oalib
Search Results: 1 - 10 of 100 matches for " "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item
Morphologic and biochemical changes in male rat lung after surgical and pharmacological castration
Ojeda, M.S.;Gómez, N.N.;Gil, E.;Scardapane, L.;Gimenez, M.S.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2000000300004
Abstract: the morphology of the rat lung was studied by light microscopy in different situations: after surgical and pharmacological castration and after administration of testosterone to the castrated rat to determine if the androgen is required to maintain the normal morphology of the lung. we also determined the effect of flutamide on the phospholipid composition of both the surfactant and microsomes of the lung. rats were separated into five groups: i - control non-castrated rats, ii - castrated rats sacrificed 21 days after castration, iii - castrated rats that received testosterone daily from day 2 to day 21 after castration, iv - castrated rats that received testosterone from day 15 to day 21 after castration, and v - control rats injected with flutamide for 7 days. the amount of different phospholipids in the surfactant and microsomes of the lung was measured in group i and v rats. at the light microscopy level, the surgical and pharmacological castration provoked alterations in the morphology of the lung, similar to that observed in human lung emphysema. the compositions of surfactant and microsomes of the lung were similar to those previously reported by us for the surgically castrated rats. these results indicate that androgens are necessary for the normal morphology as well as for some metabolic aspects of the lung.
Morphologic and biochemical changes in male rat lung after surgical and pharmacological castration  [cached]
Ojeda M.S.,Gómez N.N.,Gil E.,Scardapane L.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2000,
Abstract: The morphology of the rat lung was studied by light microscopy in different situations: after surgical and pharmacological castration and after administration of testosterone to the castrated rat to determine if the androgen is required to maintain the normal morphology of the lung. We also determined the effect of flutamide on the phospholipid composition of both the surfactant and microsomes of the lung. Rats were separated into five groups: I - control non-castrated rats, II - castrated rats sacrificed 21 days after castration, III - castrated rats that received testosterone daily from day 2 to day 21 after castration, IV - castrated rats that received testosterone from day 15 to day 21 after castration, and V - control rats injected with flutamide for 7 days. The amount of different phospholipids in the surfactant and microsomes of the lung was measured in group I and V rats. At the light microscopy level, the surgical and pharmacological castration provoked alterations in the morphology of the lung, similar to that observed in human lung emphysema. The compositions of surfactant and microsomes of the lung were similar to those previously reported by us for the surgically castrated rats. These results indicate that androgens are necessary for the normal morphology as well as for some metabolic aspects of the lung.
Pharmacological Findings on the Biochemical Bases of Memory Processes: A General View  [PDF]
Iván Izquierdo,Martín Cammarota,Jorge H. Medina,Lia R. M. Bevilaqua
Neural Plasticity , 2004, DOI: 10.1155/np.2004.159
Abstract: We have advanced considerably in the past 2 to 3 years in understanding the molecular mechanisms of consolidation, retrieval, and extinction of memories, particularly of fear memory. This advance was mainly due to pharmacological studies in many laboratories using localized brain injections of molecularly specific substances. One area in which significant advances have been made is in understanding that many different brain structures are involved in different memories, and that often several brain regions are involved in processing the same memory. These regions can cooperate or compete with each other, depending on circumstances that are beginning to be identified quite clearly. Another aspect in which major advances were made was retrieval and post-retrieval events, especially extinction, pointing to new therapeutic approaches to fearmotivated mental disorders.
Assessment of pharmacological strategies for management of major depressive disorder and their costs after an inadequate response to first-line antidepressant treatment in primary care
Sicras-Mainar Antoni,Maurino Jorge,Cordero Luis,Blanca-Tamayo Milagrosa
Annals of General Psychiatry , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1744-859x-11-22
Abstract: Background The aim of the study was to determine the most common treatment strategies and their costs for patients with an inadequate response to first-line antidepressant treatment (AD) in primary care. Method A retrospective cohort study of medical records from six primary care centers was conducted. Adults with a major depressive disorder diagnosis, at least 8 weeks of AD treatment after the first prescription, and patient monitoring for 12 months were analyzed. Healthcare (direct cost) and non-healthcare costs (indirect costs; work productivity losses) were described. Results A total of 2,260 patients were studied. Forty-three percent of patients (N = 965) presented an inadequate response to treatment. Summarizing the different treatment approaches: 43.2% were switched to another AD, 15.5% were given an additional AD, AD dose was increased in 14.6%, and 26.7% remained with the same antidepressant agent. Healthcare/annual costs were 451.2 Euros for patients in remission vs. 826.1 Euros in those with inadequate response, and productivity losses were 991.4 versus 1,842.0 Euros, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusion Antidepressant switch was the most common therapeutic approach performed by general practitioners in naturalistic practice. A delay in treatment change when no remission occurs and a significant heterogeneity in management of these patients were also found.
Errata: The X-Ray Emission Measure (EM) of the Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) in the Rho Ophiuchi (Rho Oph) and Monoceros R2 Dark Clouds (Mon R2)  [PDF]
Kensuke Imanishi,Makoto Kohno,Katsuji Koyama
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: Errors were made in the calculations of EMs using the best fit normalizations in XSPEC. Lists of the errors and corrections are as follows. (1)Tables 1, 3, and 4 in ApJ, 557, 747 and astro-ph/0104190 (YSOs in Rho Oph): All the EMs in these tables should be multiplied by pi; the log(EM) in the first raw in Table 1, for example, is 52.6(52.2--53.2), not 52.1(51.7--52.7). (2)Figures 7 and 9 in ApJ, 557, 747 and astro-ph/0104190 (YSOs in Rho Oph): The EM plots should be systematically up-shifted by the factor of pi. (3)Table 3 in ApJ, 563, 361 and astro-ph/0108078 (young brown dwarfs in Rho Oph): All the EMs in this table should be multiplied by pi; the log(EM) in the first raw, for example, is 52.1(52.0--52.6), not 51.6(51.5--52.1). (4)Table 1 in ApJ, 567, 423 and astro-ph/0110462 (YSOs in Mon R2): All the EMs in this table should be divided by 10; the log(EM) in the first raw, for example, is 52.5(52.1--52.9), not 53.5(53.1--53.9). All the spectral parameters except EM are unchanged. These errors of EM do not affect any of the conclusions of the relevant papers. In addition, Gregorio-Hetem, J., Montmerle, T., Casanova, S., and Feigelson, E. D.1998, A&A, 331, 193 should be included in the reference list of ApJ, 567, 423 (astro-ph/0110462).
Biochemical and Pharmacological Characterization of TLBbar, a New Serine Protease with Coagulant Activity from Bothrops barnetti Snake Venom  [PDF]
Magaly Alejandra Brousett-Minaya,Paulo Aparecido Baldasso,Salomón Huancahuire-Vega,Sérgio Marangoni
Journal of Toxins , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/207170
Abstract: A thrombin-like enzyme named TLBbar was isolated from Bothrops barnetti snake venom and its biochemical and pharmacological characteristics were determined. TLBbar was purified using size exclusion chromatography and reverse phase HPLC, showing molecular mass of 28750.7?Da determined by mass spectrometry. TLBbar serine protease is basic (pI 7.4) and its structure shows similarity with other serine proteases of snake venom. Optimal proteolytic activity was at 37°C and pH 8; this activity was strongly inhibited by PMSF and Leupeptin, however; heparin, and soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBT-I) were ineffective. Kinetic studies on BApNA chromogenic substrate have revealed that TLBbar presents a Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with values of and of 0.433?mM and 0.42?nmol/min, respectively. TLBbar showed high clotting activity upon bovine and human plasma, presenting IC of 125 and minimum dose coagulant (MDC) of 2.23?μg/μL. TLBbar cleavages the Aα chain of bovine fibrinogen, with maximal efficiency at 30–40°C in the presence of calcium after two hours incubation; this fibronogenolityc activity was inhibited by PMSF and Leupeptin, confirming its classification in the group of serine proteases. In addition, TLBbar is capable of aggregating platelets in the same way that thrombin in concentrations of 2.5?μg/μL. 1. Introduction The snake venom contains a variety of proteins that are studied in the world for biological and pharmacological importance; within their complex composition has proteolytic enzymes which belong to two groups: serine proteases and metalloproteases. Both groups affect the hemostatic system through several mechanisms [1, 2]. Over 20 serine proteases families (named S1 to S66) have been identified so far and they are grouped according to their functional and structural similarity. Snake venom serine proteases belong to trypsin S1 family clan SA. To date, a large number of studies, including molecular cloning, have led to the isolation and identification of TLEs mainly from the venom of subfamily Viperinaeand Crotalinae [3–9]. These enzymes have a common catalytic mechanism, which includes high reactivity of the serine residue that has an important role in the formation of the transient acyl-enzyme complex, which is stabilized by the presence of histidine residues and aspartic acid within the active site. The amino acids involved in this mechanism correspond to the catalytic triad (Ser 195, His 57, and Asp 102) that is highly conserved [10]. Serine proteases from snake venom (SVSPs) generally have 12 cysteine residues, 10 of which form five disulfide
Modulation of the Pharmacological and Biochemical Actions of Leiurusquinquestriatus (L.q) Scorpion Venom by Exposure to Gamma Radiation  [PDF]
Heba A. Mohamed*, Esmat A. Shaaban* , Aber M Amin** and Sanaa A. Kenawy
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation (1.5 KGy & 3 KGy) on L.q scorpion venom. This was carried out by studying the toxicological, biochemical & immunological properties of the venom before and after exposure to gamma radiation. Material and methods Animals, venom, antivenin, gamma radiation, 125I. Results Data revealed that the toxicity of irradiated venom (1.5 KGy & 3 KGy) decreased as compared to that of the native one. LD50 of irradiated venom were 3.5 mg/kg & 7.5 mg/kg respectively while, that of the native venom was (0.39 mg/kg). Moreover, the distribution of 125I-labeled L.q venom was studied in male Swiss mice tissue using chloramine-T method by being injected intravenously. At various time intervals, urine and blood were collected and the animals were sacrificed. Brain, lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, intestine, bone and muscle were isolated in order to determine the radioactivity content. The highest contents of 125I-labeled L.q venom were found in the liver and kidney that were quickly excreted into the urinary tract. Trial to label irradiated (1.5 & 3 KGy) L.q venom was unsuccessful due to its decomposition. For that reason the utilization of the labeled irradiated L.q venom is of no meaning. In immunodiffusion technique, both irradiated and native venoms exhibited prominent precipitin bands indicating high concentration of specific antibodies against polyvalent antivenin with venom. Furthermore, the effect of half the LD50 of native or irradiated (1.5 KGy) L.q venom was studied on the activities of certain enzymes: ASAT, ALAT, LDH, CPK, CPK-MB, and the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and the oxidative stress biomarkers (plasma MDA & blood GSH). Biochemical measurements showed that scorpion venom envenomation caused significant (p < 0.05) elevation in serum ASAT, ALAT, LDH, CPK as well as CPK-MB activities, blood GSH level while, caused significant (p < 0.05) reduction in triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol. In contrast, the 1.5 KGy gamma irradiated L.q venom showed no alterations except in HDL-cholesterol that significantly decreased compared to that of the non-envenomated normal rats. Conclusion These results indicated that 1.5 KGy gamma irradiation of venom offer an effective method for reducing the toxic effect of venom.
Inadequate housing in Ghana  [PDF]
Franklin Obeng-Odoom,Laurence Amedzro
Urbani Izziv , 2011,
Abstract: Two themes are evident in housing research in Ghana. One involves the study of how to increase the number of dwellings to correct the overall housing deficit, and the other focuses on how to improve housing for slum dwellers. Between these two extremes, there is relatively little research on why the existing buildings are poorly maintained. This paper is based on a review of existing studies on inadequate housing. It synthesises the evidence on the possible reasons for this neglect, makes a case for better maintenance and analyses possible ways of reversing the problem of inadequate housing.
Changes in functional properties as a measure of biochemical deterioration of stored soybean daddawa condiment
Tope Olukayode Popoola,Adelodun Kolapo,Oluwatoyin Afolabi
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum : Technologia Alimentaria , 2007,
Abstract: Soybean daddawa is a popular condiment made by fermenting dehulled seeds of soybean (Glycine max); it is commonly used in soups in the soybean growing areas of Nigeria. Soybean daddawa prepared using three different processing methods (traditionally fermented seeds, seeds fermented with salt (NaCl) and seeds fermented with starter cultures) was evaluated for biochemical changes in ambient storage conditions. The fermented product was assessed for pH, titratable acid, peroxide, free fatty acids, antioxidant capacities as well as water and fat absorption capacities as indices of deterioration. pH of stored samples increased in the alkaline range, titratable acidity of samples also increased with storage. Peroxide values of samples increased significantly from 3.87 meq/kg on first day of storage to 30.73 meq/kg in two weeks on naturally fermented soy daddawa samples. Values obtained for FFA also increased with storage period, while, antioxidant capacity, water and fat absorption capacities decreased drastically with storage. Although, the values obtained for the parameters monitored differed with the methods of processing, the differences were not significant (p > 0.05) however; values obtained at the start of the experiment and after 14 days of storage differed significantly. Most of the biochemical changes in monitored functional properties of the samples became noticeable on the 4th and 6th day of storage. The results are discussed with reference to food safety and shelf--life of the product.
Analysis of inadequate cervical smears using Shewhart control charts
Wayne N Harrison, Mohammed A Mohammed, Michael K Wall, Tom P Marshall
BMC Public Health , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-4-25
Abstract: Cervical cytology data, from six laboratories, serving 100 general practices in a former UK Health Authority area were obtained for the years 2000 and 2001. Control charts of the proportion of inadequate smears were plotted for all general practices, for the six laboratories and for the practices stratified by laboratory. The relationship between proportion of inadequate smears and the proportion of negative, borderline, mild, moderate or severe dyskaryosis as well as the positive predictive value of a smear in each laboratory was also investigated.There was wide variation in the proportion of inadequate smears with 23% of practices showing evidence of special cause variation and four of the six laboratories showing evidence of special cause variation.There was no evidence of a clinically important association between high rates of inadequate smears and better detection of dyskaryosis (R2 = 0.082).The proportion of inadequate smears is influenced by two distinct sources of variation – general practices and cytology laboratories, which are classified by the control chart methodology as either being consistent with common or special cause variation. This guidance from the control chart methodology appears to be useful in delivering the aim of continual improvement.Each year some 3.6 million women in England have a cervical smear taken following an invitation from the national screening programme[1]. The proportion of these that do not contain material suitable for analysis and, are therefore deemed inadequate[1], has risen from around 6% in the early 1990s to 9.7% in 2000–1[1]. Women who have an inadequate smear must be retested, in line with national guidelines, and women who have three successive inadequate smears are referred for colposcopy[2]. Inadequate smears are therefore a source of distress to women, and a waste of resources in general practices, clinics and cytology laboratories[1].There is wide variation in the proportion of inadequate smears between provid
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.