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Urbanization Process and Variation of Energy Budget of Land Surfaces  [cached]
Ciro Gardi,Nicola Dall’Olio,Maria Chiara Cavallo
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2007.119
Abstract: Urban areas are increasing at a rate much higher than human population growth in many part of the world; actually more than 73 towns in the world are larger than 1000 km2. The European Environmental Agency indicates an urban area average growth rate, over the last 20 years, of 20%. The urbanization process, and the consequent soil sealing, determines not only the losses of the ecological functions of the soil, but also a variation of the energy budget of land surfaces, that affect the microclimatic conditions (heat islands). The alteration of the energy budget are determined by the variations of albedo and roughness of surfaces, but especially by the net losses of evapotranspirating areas. In the present research we have assessed the variation of Parma territory energy budget, induced by the change in land use over the last 122 years. The urban area increase between 1881 and 2003 was 535%.
Urbanization Process and Variation of Energy Budget of Land Surfaces  [cached]
Ciro Gardi,Nicola Dall’Olio,Maria Chiara Cavallo
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2007, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2007.119
Abstract: Urban areas are increasing at a rate much higher than human population growth in many part of the world; actually more than 73 towns in the world are larger than 1000 km2. The European Environmental Agency indicates an urban area average growth rate, over the last 20 years, of 20%. The urbanization process, and the consequent soil sealing, determines not only the losses of the ecological functions of the soil, but also a variation of the energy budget of land surfaces, that affect the microclimatic conditions (heat islands). The alteration of the energy budget are determined by the variations of albedo and roughness of surfaces, but especially by the net losses of evapotranspirating areas. In the present research we have assessed the variation of Parma territory energy budget, induced by the change in land use over the last 122 years. The urban area increase between 1881 and 2003 was 535%.
Comment on "Harold Jeffreys's Theory of Probability Revisited"  [PDF]
Dennis Lindley
Statistics , 2010, DOI: 10.1214/09-STS284F
Abstract: Comment on "Harold Jeffreys's Theory of Probability Revisited" [arXiv:0804.3173]
Comment on "Harold Jeffreys's Theory of Probability Revisited"  [PDF]
Arnold Zellner
Statistics , 2010, DOI: 10.1214/09-STS284C
Abstract: Comment on "Harold Jeffreys's Theory of Probability Revisited" [arXiv:0804.3173]
Comment on "Harold Jeffreys's Theory of Probability Revisited"  [PDF]
Stephen Senn
Statistics , 2010, DOI: 10.1214/09-STS284B
Abstract: Comment on "Harold Jeffreys's Theory of Probability Revisited" [arXiv:0804.3173]
Comment on "Harold Jeffreys's Theory of Probability Revisited"  [PDF]
José M. Bernardo
Statistics , 2010, DOI: 10.1214/09-STS284E
Abstract: Comment on "Harold Jeffreys's Theory of Probability Revisited" [arXiv:0804.3173]
Seasonal variation of surface temperature based on land cover in Ankara  [cached]
?hsan ?i?ek,Erkan Y?lmaz,Necla Türko?lu,Onur ?al??kan
International Journal of Human Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: In this study, the seasonal variation of the surface temperature of Ankara urban area and its enviroment have been analyzed by using Landsat 7 image. The Landsat 7 images of each month from 2007 to 2011 have been used to analyze the annually changes of the surface temperature. The land cover of the research area was defined with supervised classification method on the basis of the satellite image belonging to 2008 July. After determining the surface temperatures from 6-1 bands of satellite images, the monthly mean surface temperatures were calculated for land cover classification for the period between 2007 and 2011. Accord ng to the results obtained, the surface temperatures are high in summer and low in winter from the air temperatures. all satellite images were taken at 10:00 am, it is found that urban areas are cooler than rural areas at 10:00 am. Regarding the land cover classification, the water surfaces are the coolest surfaces during the whole year. The warmest areas are the grasslands and dry farming areas. While the parks are warmer than the urban areas during the winter, during the summer they are cooler than artificial land covers. The urban areas with higher building density are the cooler surfaces after water bodies.
Variation on a theme by GHZM  [PDF]
P. K. Aravind
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: In the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-Mermin (GHZM) proof of Bell's theorem, a source periodically emits an entangled state of three particles whose properties are analyzed by three distant observers and used to prove Bell's nonlocality theorem. This paper analyzes a somewhat different gedanken experiment involving only two observers that nevertheless makes indirect use of the GHZ states to prove Bell's theorem. The relationship of the GHZM proof to the present one is discussed, and it is pointed out that the latter provides an interesting new view of the connection between the "two theorems of John Bell".
The Statistical Significance Test of Regional Climate Change Caused by Land Use and Land Cover Variation in West China
WANG Hanjie,SHI Weilai,CHEN Xiaohong,
WANG Hanjie
,SHI Weilai,CHEN Xiaohong

大气科学进展 , 2006,
Abstract: The West Development Policy being implemented in China is causing significant land use and land cover (LULC) changes in West China. With the up-to-date satellite database of the Global Land Cover Characteristics Database (GLCCD) that characterizes the lower boundary conditions, the regional climate model RIEMS-TEA is used to simulate possible impacts of the significant LULC variation. The model was run for five continuous three-month periods from 1 June to 1 September of 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997, and the results of the five groups are examined by means of a student t-test to identify the statistical significance of regional climate variation. The main results are: (1) The regional climate is affected by the LULC variation because the equilibrium of water and heat transfer in the air-vegetation interface is changed. (2) The integrated impact of the LULC variation on regional climate is not only limited to West China where the LULC varies, but also to some areas in the model domain where the LULC does not vary at all. (3) The East Asian monsoon system and its vertical structure are adjusted by the large scale LULC variation in western China, where the consequences are the enhancement of the westward water vapor transfer from the east oast and the relevant increase of wet-hydrostatic energy in the middle-upper atmospheric layers. (4) The ecological engineering in West China affects significantly the regional climate in Northwest China, North China and the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River; there are obvious effects in South, Northeast, and Southwest China, but minor effects in Tibet.
Crouch, Harold. Political Reform in Indonesia after Soeharto.
Tri Ratnawati
Journal of Indonesian Social Sciences and Humanities , 2011,
Abstract: Review of Crouch, Harold. (2010). Political Reform in Indonesia after Soeharto. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 390 pp (including bibliography and index) ISBN 9789812309204 and 9812309209
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