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Bone mineral density and content in adolescent girls. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n5p354
Romulo Maia Carlos Fonseca,Rinaldo Wellerson Pereira,Nanci Maria de Fran?a
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to characterize bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) in Brazilian adolescent girls according to age and pubertal stage. A total of 329 girls ranging in age from 10 to 20 years participated in this study. Body weight, height, body mass index, pubertal stage, race, daily calcium intake, and time spent per week performing moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) were evaluated. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD and BMC were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. One-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test was used to identify differences in bone mass between ages and pubertal stages (p≤0.05). The daily calcium intake reported by the adolescents was inadequate, corresponding to only 26-47% of the recommended allowance (1,300 mg/day). On the other hand, weekly MVPA was higher than that recommended for adolescents. Significant differences in BMD and BMC were observed for girls aged 10-14 years. In addition, lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD was 58 and 31% higher in postpubertal girls, respectively, when compared to prepubertal adolescents.
Assessment of Pubertal Development in Iranian Girls
Ali Rabbani,Mohammad-Esmaeil Motlagh,Kazem Mohammad,Gelayol Ardalan
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics , 2010,
Abstract: Objective:We estimated pubertal development of 7,493 normal Iranian girls aged 6 to 20 years in a cross-sectional study. Methods:Pubertal stages were assessed according to Tanner. The mean ages to achieve secondary sexual characteristics as well as the mean age at menarche were estimated. Weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Reference curves for different breast stages and menarche were constructed. The percentiles for attaining each stage were compared to data proposed by Tanner. Findings: The mean age at breast bud stage (B2) was 10.10, pubic hair stage (P2) was 9.83, and menarche age was 12.55 years. The anthropometric variables were interpreted in different maturity stages. The mean age at attainment of puberty was compared with those of other populations. Conclusion:Not only the onset of puberty in Iranian girls but also the duration of puberty is similar to data from most other countries. A lower age limit for the definition of precocious puberty than the traditional 8 years is documented for Iranian girls. However, it should be noted that considering the rate of evolution of pubertal findings is more important than the age of their appearance.
Pubertal Characteristics in Girls of Qazvin Province, Iran  [cached]
Fatemeh Saffari,Maryam Rostamian,Neda Esmailzadehha,Keivan Shariatinejad
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics , 2012,
Abstract: Objective: Puberty is a critical time between childhood and adulthood. Many studies have reported that the mean age of breast development is decreasing. The aim of this study was to provide updated data on the pubertal development of girls and to evaluate precocious puberty in our population.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 6 to 16 year old school girls during 2009-2010 in Qazvin. 2240 healthy girls from all geographical regions with every socioeconomic status were selected by a stratified multistage cluster design to obtain representative sample of population. A questionnaire includingdemographic data, anthropometric measurements, secondary sexual characteristics, menarche status and its onset was filled out for every participant. Secondary sexual characteristics including breast development(B1–5) and pubic hair (PH1–5) were evaluated according to Marshal and Tanner recommendation.Findings: The mean±SD of height, weight, and BMI of participants was 139.7±14.5, 36.1±12.9 and 17.9±3.7 respectively. The mean age (10th – 90th percentile) of B2 and PH2 were 9.71(7.67–11.4) and 9.82 years (7.84–11.42) respectively. Mean age of menstruation was 12.52 years. The mean BMI was significantly higher in pubertal females comparing to prepubertal girls (P<0.001). Average duration of puberty (the time from initiation of puberty to menarche) was 2.81 years.Conclusion: The mean age of pubertal onset in girls living in Qazvin is 9.71 years. Menarche occurs at mean age of 12.52 and onset of puberty earlier than 6.24 years will be precocious. We found that girls in Qazvin had a slightly earlier age of initiation of puberty and of menarche in comparison with other studies in Iran.
Milk and dairy products presence in boarding school meals in Croatia  [cached]
Jasenka Gajdo? Kljusuri?
Mljekarstvo , 2003,
Abstract: Nutritive quality and variety of food intake are the most important issues for young people growing and developing. Nutritional habits of each individual are also very important. High values of proteins, mineral matters and vitamins in milk show the importance of milk consumption in meals for children and young people.In order to gain a precise insight into nutritive status of young people in Croatian boarding schools, a "closed type group" was selected. The examined groups included girls and boys at the age of 14-18 years, accommodated in 39 boarding schools. The questionnaires, organised in order to determine preferences in consumption of different food groups including milk and dairy products, are conducted as well. From the meals analysed one can recommend the improvements in meal preferences. Average values per day showed that 52 % of girls and 63 % of boys consume milk and dairy products only if includedin boarding school meals. Only 27 % of girls and 21 % of boys consumed milk or dairy products on daily basis. Results of milk and dairy product preferences are different with regards to different regions of Croatia. Region 3, Lika and Gorski Kotar, shows the highest values of dairy products consumption. The aim of the work is to determine quality of the energy and nutritive intake by nutrition analysis, and to determine nutritional irregularities with a special reference to milk and dairy products consumption. Furthermore, nutritional improvements, by including the results of meal preferences in accordance with the needs and DRI recommendations considering gender and age, are proposed.
Effect of Urea Molasses Multi-nutrient Blocks Supplementation of Dairy Cows Fed Rice Straw and Green Grasses on Milk Yield, Composition, Live Weight Gain of Cows and Calves and Feed Intake  [PDF]
Yeasmin Akter,M.A. Akbar,M. Shahjalal,T.U. Ahmed
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: The effects of supplementation with urea molasses multi-nutrient blocks of dairy cows fed rice straw and green grasses on milk yield, composition, live weight change of cows and calves and intake were studied under village condition. The cows were offered 250 g UMMB per cow per day. The animal were divided into two groups and randomly assigned to two dietary treatments. The control group (A) received diet containing rice straw, green grasses, wheat bran, rice polish and mustard oil cake. However, the supplemented group (B) received UMMB in addition to normal diet, given to the control group. Supplementation of blocks to cows also receiving straw based diets increased milk production from 2.86 to 4.43 L/d (P<0.01) and live weight of calves from 20.29 to 25.57 kg (P<0.05). But did not significantly increased live weight, condition score, milk composition and intake of cows. This increase in milk yield is mainly explained by increased intakes of energy and nitrogen. UMMB was as recommended to be used as a strategic supplement in lactating dairy cows especially when fed on low quality roughages or crop residues.
A one-year exercise intervention program in pre-pubertal girls does not influence hip structure
Gayani Alwis, Christian Linden, Susanna Stenevi-Lundgren, Henrik G Ahlborg, Jack Besjakov, Per Gardsell, Magnus K Karlsson
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-9-9
Abstract: Fifty-three girls aged 7 – 9 years were included in a curriculum-based exercise intervention program comprising 40 minutes of general physical activity per school day (200 minutes/week). Fifty healthy age-matched girls who participated in the general Swedish physical education curriculum (60 minutes/week) served as controls. The hip was scanned by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the hip structural analysis (HSA) software was applied to evaluate bone mineral content (BMC), areal bone mineral density (aBMD), periosteal and endosteal diameter, cortical thickness, cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), section modulus (Z) and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the femoral neck (FN). Annual changes were compared. Group comparisons were done by independent student's t-test between means and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA). Pearson's correlation test was used to evaluate associations between activity level and annual changes in FN. All children remained at Tanner stage 1 throughout the study.No between-group differences were found during the 12 months study period for changes in the FN variables. The total duration of exercise during the year was not correlated with the changes in the FN traits.Evaluated by the DXA technique and the HSA software, a general one-year school-based exercise program for 7–9-year-old pre-pubertal girls seems not to influence the structure of the hip.Physical activity during growth is associated with benefits in bone mineral accrual and possibly bone structure [1-4], a clinically relevant notion, as both traits independently improve bone strength [5]. But, most prospective controlled exercise intervention trials have predominantly focused on the accrual of bone mineral [6-9], a study design that could underestimate the skeletal effects of exercise, as the effect on bone structure is then neglected. That is, also the three-dimensional structure ought to be assessed when evaluating bone strength [10,11]. As a result, the Hip Structural Analysis (
Pubertal Pathways in Girls Enrolled in a Contemporary British Cohort  [PDF]
Krista Yorita Christensen,Mildred Maisonet,Carol Rubin,Adrianne Holmes,W. Dana Flanders,Jon Heron,Jean Golding,Michael A. McGeehin,Michele Marcus
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/329261
Abstract: Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used to describe initiation of secondary sexual characteristic development of girls. Tanner stages of breast and pubic hair and menarche status were self-reported via mailed questionnaires, administered from ages 8–14. Initiation pathway was categorized as breast [thelarche] or pubic hair [pubarche] development alone, or synchronous. Average ages at beginning breast and pubic hair development were estimated using survival analysis. Factors associated with initiation pathway were assessed using logistic regression. Among the 3938 participants, the median ages at beginning breast and pubic hair development were 10.19 (95% CI: 10.14–10.24) and 10.95 (95% CI: 10.90–11.00) years. Synchronous initiation was the most commonly reported pathway (46.3%), followed by thelarche (42.1%). Girls in the pubarche pathway were less likely to be obese or overweight at age 8 or have an overweight or obese mother. Girls in the thelarche pathway were less likely to be of nonwhite race or be the third born or later child. 1. Introduction In females, the first visible signs of pubertal development are breast and pubic hair development [1, 2]. These processes are governed by two separate physiologic systems (the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, resp.), so breast and pubic hair development does not necessarily occur at the same time, or at the same rate of progression. A majority of girls are thought to experience relatively synchronous pubarche and thelarche, with the first appearance of pubic hair and breast budding occurring within a few months of each other (or observed at the same clinic visit). However, some girls will begin pubarche without corresponding thelarche and vice versa [3–6]; this is often referred to as asynchronous development. Different initiation pathways may reflect differential exposures, both external environmental exposures and exposure to endogenous hormones, and timing of pubertal milestones may impact future health outcomes including risk for overweight/obesity and breast cancer [5, 7–9]. Despite the importance of the initiation of puberty, the process and factors which impact pathway and timing have not been well described in a contemporary cohort. Among participants in the Fels longitudinal study in the United States (1948), the majority of girls (85.8%) experienced asynchronous development, with over half of girls entering breast development before pubarche [10]. A Swedish study (1976) found that while 47% of girls experienced synchronous
Relationships between urinary biomarkers of phytoestrogens, phthalates, phenols, and pubertal stages in girls
Chakraborty TR, Alicea E, Chakraborty S
Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AHMT.S15947
Abstract: tionships between urinary biomarkers of phytoestrogens, phthalates, phenols, and pubertal stages in girls Review (2504) Total Article Views Authors: Chakraborty TR, Alicea E, Chakraborty S Published Date January 2012 Volume 2012:3 Pages 17 - 26 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AHMT.S15947 Received: 14 October 2011 Accepted: 13 November 2011 Published: 06 January 2012 Tandra R Chakraborty1, Eilliut Alicea1, Sanjoy Chakraborty2 1Department of Biology, Adelphi University, One South Avenue, Garden City; 2Department of Biological Sciences, New York City College of Technology, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Phytoestrogens, phthalates, and phenols are estrogen-disrupting chemicals that have a pronounced effect at puberty. They are exogenous chemicals that are either plant-derived or man-made, and can alter the functions of the endocrine system and cause various health defects by interfering with the synthesis, metabolism, binding, or cellular responses of natural estrogens. Phytoestrogens, phthalates, and phenols are some of the potent estrogens detectable in urine. Phytoestrogens are plant-derived xenestrogens found in a wide variety of food products, like soy-based food, beverages, several fruits, and vegetables. Exposure to phytoestrogens can delay breast development and further lead to precocious puberty. The effect of phytoestrogens is mediated through estrogen receptors α and β or by binding with early immediate genes, such as jun and fos. Phthalates are multifunctional synthetic chemicals used in plastics, polyvinyl chloride products, cosmetics, hair spray, and children's toys. Phthalates have been shown to cause defeminization, thelarche, precocious puberty, and an increase in breast and pubic hair in pubertal girls. However, reports are also available that show no association of phthalates with precocious puberty in girls. Phthalates can act through a receptor-mediated signaling pathway or affect the production of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone that has a direct effect on estrogen formation. Phenols like bisphenol A are industrial chemicals used mainly in the manufacture of polycarbonates and plastic materials. Bisphenol A has been shown to cause precocious puberty and earlier menarche in pubertal girls. Reports suggest that the neurotoxic effect of bisphenol A can be mediated either by competing with estradiol for binding with estrogen receptors or via the ERK/NK-kappa or ERRγ pathway. This review demonstrates the effects of phytoestrogens, phthalates, and phenols on the development of girls during puberty.
Relationships between urinary biomarkers of phytoestrogens, phthalates, phenols, and pubertal stages in girls
Chakraborty TR,Alicea E,Chakraborty S
Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics , 2012,
Abstract: Tandra R Chakraborty1, Eilliut Alicea1, Sanjoy Chakraborty21Department of Biology, Adelphi University, One South Avenue, Garden City; 2Department of Biological Sciences, New York City College of Technology, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Phytoestrogens, phthalates, and phenols are estrogen-disrupting chemicals that have a pronounced effect at puberty. They are exogenous chemicals that are either plant-derived or man-made, and can alter the functions of the endocrine system and cause various health defects by interfering with the synthesis, metabolism, binding, or cellular responses of natural estrogens. Phytoestrogens, phthalates, and phenols are some of the potent estrogens detectable in urine. Phytoestrogens are plant-derived xenestrogens found in a wide variety of food products, like soy-based food, beverages, several fruits, and vegetables. Exposure to phytoestrogens can delay breast development and further lead to precocious puberty. The effect of phytoestrogens is mediated through estrogen receptors α and β or by binding with early immediate genes, such as jun and fos. Phthalates are multifunctional synthetic chemicals used in plastics, polyvinyl chloride products, cosmetics, hair spray, and children's toys. Phthalates have been shown to cause defeminization, thelarche, precocious puberty, and an increase in breast and pubic hair in pubertal girls. However, reports are also available that show no association of phthalates with precocious puberty in girls. Phthalates can act through a receptor-mediated signaling pathway or affect the production of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone that has a direct effect on estrogen formation. Phenols like bisphenol A are industrial chemicals used mainly in the manufacture of polycarbonates and plastic materials. Bisphenol A has been shown to cause precocious puberty and earlier menarche in pubertal girls. Reports suggest that the neurotoxic effect of bisphenol A can be mediated either by competing with estradiol for binding with estrogen receptors or via the ERK/NK-kappa or ERRγ pathway. This review demonstrates the effects of phytoestrogens, phthalates, and phenols on the development of girls during puberty.Keywords: phytoestrogens, phenols, phthalates, estrogen, puberty
Evaluation of dietary Intake and Food Patterns of Adolescent Girls in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran  [PDF]
Farzaneh Montazerifar,Mansour Karajibani,Ali Reza Dashipour
Functional Foods in Health and Disease , 2012,
Abstract: Background: The evidence suggests a relationship between lifestyle and diet-related risk factors.Objective: This study assessed the dietary intake and habits of high school girls in Sistan and Bluchistan province, in southeastern Iran.Methods: In a cross-sectional, descriptive study, 753 high school girls aged 14-18 years old wereenrolled by a clustered random sampling method. Dietary intake and food habits were evaluatedby a two-day, 24-hour dietary recall, and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).Results: The analysis of dietary intakes showed that energy, calcium, zinc, vitamin C and folate intake, compared to the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), were found to be lower. The, infrequent intake of milk and dairy products, fruits and vegetables, and a high consumption of empty calorie foods e.g. salty snacks, sweets, soft drinks and junk foods were seen among adolescents.Conclusions: The adolescent girls had an improper dietary intake and food habits. Thus, the implementation of nutrition education programs in schools and the designing of proper patternstowards healthier food choices could help improve eating behaviors, the health maintenance of adolescents, and also prevent diet- related diseases in adulthood.
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