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Fast LTL Satisfiability Checking by SAT Solvers  [PDF]
Jianwen Li,Geguang Pu,Lijun Zhang,Moshe Y. Vardi,Jifeng He
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Satisfiability checking for Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) is a fundamental step in checking for possible errors in LTL assertions. Extant LTL satisfiability checkers use a variety of different search procedures. With the sole exception of LTL satisfiability checking based on bounded model checking, which does not provide a complete decision procedure, LTL satisfiability checkers have not taken advantage of the remarkable progress over the past 20 years in Boolean satisfiability solving. In this paper, we propose a new LTL satisfiability-checking framework that is accelerated using a Boolean SAT solver. Our approach is based on the variant of the \emph{obligation-set method}, which we proposed in earlier work. We describe here heuristics that allow the use of a Boolean SAT solver to analyze the obligations for a given LTL formula. The experimental evaluation indicates that the new approach provides a a significant performance advantage.
LTL Model Checking of Parametric Timed Automata  [PDF]
Peter Bezděk,Nikola Bene?,Vojtěch Havel,Ji?í Barnat,Ivana ?erná
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: The parameter synthesis problem for timed automata is undecidable in general even for very simple reachability properties. In this paper we introduce restrictions on parameter valuations under which the parameter synthesis problem is decidable for LTL properties. The proposed problem could be solved using an explicit enumeration of all possible parameter valuations. However, we introduce a symbolic zone-based method for synthesising bounded integer parameters of parametric timed automata with an LTL specification. Our method extends the ideas of the standard automata-based approach to LTL model checking of timed automata. Our solution employs constrained parametric difference bound matrices and a suitable notion of extrapolation.
Acceleration of AES encryption on CUDA GPU  [cached]
Keisuke Iwai,Naoki Nishikawa,Takakazu Kurokawa
International Journal of Networking and Computing , 2012,
Abstract: GPU exhibits the capability for applications with a high level of parallelism despite its low cost. The support of integer and logical instructions by the latest generation of GPUs enables us to implement cipher algorithms more easily. However, decisions such as parallel processing granularity and memory allocation impose a heavy burden on programmers. Therefore, this paper presents results of several experiments that were conducted to elucidate the relation between memory allocation styles of variables of AES and granularity as the parallelism exploited from AES encoding processes using CUDA with an NVIDIA GeForce GTX285 (Nvidia Corp.). Results of these experiments showed that the 16 bytes/thread granularity had the highest performance. It achieved approximately 35 Gbps throughput. It also exhibited differences of memory allocation and granularity effects around 2%–30% for performance in standard implementation. It shows that the decision of granularity and memory allocation is the most important factor for effective processing in AES encryption on GPU. Moreover, implementation with overlapping between processing and data transfer yielded 22.5 Gbps throughput including the data transfer time.
Truly On-The-Fly LTL Model Checking  [PDF]
Moritz Hammer,Alexander Knapp,Stephan Merz
Computer Science , 2005,
Abstract: We propose a novel algorithm for automata-based LTL model checking that interleaves the construction of the generalized B\"{u}chi automaton for the negation of the formula and the emptiness check. Our algorithm first converts the LTL formula into a linear weak alternating automaton; configurations of the alternating automaton correspond to the locations of a generalized B\"{u}chi automaton, and a variant of Tarjan's algorithm is used to decide the existence of an accepting run of the product of the transition system and the automaton. Because we avoid an explicit construction of the B\"{u}chi automaton, our approach can yield significant improvements in runtime and memory, for large LTL formulas. The algorithm has been implemented within the SPIN model checker, and we present experimental results for some benchmark examples.
Model Checking Constraint LTL over Trees  [PDF]
Alexander Kartzow,Thomas Weidner
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Constraint automata are an adaptation of B\"uchi-automata that process data words where the data comes from some relational structure S. Every transition of such an automaton comes with constraints in terms of the relations of S. A transition can only be fired if the current and the next data values satisfy all constraints of this transition. These automata have been used in the setting where S is a linear order for deciding constraint LTL with constraints over S. In this paper, S is the infinitely branching infinite order tree T. We provide a PSPACE algorithm for emptiness of T-constraint automata. This result implies PSPACE-completeness of the satisfiability and the model checking problem for constraint LTL with constraints over T.
Constraint LTL Satisfiability Checking without Automata  [PDF]
Marcello M. Bersani,Achille Frigeri,Angelo Morzenti,Matteo Pradella,Matteo Rossi,Pierluigi San Pietro
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: This paper introduces a novel technique to decide the satisfiability of formulae written in the language of Linear Temporal Logic with Both future and past operators and atomic formulae belonging to constraint system D (CLTLB(D) for short). The technique is based on the concept of bounded satisfiability, and hinges on an encoding of CLTLB(D) formulae into QF-EUD, the theory of quantifier-free equality and uninterpreted functions combined with D. Similarly to standard LTL, where bounded model-checking and SAT-solvers can be used as an alternative to automata-theoretic approaches to model-checking, our approach allows users to solve the satisfiability problem for CLTLB(D) formulae through SMT-solving techniques, rather than by checking the emptiness of the language of a suitable automaton A_{\phi}. The technique is effective, and it has been implemented in our Zot formal verification tool.
CUDA Leaks: Information Leakage in GPU Architectures  [PDF]
Roberto Di Pietro,Flavio Lombardi,Antonio Villani
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are deployed on most present server, desktop, and even mobile platforms. Nowadays, a growing number of applications leverage the high parallelism offered by this architecture to speed-up general purpose computation. This phenomenon is called GPGPU computing (General Purpose GPU computing). The aim of this work is to discover and highlight security issues related to CUDA, the most widespread platform for GPGPU computing. In particular, we provide details and proofs-of-concept about a novel set of vulnerabilities CUDA architectures are subject to, that could be exploited to cause severe information leak. Following (detailed) intuitions rooted on sound engineering security, we performed several experiments targeting the last two generations of CUDA devices: Fermi and Kepler. We discovered that these two families do suffer from information leakage vulnerabilities. In particular, some vulnerabilities are shared between the two architectures, while others are idiosyncratic of the Kepler architecture. As a case study, we report the impact of one of these vulnerabilities on a GPU implementation of the AES encryption algorithm. We also suggest software patches and alternative approaches to tackle the presented vulnerabilities. To the best of our knowledge this is the first work showing that information leakage in CUDA is possible using just standard CUDA instructions. We expect our work to pave the way for further research in the field.
A Short Story of a Subtle Error in LTL Formulas Reduction and Divine Incorrectness  [PDF]
Tomá\vs Babiak,Mojm\'\ir K\vret\'\insky,Vojt\vech \vRehák,Jan Strej\vcek
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: We identify a subtle error in LTL formulas reduction method used as one optimization step in an LTL to B\"uchi automata translation. The error led to some incorrect answers of the established model checker DiVinE. This paper should help authors of other model checkers to avoid this error.
Linear Encodings of Bounded LTL Model Checking  [PDF]
Armin Biere,Keijo Heljanko,Tommi Junttila,Timo Latvala,Viktor Schuppan
Computer Science , 2006, DOI: 10.2168/LMCS-2(5:5)2006
Abstract: We consider the problem of bounded model checking (BMC) for linear temporal logic (LTL). We present several efficient encodings that have size linear in the bound. Furthermore, we show how the encodings can be extended to LTL with past operators (PLTL). The generalised encoding is still of linear size, but cannot detect minimal length counterexamples. By using the virtual unrolling technique minimal length counterexamples can be captured, however, the size of the encoding is quadratic in the specification. We also extend virtual unrolling to Buchi automata, enabling them to accept minimal length counterexamples. Our BMC encodings can be made incremental in order to benefit from incremental SAT technology. With fairly small modifications the incremental encoding can be further enhanced with a termination check, allowing us to prove properties with BMC. Experiments clearly show that our new encodings improve performance of BMC considerably, particularly in the case of the incremental encoding, and that they are very competitive for finding bugs. An analysis of the liveness-to-safety transformation reveals many similarities to the BMC encodings in this paper. Using the liveness-to-safety translation with BDD-based invariant checking results in an efficient method to find shortest counterexamples that complements the BMC-based approach.
Real-time Flame Rendering with GPU and CUDA  [cached]
Wei Wei,Yanqiong Huang
International Journal of Information Technology and Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: This paper proposes a method of flame simulation based on Lagrange process and chemical composition, which was non-grid and the problems associated with there grids were overcome. The turbulence movement of flame was described by Lagrange process and chemical composition was added into flame simulation which increased the authenticity of flame. For real-time applications, this paper simplified the EMST model. GPU-based particle system combined with OpenGL VBO and PBO unique technology was used to accelerate finally, the speed of vertex and pixel data interaction between CPU and GPU increased two orders of magnitude, frame rate of rendering increased by 30%, which achieved fast dynamic flame real-time simulation. For further real-time applications, this paper presented a strategy to implement flame simulation with CUDA on GPU, which achieved a speed up to 2.5 times the previous implementation.
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