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Indices of trends of climatic changes for the states of the Bahia and Sergipe by means of daily precipitacion indices and its relation with SST'S of the Pacific and Atlantic
Araújo, Winícius dos Santos;Brito, José Ivaldo Barbosa de;
Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-77862011000400004
Abstract: the objective of this study was to investigate statistically the precipitation variability in annual scale from the states of the bahia and sergipe using daily precipitation data. from that, indexes of detection of climate changes were calculated to evaluate the relationship of the most significant indexes with the sea surface temperature (sst) anomalies of the pacific and atlantic oceans. the daily precipitation data used were for a period of 45 years of 75 meteorological stations supplied by the old net of the sudene available in the dsa and data of the of the sst anomalies obtained from noaa. influence of sst of the pacific and atlantic oceans on the precipitation of the studied area is evidenced. a decrease of cwd was verified; increase was observed in the number days with rain; therefore, the amount of annual total precipitation increased. several stations presented positive or negative tendencies in all examined indexes, consequently, they are also related to regional aspects. therefore, it is not possible to affirm that the climate alterations noted in the study area are due to the global climate changes.
Climatic effects of 1950–2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols – Part 1: Aerosol trends and radiative forcing
E. M. Leibensperger, L. J. Mickley, D. J. Jacob, W.-T. Chen, J. H. Seinfeld, A. Nenes, P. J. Adams, D. G. Streets, N. Kumar,D. Rind
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2012,
Abstract: We calculate decadal aerosol direct and indirect (warm cloud) radiative forcings from US anthropogenic sources over the 1950–2050 period. Past and future aerosol distributions are constructed using GEOS-Chem and historical emission inventories and future projections from the IPCC A1B scenario. Aerosol simulations are evaluated with observed spatial distributions and 1980–2010 trends of aerosol concentrations and wet deposition in the contiguous US. Direct and indirect radiative forcing is calculated using the GISS general circulation model and monthly mean aerosol distributions from GEOS-Chem. The radiative forcing from US anthropogenic aerosols is strongly localized over the eastern US. We find that its magnitude peaked in 1970–1990, with values over the eastern US (east of 100° W) of 2.0 W m 2 for direct forcing including contributions from sulfate ( 2.0 W m 2), nitrate ( 0.2 W m 2), organic carbon ( 0.2 W m 2), and black carbon (+0.4 W m 2). The uncertainties in radiative forcing due to aerosol radiative properties are estimated to be about 50%. The aerosol indirect effect is estimated to be of comparable magnitude to the direct forcing. We find that the magnitude of the forcing declined sharply from 1990 to 2010 (by 0.8 W m 2 direct and 1.0 W m 2 indirect), mainly reflecting decreases in SO2 emissions, and project that it will continue declining post-2010 but at a much slower rate since US SO2 emissions have already declined by almost 60% from their peak. This suggests that much of the warming effect of reducing US anthropogenic aerosol sources has already been realized. The small positive radiative forcing from US BC emissions (+0.3 W m 2 over the eastern US in 2010; 5% of the global forcing from anthropogenic BC emissions worldwide) suggests that a US emission control strategy focused on BC would have only limited climate benefit.
Effects of climatic changes and urban air pollution on the rising trends of respiratory allergy and asthma
Gennaro D'Amato
Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/2049-6958-6-1-28
Abstract: There is also evidence that asthmatic subjects are at increased risk of developing exacerbations of bronchial obstruction with exposure to gaseous (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide) and particulate inhalable components of air pollution.A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increasing frequency in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, environmental factors such as climate change and indoor and outdoor air pollution may contribute to explain the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma. Since concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory diseases and bronchial asthma.Scientific societies such as the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, European Respiratory Society and the World Allergy Organization have set up committees and task forces to produce documents to focalize attention on this topic, calling for prevention measures.Evidence suggests that allergic respiratory diseases such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma have become more common worldwide over the past three decades [1-4]; in parallel, in the past few years, much etiological and pathogenic research has been carried out in an attempt to determine the causes of this rising frequency and significant improvements have been made in our knowledge concerning the effects of air pollution on human health. Several studies have shown the adverse effects of ambient air pollution on respiratory health [5-9] and scientific societies such as the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, European Respiratory Society and World Allergy Organization have organized committees and task forces to produce documents on this issue [10-12].About climate change it is now widely accepted that the e
Rural development of the southwest region in Bahia State: an analysis based on indexes  [cached]
Andréa da Silva Gomes,M?nica de Moura Pires,Valdilene Moreira Almeida,Patrícia Lopes Rosado
Informe GEPEC , 2010,
Abstract: The rural development of southeastern Bahia is marked by fortress differences. In this sense, we started with the current situation in order to understand the factors that contribute to the changes in rural areas by taking the region as a benchmark for analysis. It was adopted as method the index of Rural Development (IDR), composed of four indexes. It was found that the municipalities with the worst rates of regional development are largely rural population, lower population densities and agricultural production with low added value. The towns near the cities with the highest overall population showed the best results. The Identity Territory Itapetinga, Bahia, Brazil, provides the highest rates. The index of social welfare has proved to be the variable key with the greatest force in determining the development of rural regions analyzed.
Time Trends in Pediatric Hospitalizations for Varicella Infection Are Associated with Climatic Changes: A 22-Year Retrospective Study in a Tertiary Greek Referral Center  [PDF]
Elena Critselis, Panagiotis T. Nastos, Kalliopi Theodoridou, Maria Theodoridou, Maria N. Tsolia, Christos Hadjichristodoulou, Vassiliki Papaevangelou
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052016
Abstract: Background/Aims The transmission rate of air-borne infectious diseases may vary secondary to climate conditions. The study assessed time trends in the seasonality of hospitalized varicella cases in a temperate region in relation to climatic parameters prior to the implementation of universal varicella immunization. Methods A retrospective descriptive study was conducted among all pediatric and adolescent varicella patients (n = 2366) hospitalized at the “Aghia Sophia” Children's Hospital during 1982–2003 in Athens, Greece. Date of infection was computed based on hospital admission date. Seasonal and monthly trends in the epidemiology of varicella infection were assessed with time series analysis (ARIMA modeling procedure). The correlation between the frequency of varicella patients and the meteorological parameters was examined by the application of Generalized Linear Models with Gamma distribution. Results During 1982–2003, the occurrence of hospitalized varicella cases increased during summer (p = 0.025) and decreased during autumn (p = 0.021), and particularly in September (p = 0.003). The frequency of hospitalized varicella cases was inversely associated with air temperature (p<0.001). In contrast, the occurrence of hospitalized varicella cases was positively associated with wind speed (p = 0.009). Conclusions Pediatric hospitalizations for varicella infection rates have increased during summer and decreased during autumn in the examined temperate region. Time trends in hospitalized varicella cases are associated with climatic variables.
Preliminary analysis of detection of trends in pattern of temperatures Recife-PE: variability or climate change?
Wer?nica Meira de Souza,Pedro Vieira de Azevedo
Engenharia Ambiental : Pesquisa e Tecnologia , 2009,
Abstract: The IPCC projections show changes in pattern of temperatures and rainfall and greater frequency of extreme events. Despite these disclosures, some skeptical scientists believe that the planet temperature is undergoing cyclical and natural changes, sometimes going heating some others going cooling. According to these concerns, there are many doubts and uncertainties related to climate change and its consequences, and that all events related to the actual weather and climate changes should not always be related to global warming. The objective of this work was to detect trends in pattern of maximum and minimum air temperatures for the period from 1961 to 2008, at Recife-PE, Brazil, through the RClimdex (2.9.0) software, with the purpose of giving support to studies of uncertainties surrounding the management of the climate change. The results showed an increase in maximum and minimum air temperature with the development of heat waves in the study region. Based in these results it is possible to conclude that the study area is becoming warmer with tendency more to climatic change than climatic variability. However, it is not possible to say that these observed climatic indexes tendencies are only related to global climatic changes, once the contribution of several local factors may have modified the regional climate. For instance, the substitution of vegetated areas by asphalt, industries, among others surface covering elements may contributed to the formation of heat waves and altered the local climate.
CLIMATIC CHANGES IN THE BLACK SEA REGION AND ELABORATION OF STRATEGY FOR ITS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Климатические изменения в Черноморском регионе и разработка стратегии его устойчивого развития
Rybak O. O.,Rybak E. A.
Polythematic Online Scientific Journal of Kuban State Agrarian University , 2013,
Abstract: In this article, we consider some aspects of regional development under changing climatic conditions. Further, we discuss trends and in global and regional climate in the past century and scenarios of climatic changes up to the end of the current century. The system of measures is suggested for transition to sustainable development of Russian Black Sea Coast. The conclusion is made that elaboration and correction of the regional sustainable development strategy requires wide spreading of information about climatic changes, environmental, economical and demographic conditions in the region
Climatic trends over the Tibetan Plateau during 1971-2000

WU Shaohong,YIN Yunhe,ZHENG Du,YANG Qinye,

地理学报 , 2007,
Abstract: Trends of annual and monthly temperature, precipitation, potential evapotranspi-ration and aridity index were analyzed to understand climate change during the period 1971–2000 over the Tibetan Plateau which is one of the most special regions sensitive to global climate change. FAO56–Penmen–Monteith model was modified to calculate potential evapotranspiration which integrated many climatic elements including maximum and mini-mum temperatures, solar radiation, relative humidity and wind speed. Results indicate gen-erally warming trends of the annual averaged and monthly temperatures, increasing trends of precipitation except in April and September, decreasing trends of annual and monthly poten-tial evapotranspiration, and increasing aridity index except in September. It is not the isolated climatic elements that are important to moisture conditions, but their integrated and simulta-neous effect. Moreover, potential evapotranspiration often changes the effect of precipitation on moisture conditions. The climate trends suggest an important warm and humid tendency averaged over the southern plateau in annual period and in August. Moisture conditions would probably get drier at large area in the headwater region of the three rivers in annual average and months from April to November, and the northeast of the plateau from July to September. Complicated climatic trends over the Tibetan Plateau reveal that climatic factors have nonlinear relationships, and resulte in much uncertainty together with the scarcity of observation data. The results would enhance our understanding of the potential impact of climate change on environment in the Tibetan Plateau. Further research of the sensitivity and attribution of climate change to moisture conditions on the plateau is necessary.
Prenatal care quality indexes of public health services in Salvador, Bahia
Nascimento, Enilda Rosendo do;Rodrigues, Quessia Paz;Almeida, Mariza Silva;
Acta Paulista de Enfermagem , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-21002007000300011
Abstract: objective: to analyze prenatal care quality indexes of public health services in salvador, bahia following the implementation of the prenatal and birth humanization program (pbhb). methods: this quantitative descriptive study was conducted in primary care units in salvador that adopted the prenatal and birth humanization program. results: few pregnant women registered in the prenatal and birth humanization program had the benchmark of six prenatal consultations (9.76%). more than half of these registered pregnant women received all basic exams. however, only few women received puerperal consultations (5.66%), which conclude their maternal care. conclusion: prenatal care in salvador, carried out through the prenatal and birth humanization program in 2002, had a low performance in basic exams, and in prenatal and puerperal consultations.
Climatological Hydric Balance and the Trends Analysis Climatic in the Region of Machado in Minas Gerais State, Brazil  [PDF]
Gustavo Souza Rodrigues, Fernando Ferrari Putti, Ant?nio Carlos da Silva, Alisson Souza de Oliveira, Luís Roberto Almeida Gabriel Filho
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2018.74034
Abstract: Lately the planet’s climate has been constantly changing, caused mainly by global warming which has exposed a great deal of concern to the population over the years. In order to understand the possible impacts that such changes may have on the environment and society in general, the importance of the analysis of climate and hydrological events trends and their performance in a region is justified. The objective of the present work was to perform the climatic classification and to evaluate the behavior of the Climatological Hydric Balance—CHB, from the region of Machado state of Minas Gerais—MG, taking into account a historical series of 55 years of climatic season data of the National Institute of Meteorology—INMET; to verify the occurrence of climatic changes by the temporal trends of precipitation and the average temperature, using the Mann-Kendall and Pettitt method; and the influence of these possible climate changes on CHB behavior and on the region’s climate classification. Based on the results found it verified the increase in the water deficit between the months of June to September and a reduction in the water surplus from November to February. By means of the trend analysis, there was a positive trend of increase in the average temperature of 1.6°C until the year 2100. The continuity and occurrence of these trends may have impacts on the economy, agriculture, the hydrological cycle, and consequently on the fauna, the flora and the population.
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