowest was 1.34 mg L-1 on sample side S30 Lalbadi. The mean fluoride concentration ranged from premanson 2.30 mg L-1 and postmanson 2.59 mg L-1 The results indicate that .the ground water are relatively high in fluoride content and are therefore harmful in this respect for domestic and industrial uses.
Fluoride and bacterial content of bottled drinking water versus municipal tap water
Mythri H,Chandu G,Prashant G,Subba Reddy V
Indian Journal of Dental Research , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Water is a divine gift. People quench their thirst without questioning the source of water. But, apprehension about contaminants in municipal water supplies along with increased fear of fluorosis made bottled drinking water as one of the important tradable commodities. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine and compare the fluoride and bacterial contents of commercially available bottled drinking water and municipal tap water in Davangere city, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Fifty samples of 10 categories of bottled drinking water with different batch numbers were purchased and municipal water from different sources were collected. Fluoride levels were determined by an ion-selective electrode. Water was cultured quantitatively and levels of bacteria were calculated as colony-forming units (CFUs) per milliliter. Results: Descriptive analysis of water samples for fluoride concentration was in the range of 0.07-0.33 for bottled drinking water, Bisleri showing the highest of 0.33. A comparison of the mean values of microbial count for bottled drinking water with that of municipal tap water showed no statistically significant difference, but was more than the standard levels along with the presence of fungus and maggots. Conclusion: The fluoride concentration was below the optimal level for both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water. CFUs were more than the recommended level in both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water.
Fluoride in Tunisian Drinking Tap Water  [PDF]
Wiem Guissouma, Jamila Tarhouni
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.711070
Abstract: This paper presents a fluoride health risk characterization approach to identify the hyper-sensitive population of adverse effect like tooth decay, dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis. In this context, a sampling campaign has been done over 100 Tunisian water consumption points (tap). Laboratory analysis results show that the quality of drinking water is affected by high fluoride concentration level exceeding 2 mg·L-1. Over these samples, 7% of them present non-compliant with the Tunisian national standard (NT09.14) and the international guidelines (World Health Organization recommendations, WHO). The overtake cases are located essentially in southern Tunisian areas, i.e. Medenine, Gabes, Gafsa and Tataouine. One can highlight that groundwater, in these southern Tunisian areas, are naturally rich of fluoride. This is because of the aquifers geological and fossil nature. However, commonly northern and central Tunisian areas are characterized by low fluoride concentration level below 0.1 mg·L-1. These undertaken cases don’t meet the water quality requirement defined by WHO.
Fluoride content in bottled drinking waters, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices in Davangere city, India  [cached]
Thippeswamy H,Kumar Nanditha,Anand S,Prashant G
Indian Journal of Dental Research , 2010,
Abstract: Background: The regular ingestion of fluoride lowers the prevalence of dental caries. The total daily intake of fluoride for optimal dental health should be 0.05-0.07 mg fluoride/kg body weight and to avoid the risk of dental fluorosis, the daily intake should not exceed a daily level of 0.10 mg fluoride/kg body weight. The main source of fluoride is from drinking water and other beverages. As in other countries, consumption of bottled water, juices and carbonated beverages has increased in our country. Objective: To analyze the fluoride content in bottled water, juices and carbonated soft drinks that were commonly available in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: Three samples of 10 commercially available brands of bottled drinking water, 12 fruit juices and 12 carbonated soft drinks were purchased. Bottled water and carbonated soft drinks were stored at a cold place until fluoride analysis was performed and a clear juice was prepared using different fruits without the addition of water. Then, the fluoride analysis was performed. Results: The mean and standard deviation of fluoride content of bottled water, fruit juices and carbonated soft drinks were measured, which were found to be 0.20 mg (±0.19) F/L, 0.29 mg (±0.06) F/L and 0.22 mg (±0.05) F/L, respectively. Conclusion: In viewing the results of the present study, it can be concluded that regulation of the optimal range of fluoride in bottled drinking water, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices should be drawn for the Indian scenario.
Effects of fluoride in drinking water on health of deciduous teeth  [PDF]
Blagojevi? Du?ka,Stoj?in Ivana
Medicinski Pregled , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/mpns0408323b
Abstract: INTRODUCTION High incidence of decayed deciduous teeth, as well as lack of adequate therapy, makes tooth decay prevention very important. One of the simplest ways to reduce tooth decay is fluoridation of drinking water. The optimal concentration of fluoride in drinking water is 1 ppm/l, and many waters naturally contain this quantity. Waters in Vojvodina are mainly poor in fluoride, except in a few regions. It has long been postulated that fluoride has a prophyilactic effect during intrauterine life. Today a theory of greater local impact of fluoride as well as its role in de- and remineralization of solid tooth tissue. Material and methods This epidemiologocal study was performed in the area of Vojvodina, in places with various fluoride concentrations in drinking water (0.18 - 1.04 ppm/l). Dental examination was performed among 145 children, 6 years of age. For tooth decay detection dmf index was used. Results and discussion In places with low and optimal fluoride concentration in drinking water the percentage of children with decayed teeth is different, but without statistical significance. The percentage of affected deciduous teeth is high in all places. In places with low fluoride concentration it is 24.2 - 32.3%, in places with optimal concentration is 27 - 32%. Everidge value DMF in all places is between 4.7 - 6.4. These results show that optimal fluoride concentration in drinking water decreases the incidence of tooth decay, but this difference is not significant. CONCLUSION Presence of fluoride in drinking water doesn't affect health of deciduous teeth. Decreased incidence of decayed deciduous teeth can be achieved only with combined usage of fluoride (local and systemic), as well as with an intensive health education program.
Geographical mapping of fluoride levels in drinking water sources in Nigeria
E.S Akpata, I.S Danfillo, E.C Otoh, J.O Mafeni
African Health Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Knowledge of fluoride levels in drinking water is of importance in dental public health, yet this information is lacking, at national level, in Nigeria. Objective: To map out fluoride levels in drinking water sources in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Fluoride levels in drinking water sources from 109 randomly selected Local Government Areas (LGAs) in the 6 Nigerian geopolitical zones were determined. From the results, maps showing LGAs with fluoride concentrations exceeding 0.3 ppm, were drawn. ANOVA and t- test were used to determine the significance of the differences between the fluoride levels in the drinking water sources. Results: Fluoride levels were low in most parts of the country, being 0.3 ppm or less in 62% of the LGAs. Fluoride concentrations were generally higher in North Central geopolitical zone, than the other zones in the country (p<0.05). In a few drinking water sources, fluoride concentrations exceeded 1.5 ppm, but was as high as 6.7 ppm in one well. Only 9% of the water sources were from waterworks. Conclusion: Most of the water sources in Nigeria contained low fluoride levels; but few had excessive concentrations and need to be partially defluoridated, or else alternative sources of drinking water provided for the community.
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