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Effect of Grapefruit Juice on Aluminum-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats: Histological, Ultrastructural and Histochemical Assessment  [PDF]
Wael M. Al-Amoudi
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2017.812034
Abstract: The present work studied the effect of grapefruit juice (Citrus) on the hepatotoxicity of AlCl3. Four groups of adult male albino rats were used. Group I contained 10 rats and remained as a control group; Group II: 10 rats were included and orally administered with grapefruit juice at a dose level of 27 ml/kg of body weight per day for 6 weeks; Group III: 10 rats were included and AlCl3 was administered orally at a dose level of 100 mg/kg of body weight per day for 6 weeks; Group IV: animals of this group (10 rats) were given a combination of AlCl3 and grapefruit juice per day for 6 weeks. At the end of the sixth week, the liver was processed for histological and ultrastructure studies. In addition, ALT and AST were determined in blood sera. The results showed that AlCl3 induced several histological alterations in the liver, including congestion of blood vessels, leucocytic infiltration, cytoplasmic vacuolation of hepatocytes and fatty infiltrations. Ultrastructural changes include the degeneration of mitochondria, RER swelling and pyknosis of the nuclei with an increase in fat droplets and lysosomes. The biochemical results showed an increase in ALT and AST activities in the AlCl3 group. However, the group of rats treated with AlCl3 and grapefruit juice improved the histological and ultrastructural changes, while the levels of ALT and AST were reduced. It was concluded in the results that grapefruit juice has a protective effect against hepatotoxicity of AlCl3 that can be attributed to the antioxidant properties of its components.
Evaluation of Lead Hepatotoxicity; Histological, Histochemical and Ultrastructural Study  [PDF]
Ahmed M. S. Hegazy, Usama A. Fouad
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research (FMAR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fmar.2014.23013
Abstract: Lead is one of the most well-known naturally occurring environmental heavy metals. This experimental study was designed to evaluate lead induced toxic effects on hepatocytes and lobular architecture as judged microscopically. Material and Methods: This study was conducted in anatomy department, Benha faculty of medicine, Benha University, Egypt from May to October 2013 on 30 normal adult albino rats divided into 3 groups; one control and 2 experimental groups. The experimental groups were given 0.13% lead acetate solution in drinking water for 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. Animals were scarified and livers were removed and used to identify microscopic changes. Specimens were stained with Hematoxylin and eosin, with Masson trichrome stain for study of fibrous tissue and with periodic acid shiff's (PAS) to study the glycogen content. Other specimens were prepared for ultrastructural study. Results: Mild lymphocytic infiltration, vacuolar degeneration and mild increase of periportal fibrosis with mild depletion of glycogen content and partial disappearance of glycogen vacuoles were reported in animals received contaminated water for 4 weeks. Animals maintained for 8 weeks on contaminated water showed hepatic changes in the form of abundant lymphocytic infiltration, increased cellular polymorphism, pyknotic nuclei and areas of cell necrosis with evident moderate periportal fibrosis and marked vacuolar degeneration associated with marked depletion of glycogen content. Ultrastructural study revealed mitochondrial edema, appearance of interstitial inflammatory cells, and appearance of scattered variable sized lead electron-dense inclusion bodies. Conclusion: It could be concluded that chronic exposure to lead imposes a potent toxic effect on liver cells manifested as glycogen depletion, cellular infiltration and liver architecture in the form of initiation of periportal fibrosis that may progress to liver cirrhosis.
Histological and Histochemical Studies on the Effects of Methotrexate on the Liver of Adult Male Albino Rat
Al-Motabagani,Mohamed Akram;
International Journal of Morphology , 2006, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022006000400020
Abstract: methotrexate (mtx) is widely used in the therapy of various types of malignancy. the present work was designed to investigate the histological and histochemical changes in the liver of albino rat following methotrexate administration. fifteen adult male albino rats were used in the present work. they were divided into three main groups: group i was kept without treatment and served as control. groups ii and iii were given intraperitoneal injections of normal saline and mtx, respectively, at a dosage of (0.5 mg/kg) twice weekly for total durations of 3, 6 and 9 weeks. the rats were sacrificed and the livers were excised and processed for histological and histochemical study. examination of sections of the livers of group iii showed mononuclear cell infiltration and an increase in the amount of collagen fibers in the portal tracts. there were focal areas of liver cell necrosis with distortion of the normal hepatic architecture. moreover, there was a gradual and progressive decrease of glycogen content in the hepatocytes. furthermore, succinic dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activity were also decreased. in addition there was an increase in acid phosphatase activities in the degenerated areas and loss of activities in areas of massive cellular necrosis. it was concluded that repeated injections of mtx causes hepatic damage of a definite magnitude. this hepatotoxicity progressed with increasing cumulative doses of methotrexate. the present study provided further evidence to the cytotoxic potency of this antifolate
Biochemical, Histological And Histochemical Studies On The Effect Of Sodium Barbital On The Renal Tissue Of Albino Mice
Samia M. Sakr*, Shadia Ali Radwan*, Aziza M. El Wessemy
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine , 2008,
Abstract: Introduction:Anaesthetic drugs are nowadays used on a large scale in surgical operations as well as in other various medical purposes. Sodium barbital is a derivative of barbituric acid and is widely used on short surgical operations and other various medication. However, such anaesthetic drug has been reported to evoke many serious alterations as a result of its application. Materials and Methods:The experimental animals (30 mice-weighing 25-30 g) were divided into 3 groups (10/group), the first group served as a control group (i.e. injection with saline), while the other two groups were treated daily with the therapeutic dose of 60 mg/kg.b.wt sodium barbital (i.p.) for 7 days (short-term group) and 21 days (long-term group) as repeated daily doses. Blood sera and kidney samples were collected for physiological, histological and histochemical studies. Results:The results obtained showed a significant increase in urea, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and creatinine levels in all treated groups. On the other hand serum total protein and albumin levels showed a significant decrease in both treated groups, while the globulin showed a significant decrease only in the long term group. The applied dose of sodium barbital caused histophathological alterations in the renal tissue mainly in the cortex such as damage and shrinkage of the Malpighian corpuscles, cloudy swelling and necrosis of the cells of the proximal convoluted tubules. Also, distal convoluted tubules exhibited degenerated features. In the histochemical studies, polysaccharides were progressively reduced in both short and long-term groups, while the total proteins showed a reduction in the short term group and considerably increase in the long term group. Conclusion: So these results came to conclusion that barbiturates should be prohibited and carefully used specially when prescribed as tranquilizer
Electromagnetic Field Effect on Skeletal Muscles and Skin of Albino Rat Embryos Histological and Histochemical Studies  [PDF]
Nora Ahmed Obaid Alkaabi
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine , 2008,
Abstract: Aim of the work :The present study aimed to investigate the possible effect of the electromagnetic field (EMF) on the skeletal muscles and skin of fetuses maternally exposed to EMF. Material and Methods: Pregnant Swiss albino rats were exposed to EMF(50Hz&2mT) 8hours day after day 10 days before pregnancy and 20 days, day after day through pregnancy. Results: Exposure of pregnant rats to the electromagnetic field (EMF)of 50 Hz and 2millitesla(2mT), showed many dystrophic changes in the skeletal muscles and skin of their fetuses .Highly thickened and disturbed epidermal layer was noted with decreased number of hair follicles. Some hemorrhagic areas were noted in the dermis. Highly disturbed skeletal muscle fibers were noted with many deleterious changes in the nuclei of their cells. Altered protein content, polysaccharides and collagen bundles were observed in the muscle fibers and skin of fetuses taken from exposed pregnant rats to EMF. Conclusion: It is clear that EMF has a deleterious effect on skin and skeletal muscles of fetuses maternally exposed to EMF.
Histological and Histochemical Studies on the Effects of Methotrexate on the Liver of Adult Male Albino Rat Estudios Histológico e Histoquímico del Efecto del Metotrexato en el Hígado de Rata Macho Albina Adulta  [cached]
Mohamed Akram Al-Motabagani
International Journal of Morphology , 2006,
Abstract: Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used in the therapy of various types of malignancy. The present work was designed to investigate the histological and histochemical changes in the liver of albino rat following methotrexate administration. Fifteen adult male albino rats were used in the present work. They were divided into three main groups: Group I was kept without treatment and served as control. Groups II and III were given intraperitoneal injections of normal saline and MTX, respectively, at a dosage of (0.5 mg/Kg) twice weekly for total durations of 3, 6 and 9 weeks. The rats were sacrificed and the livers were excised and processed for histological and histochemical study. Examination of sections of the livers of group III showed mononuclear cell infiltration and an increase in the amount of collagen fibers in the portal tracts. There were focal areas of liver cell necrosis with distortion of the normal hepatic architecture. Moreover, there was a gradual and progressive decrease of glycogen content in the hepatocytes. Furthermore, succinic dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activity were also decreased. In addition there was an increase in acid phosphatase activities in the degenerated areas and loss of activities in areas of massive cellular necrosis. It was concluded that repeated injections of MTX causes hepatic damage of a definite magnitude. This hepatotoxicity progressed with increasing cumulative doses of methotrexate. The present study provided further evidence to the cytotoxic potency of this antifolate El metotrexato es ampliamente usado en la terapia de varias enfermedades malignas. El presente trabajo fue dise ado para investigar los cambios histológicos e histoquímicos del hígado de rata albina, después de administrar dicho fármaco. Se usaron 15 ratas albinas, machos, adultas, que fueron divididas en 3 grupos: El grupo I no tuvo tratamiento correspondiendo al control. A los grupos II y III se les administró, por vía intraperitoneal, una solución salina normal y metotrexato, respectivamente, con una dosificación de 0,5 mg por Kg de peso, dos veces por semana, con una duración total de 3, 6 y 9 semanas. Las ratas fueron sacrificadas y los hígados extraídos y procesados para los estudios histológico e histoquímico. El examen de los hígados del grupo III mostró infiltración celular mononuclear y un incremento en la cantidad de fibras colágenas en la vía portal. Hubo áreas focales de necrosis de células hepáticas con distorsión de la arquitectura hepática normal. Además, hubo un gradual y progresivo decrecimiento del contenido de glicógeno
Protective Effect of Gingo biloba Extract on Carbendazim-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats  [PDF]
Faiza A. Mahboub, Hawazen A. Lamfon
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.48113
Abstract: Carbendazim is a broad spectrum carbamate fungicide used in the control of various fungal pathogens. The present work studied the effect of carbendazim on the liver of albino rats and the possible protective role of Ginko biloba extract (EGB). Liver of carbendazim-treated animals showed histopathological and histochemical alterations. The histopathological changes include hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, and congestion of blood vessels, leucocytic infiltrations and fatty infiltration. Histochemical results showed reduction of carbohydrates and total proteins in hepatic tissues. Moreover, liver function enzymes (ALT, AST) were elevated in sera of carbendazim-treated animals. Coadministration of EGB with Carbendazim improved the hisological and histochemical changes observed in animals treated with carbendazim. In addition, EGB treatment leads to a significant decrease in ALT and AST. According to the present results, it is concluded that EGB can improve the hepatotoxicity of carbendazim and this effect may be attributed to antioxidant properties of Ginko biloba extract.
QUANTITATIVE AND HISTOCHEMICAL STUDY ON THE ADRENAL MEDULLA IN POST NATAL PERIOD OF ALBINO RAT  [PDF]
Wagieh k.Baiomy; Abdel-mawgood Anas; Mamdooh Ghaly; Ashraf M. Moustafa
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: Background: The present work was based on the evaluation of histological, histochemical, and quantitative study on the adrenal medulla of the white albino rat in the different post natal age period. Material and methods:Sixty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were classified to 4 main groups as follows: - Group one : One week old albino rats. - Group two: One month old albino rats. - Group three: Three months old albino rats. - Group four: Senile rats. Three main parameters were performed in this study, the first was the study of the morphological changes in the adrenal medulla in the different postnatal age groups. The second was concerned with the histochemical studies while the last parameter was the quantitative studies on the gland volume as well as its cellular count. These three parameters were performed by using different staining techniques. Results: The results showed that medullary cells in the early age groups were arranged in non-differentiated groups and become more differentiated in the older age groups. Both reticular and elastic fibers in the older age groups showed a definite increase especially at the region of corticomedullary zone. The different types of chromaffin cells were more observed at the old age groups. The concentration of ascorbic acid granules was more marked in the senile group. The quantitative changes were in the form of increased medullary volume especially in the old age. The number of chromaffin cells as well as the concentration of ascorbic acid contents was more noticed in the old age group. Conclusions: The differentiation of both divisions of the adrenal gland was not noticed in the early age groups. Cellular and fibrous differentiations were more seen in older age groups which may reflects an idea about the degree of gland maturation
Effect of honey on hepatotoxicity induced by antitubercular drugs in albino rats  [cached]
Rakhamaji D. Chandane,Jugalkishor B. Jaju,Manik S. Ghadlinge,Rama R. Bhosale
International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/2319-2003.ijbcp20130311
Abstract: Background: Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is a potentially serious adverse effect of antituberculosis treatment (ATT) regimens containing isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide. Many in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that honey possess antioxidant property and hepotoprotective property but there is no systematic work available to test the effect of honey on antitubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Hence present study was carried out to explore the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of honey with its antioxidant activity against hepatotoxicity induced by antitubercular drugs (Isoniazid, Rifampicin and Pyrazinamide) in albino rats. Methods: Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with antitubercular drugs (Isoniazid, Rifampicin and Pyrazinamide) was studied by assessing parameters such as Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Serum total protein, Serum Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Serum Superoxide dismutase activity (SOD). The effect of Honey as co-administration and administration after establishment of hepatotoxicity on above parameter was investigated. These biochemical observations were supplemented by Histopathological examination of liver. Results: Honey significantly reversed changes in serum levels of AST, ALT, MDA, SOD, total protein and also histopathological changes produced by Antitubercular drugs. It was found that honey significantly prevented as well as reversed Antitubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity and antioxidant activity. Conclusions: The results of present study show that honey has significant prophylactic and therapeutic value against antitubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(2.000): 177-181]
Histological and Histochemical Investigations of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae)  [PDF]
N.Parimala,S.Amerjothy
Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry , 2013,
Abstract: Myristica fragrans Houtt. of Myristicaceae yields the nut-mug and mace which are credited with high flavours and fragrance. They are used in all parts of the world for both as food flavours and for medicinal uses. The present study provides comprehensive microscopic details of the fruit and histochemical localization of the aroma compounds. The study fills the lacuma found in the account of previous investigations
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