Abstract:
Inspired by the work of Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa (AGT), we saw the revival of Poincar{\'{e}}'s uniformization problem and Fuchsian equations obtained thereof. Three distinguished aspects are possessed by Fuchsian equations. First, they are available via imposing a classical Liouville limit on level-two null-vector conditions. Second, they fall into some A_1-type integrable systems. Third, the stress-tensor present there (in terms of the Q-form) manifests itself as a kind of one-dimensional "curve". Thereby, a contact with the recently proposed Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit was soon made on the one hand, whilst the seemingly mysterious derivation of Seiberg-Witten prepotentials from integrable models become resolved on the other hand. Moreover, AGT conjecture can just be regarded as a quantum version of the previous Poincar{\'{e}}'s approach. Equipped with these observations, we examined relations between spheric and toric (classical) conformal blocks via Calogero-Moser/Heun duality. Besides, as Sutherland model is also obtainable from Calogero-Moser by pinching tori at one point, we tried to understand its eigenstates from the viewpoint of toric diagrams with possibly many surface operators (toric branes) inserted. A picture called "bubbling pants" then emerged and reproduced well-known results of the non-critical self-dual c=1 string theory under a "blown-down" limit.

Abstract:
The Hamiltonian of the trigonometric Calogero-Sutherland model coincides with some limit of the Hamiltonian of the elliptic Calogero-Moser model. In other words the elliptic Hamiltonian is a perturbed operator of the trigonometric one. In this article we show the essential self-adjointness of the Hamiltonian of the elliptic Calogero-Moser model and the regularity (convergence) of the perturbation for the arbitrary root system. We also show the holomorphy of the joint eigenfunctions of the commuting Hamiltonians w.r.t the variables (x_1, >..., x_N) for the A_{N-1}-case. As a result, the algebraic calculation of the perturbation is justified.

Abstract:
We propose and develop the Bethe Ansatz method for the Heun equation. As an application, holomorphy of the perturbation for the BC_1 Inozemtsev model from the trigonometric model is proved.

Abstract:
We develop a theory for the Hermite-Krichever Ansatz on the Heun equation. As a byproduct, we find formulae which reduce hyperelliptic integrals to elliptic ones.

Abstract:
We obtain isomonodromic transformations for Heun's equation by generalizing Darboux transformation, and we find pairs and triplets of Heun's equation which have the same monodromy structure. By composing generalized Darboux transformations, we establish a new construction of the commuting operator which ensures finite-gap property. As an application, we prove conjectures in part III.

Abstract:
A new approach to the finite-gap property for the Heun equation is constructed. The relationship between the finite-dimensional invariant space and the spectral curve is clarified. The monodromies are calculated and are expressed as hyperelliptic integrals. Applications to the spectral problem for the $BC_1$ Inozemtsev model are obtained.

Abstract:
The possibility of deformation of two body quantum Calogero-Moser-Sutherland models is studied. Obtained are some necessary conditions for the singular locus of the potential function. Such locus is determined if it consists of two, three or four lines. Furthermore, a new deformation of elliptic $B_{2}$ type Calogero-Moser-Sutherland model is explicitly constructed.

Abstract:
A novel realization is provided for the scattering states of the $N$-particle Calogero-Moser Hamiltonian. They are explicitly shown to be the coherent states of the singular oscillators of the Calogero-Sutherland model. Our algebraic treatment is straightforwardly extendable to a large number of few and many-body interacting systems in one and higher dimensions.

Abstract:
We give the construction of quantum Lax equations for IRF models and difference versions of Calogero-Moser-Sutherland models introduced by Ruijsenaars. We solve the equations using factorization properties of the underlying face Hopf algebras/elliptic quantum groups. This construction is in the spirit of the Adler-Kostant-Symes method and generalizes our previous work to the case of face Hopf algebras/elliptic quantum groups with dynamical R-matrices.

Abstract:
We prove bispectral duality for the generalized Calogero-Moser-Sutherland systems related to configurations $A_{n,2}(m), C_n(l,m)$. The trigonometric axiomatics of Baker-Akhiezer function is modified, the dual difference operators of rational Macdonald type and the Baker-Akhiezer functions related to both series are explicitly constructed.