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Monitoring expenditure and utilisation of medicines in the European Union. A public health approach
Pietro Folino-Gallo,Group EUROMEDSTAT
Italian Journal of Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.2427/5945
Abstract: Background Thousands of medicinal products are licensed in the European Union Member States.This large quantity of medicines has an important impact on individual and public health but the information available on the licensed medicines, their clinical properties, prices, utilisation and expenditure is difficult to retrieve. Thus there is a need for monitoring the price, expenditure and utilisation of medicines and their impact on the population’s health. For these reasons the European Commission funded a project to define a set of indicators and to build a European database of medicines. Methods A collaboration of academics and government agencies was formed to undertake the project which aims to fill the information gap on medicines in Europe by identifying the available data sources, defining a set of EU pharmaceutical indicators, and building a European database of medicines available on the internet. Results The project has formed a Library of European Union Pharmaceutical Indicators. This includes recommendations for national registers (to produce valid and comparable data), and a set of indicators (price, expenditure, utilisation) for monitoring pharmaceutical policies. Moreover, the project has built a (beta version) database of licensed medicines in Europe, which can be freely accessed on the internet.The database provides, in a simple manner, useful information difficult to retrieve by other sources. Conclusions The EURO-MED-STAT project has defined a set of indicators to monitor the utilisation and expenditure of medicines from a public health perspective. It has also proven that a European database of medicines is feasible and can provide useful information to stakeholders.
Reviewers’ Ratings and Bibliometric Indicators: Hand in Hand When Assessing Over Research Proposals?  [PDF]
álvaro Cabezas-Clavijo, Nicolás Robinson-García, Manuel Escabias, Evaristo Jiménez-Contreras
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068258
Abstract: Background The peer review system has been traditionally challenged due to its many limitations especially for allocating funding. Bibliometric indicators may well present themselves as a complement. Objective We analyze the relationship between peers’ ratings and bibliometric indicators for Spanish researchers in the 2007 National R&D Plan for 23 research fields. Methods and Materials We analyze peers’ ratings for 2333 applications. We also gathered principal investigators’ research output and impact and studied the differences between accepted and rejected applications. We used the Web of Science database and focused on the 2002-2006 period. First, we analyzed the distribution of granted and rejected proposals considering a given set of bibliometric indicators to test if there are significant differences. Then, we applied a multiple logistic regression analysis to determine if bibliometric indicators can explain by themselves the concession of grant proposals. Results 63.4% of the applications were funded. Bibliometric indicators for accepted proposals showed a better previous performance than for those rejected; however the correlation between peer review and bibliometric indicators is very heterogeneous among most areas. The logistic regression analysis showed that the main bibliometric indicators that explain the granting of research proposals in most cases are the output (number of published articles) and the number of papers published in journals that belong to the first quartile ranking of the Journal Citations Report. Discussion Bibliometric indicators predict the concession of grant proposals at least as well as peer ratings. Social Sciences and Education are the only areas where no relation was found, although this may be due to the limitations of the Web of Science’s coverage. These findings encourage the use of bibliometric indicators as a complement to peer review in most of the analyzed areas.
Stock Price Prediction using Neural Network with Hybridized Market Indicators
Adebiyi Ayodele A.,Ayo Charles K,Adebiyi Marion O,Otokiti Sunday O
Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Stock prediction with data mining techniques is one of the most important issues in finance being investigated by researchers across the globe. Data mining techniques can be used extensively in the financial markets to help investors make qualitative decision. One of the techniques is artificial neural network (ANN). However, in the application of ANN for predicting the financial market the use of technical analysis variables for stock prediction is predominant. In this paper, we present a hybridized approach which combines the use of the variables of technical and fundamental analysis of stock market indicators for prediction of future price of stock in order to improve on the existing approaches. The hybridized approach was tested with published stock data and the results obtained showed remarkable improvement over the use of only technical analysis variables. Also, the prediction from hybridized approach was found satisfactorily adequate as a guide for traders and investors in making qualitative decisions
Evaluating the Employment of Technical Indicators in Predicting Stock Price Index Variations Using Artificial Neural Networks (Case Study: Tehran Stock Exchange)  [cached]
Mahmood Moein Aldin,Hasan Dehghan Dehnavi,Somayye Entezari
International Journal of Business and Management , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v7n15p25
Abstract: Stock price index is the initial significant factor influencing on investors' financial decision making. That's why predicting the exact movements of stock price index is considerably regarded. This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of using technical indicators, such as Moving Average, RSI, CCI, MACD, etc in predicting movements of Tehran Exchange Price Index (TEPIX). An artificial neural network is employed for stock price index forecasting. The existing data are achieved from Tehran Stock Exchange. To capture the relationship between the technical indicators and the levels of the index in the market for the period under investigation, a back propagation neural network is used. The statistical and financial performance of this technique is evaluated and empirical results revealed that artificial neural networks are dominant tools for financial market predicting.
Chinese Stock Price and Volatility Predictions with Multiple Technical Indicators  [PDF]
Qin Qin, Qing-Guo Wang, Shuzhi Sam Ge, Ganesh Ramakrishnan
Journal of Intelligent Learning Systems and Applications (JILSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jilsa.2011.34024
Abstract: While a large number of studies have been reported in the literature with reference to the use of Regression model and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models in predicting stock prices in western countries, the Chinese stock market is much less studied. Note that the latter is growing rapidly, will overtake USA one in 20 - 30 years time and thus be-comes a very important place for investors worldwide. In this paper, an attempt is made at predicting the Shanghai Composite Index returns and price volatility, on a daily and weekly basis. In the paper, two different types of prediction models, namely the Regression and Neural Network models are used for the prediction task and multiple technical indicators are included in the models as inputs. The performances of the two models are compared and evaluated in terms of di- rectional accuracy. Their performances are also rigorously compared in terms of economic criteria like annualized return rate (ARR) from simulated trading. In this paper, both trading with and without short selling has been consid- ered, and the results show in most cases, trading with short selling leads to higher profits. Also, both the cases with and without commission costs are discussed to show the effects of commission costs when the trading systems are in actual use.
Microeconomics of the Productivity, Price Indicators and Farm Incomes. Analytical Approach
W?odzimierz Rembisz
Contemporary Economics , 2010,
Abstract: The paper develops a farm producer behavior type model to analyze the impact of a input productivity and price change on farm incomes. The theoretical analysis shows the consequences of the balance between the increase of production factor prices and their productivity improvement in the condition of stable procurement price for the farm producer’s income. The cost effect of the production factors price increment and its neutralization by productivity (TFP-type) growth is examined as well as – some aspects of the inputs shares (returns) and costs in the produce value. The article argues that labor input productivity as an endogenous factor, is an essential for farm incomes growth assuming the specified type of the farm producer utility function (its equations and variables) as well as no the compensative procurement price change conditions. Some empirical evidence is attached however more work in that respect is foreseen.
The Economics of BitCoin Price Formation  [PDF]
Pavel Ciaian,Miroslava Rajcaniova,d'Artis Kancs
Quantitative Finance , 2014,
Abstract: This paper analyses the relationship between BitCoin price and supply-demand fundamentals of BitCoin, global macro-financial indicators and BitCoin attractiveness for investors. Using daily data for the period 2009-2014 and applying time-series analytical mechanisms, we find that BitCoin market fundamentals and BitCoin attractiveness for investors have a significant impact on BitCoin price. Our estimates do not support previous findings that the macro-financial developments are driving BitCoin price.
Market Dynamics: Bridging Security Price Movements and Classical Physics
Joshua F. Dayanim
Journal of Mathematics Research , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/jmr.v3n1p9
Abstract: The subject of security price movements and its possible physical parallel has long remained elusive. Market Dynamics bridges this gap by demonstrating parallelisms between security price indicators and their physical counterparts. Specifically, the security price is viewed as a potential energy density, and events such as earnings releases as forces that affect security prices. In doing so, Market Dynamics provides insight into mechanisms responsible for security price movements and their underlying chart patterns. The approach leads to the development of various price indicators representing the security's expected price appreciation and related price movement attributes. The linkage with classical sciences enables access to a vast pool of existing scientific knowledge with its potential application to the fields of finance and investment management.
Mechanism of State Price Regulation in Beet-Sugar Complex in Ukraine Механизм государственного ценового регулирования в свеклосахарном комплексе Украины  [PDF]
Stasinevich Svetlana A.
Business Inform , 2013,
Abstract: The article considers instruments of state price regulation of production and sales of sugar beet and sugar in Ukraine, in particular, quoting sugar production and its supply to the domestic market, establishment of the level of minimum prices on domestic products and sugar within the quota by the government, and establishment of minimum and maximum intervention prices on beet sugar as an object of state price regulation. It provides results of analysis conducted on the basis of a significant volume of statistical information, and application of the said measures in the economic practice. It reveals shortcomings of the mechanism of state price regulation, in particular, lack of co-ordination between its individual links. It studies influence of the state intrusion upon effectiveness of functioning of the branch and price situation in the sugar market. It justifies proposals on increase of effectiveness of the state price regulators in the beet-sugar complex of Ukraine: perfection of the regulatory and legislative provisions on the issues of the price policy of the state and ensuring system nature of this process. Рассмотрены инструменты государственного ценового регулирования производства и реализации сахарной свеклы и сахара в Украине, в частности квотирования выпуска сахара и поставок его на внутренний рынок страны, утверждение правительством уровня минимальных цен на отечественное сырье и сахар в пределах квоты, установление минимальных и максимальных интервенционных цен на свекольный сахар как объект государственного ценового регулирования. Представлены результаты анализа, выполненного на базе значительного объема статистической информации, применения указанных мер в практике хозяйствования. Обнаружены недостатки механизма государственного ценового регулирования, в частности несогласованность отдельных его звеньев. Исследовано влияние государственного вмешательства на эффективность функционирования отрасли и ценовую ситуацию на рынке сахара. Обоснованы предложен
Recommendations for national registers of medicinal products with validated ATC codes and DDD values  [cached]
Marit Ronning,Irene Litleskare,Antonio Addis,Francisco Batel-Marques
Italian Journal of Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.2427/5947
Abstract: Medicines have important effect on population health and it is important to have a system for assessing their effects and monitoring their use, expenditure and price. The basis for all these objectives is the availability of an internationally valid classification system of medicines and a measurement system of their utilisation. Since 1996 the WHO Headquarter has adopted and proposed the ATC (Anatomical Therapeutical Chemical) classiifcation and the DDD (Defined Daily Dose) as the global standard for medicine classification and utilisation sudies, respectively. The EURO-MED-STAT project has defined the criteria for the production, validation and maintenance of national registers with validated ATC codes and DDD values, as suggested by WHO. A register with a valid ATC code and DDD value is able to provide reliable information allowing calculation of utilisation and expenditure indicators (Utilisation in DDD; DDD/1000inh/day and Expenditure per DDD).
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