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 Emergency Care Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/ecj.2012.2.23 Abstract: The article shows the results of the triage training course for healthcare assistants of the Emergency-Reception Department held in the education centre of Pinerolo, Italy. The course lasted three days (24 h in total), thus compling the Piedmont Regional Regulation DPR 43-15182 of 23/03/2005. Nineteen editions of the course had been held from December 2006 to December 2010. The present study reports the results of a satisfaction questionnaire about the ECM system (the one pertaining 2006-2007 years was different from the following years’ ones) and the data of a specific questionnaire given to participants in order to evaluate the actual effect of the methodology proposed.
 Emergency Care Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.4081/ecj.2007.1.37 Abstract: The purpose of this study is to define the nurse's role in the evaluation and early treatment of acute pain during triage. The assumption is that the treatment of acute pain in A&E by the triage nurse, in certain well selected cases, improves the level of care provided. The study's subject population is represented by all the users accessing A&E between 13th June 2005 and 13th July 2005, and presenting acute pain. The isolated sample is represented by users whose pain can be attributed to the following clinical conditions: musculoskeletal pain, contusions and sprains, fractures, headaches, earache, toothache and renal or biliary colic. The investigation was performed with the use of a grid by the triage nurse and the VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) to measure the intensity of the pain, whereas a dedicated protocol was followed for drug administration. In the period considered, the overall number of users (population) reporting to A& E was 2443. Of these 439 users (sample) (19%) complained of acute pain attributable to the above clinical conditions. The role of the triage nurse in pain management is undoubtedly important in the phase of evaluation using dedicated scales. The nurse's role in drug administration remains to be defined, given that this research demonstrated how even in the presence of medium-high or high VAS levels, the acceptance of pharmacological treatment at triage is somewhat limited. This aspect will provide an interesting basis for future research aimed at understanding to what extent cultural or individual elements are responsible for this attitude.
 High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.01.026 Abstract: The presence of a strong magnetic background can modify the nature and the dynamics of the chiral phase transition at finite temperature: for high enough magnetic fields, comparable to the ones expected to be created in noncentral high-energy heavy ion collisions at RHIC and the LHC, the original crossover is turned into a first-order transition. We illustrate this effect within the linear sigma model with quarks to one loop in the ${\rm MS}$ scheme for $N_{f}=2$.
 Emergency Care Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.4081/ecj.2006.3.28 Abstract: Acute hypersensitivity reactions include different clinical entities, the most threatening of which is anaphylaxis. In the Emergency Department, triage evaluation and decisions can be a determinant of successful treatment. We retrospectively studied 1009 patients who underwent triage in our ED because of acute hypersensitivity over a one year time period. Our aim was to correlate triage priority codes with the clinical manifestations registered at the medical examination, time spent in ED before and after the examination, and admission to hospital or discharge. Emergency codes (red or yellow code) were attributed to 10% of our cases, non-emergency codes (green o white) to 90%. Code grading was changed in 9 patients while awaiting medical evaluation. Severity of symptoms was underestimated in one case, and overestimated in 23. Hospital admission rate was greater among patients with more critical codes. No patient died. In conclusion evaluation, direct observation and re-evaluation are needed for the safe treatment of patients with hypersensitivity reactions in ED, even when initial clinical conditions appear stable.
 Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica , 2008, DOI: 10.2478/4480 Abstract: Docetaxel is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of breast cancer. On the other hand, the vitamin A family compounds play the essential roles in many biological processes in mammary gland. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of all-trans retinol, carotenoids (beta-carotene, lycopene) and retinoids (9-cis, 13-cis and all-trans retinoic acid) on the activity of docetaxel and to compare these effects with the estradiol and tamoxifen actions on human ER(+) MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. The evaluation was based on [3H] thymidine incorporation and the proliferative activity of PCNA and Ki 67 positive cells. In our study, the incorporation of [3H] thymidine into cancer cells was inhibited to 50% by 0.2, 0.5 and 1 microM of docetaxel in the 24-hour culture and addition of estradiol (0.001 microM) didn't influence the results. However, addition of tamoxifen caused a statistically significant decrease of the percentage of the proliferating cells in the culture medium with 0.2 and 0.5 microM of docetaxel (38.99 +/- 2.84%, p<0.01 and 40.67 +/- 5.62%, p<0.01) in comparison to the docetaxel only group. The above-mentioned observations were also confirmed with the use of the immunohistochemical investigations. Among the examined vitamin A family compounds, the simultaneous application of beta-carotene (0.1 microM) and docetaxel (0.2 microM) resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the percentage of proliferating cells (40.25 +/- 14.62%, p<0.01). Lycopene (0.1 microM), which stimulates the growth of breast cancer cells in a 24-hour culture, had an inhibitory effect (42.97 +/- 9.58%, p<0.01) when combined with docetaxel (0.2 microM). Although, beta-carotene and lycopene belong to the different chemical groups, they surprisingly had a similar inhibitory influence on both growth and proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells when combined with docetaxel. The application of docetaxel either with beta-carotene or lycopene had comparable inhibitory effect on breast cells growth and proliferation as tamoxifen. Therefore, it may suggest a possible important role of these carotenoids in the breast cancer therapy in women especially when docetaxel is applied.
 Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica , 2008, DOI: 10.5603/4480 Abstract: Docetaxel is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of breast cancer. On the other hand, the vitamin A family compounds play the essential roles in many biological processes in mammary gland. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of all-trans retinol, carotenoids (beta-carotene, lycopene) and retinoids (9-cis, 13-cis and all-trans retinoic acid) on the activity of docetaxel and to compare these effects with the estradiol and tamoxifen actions on human ER(+) MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. The evaluation was based on [3H] thymidine incorporation and the proliferative activity of PCNA and Ki 67 positive cells. In our study, the incorporation of [3H] thymidine into cancer cells was inhibited to 50% by 0.2, 0.5 and 1 microM of docetaxel in the 24-hour culture and addition of estradiol (0.001 microM) didn't influence the results. However, addition of tamoxifen caused a statistically significant decrease of the percentage of the proliferating cells in the culture medium with 0.2 and 0.5 microM of docetaxel (38.99 +/- 2.84%, p<0.01 and 40.67 +/- 5.62%, p<0.01) in comparison to the docetaxel only group. The above-mentioned observations were also confirmed with the use of the immunohistochemical investigations. Among the examined vitamin A family compounds, the simultaneous application of beta-carotene (0.1 microM) and docetaxel (0.2 microM) resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the percentage of proliferating cells (40.25 +/- 14.62%, p<0.01). Lycopene (0.1 microM), which stimulates the growth of breast cancer cells in a 24-hour culture, had an inhibitory effect (42.97 +/- 9.58%, p<0.01) when combined with docetaxel (0.2 microM). Although, beta-carotene and lycopene belong to the different chemical groups, they surprisingly had a similar inhibitory influence on both growth and proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells when combined with docetaxel. The application of docetaxel either with beta-carotene or lycopene had comparable inhibitory effect on breast cells growth and proliferation as tamoxifen. Therefore, it may suggest a possible important role of these carotenoids in the breast cancer therapy in women especially when docetaxel is applied.