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Measurement of Brain Function of Car Driver Using Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS)  [PDF]
Hitoshi Tsunashima,Kazuki Yanagisawa
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/164958
Abstract: The aim of this study is to propose a method for analyzing measured signal obtained from functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), which is applicable for neuroimaging studies for car drivers. We developed a signal processing method by multiresolution analysis (MRA) based on discrete wavelet transform. Statistical group analysis using Z-score is conducted after the extraction of task-related signal using MRA. Brain activities of subjects with different level of mental calculation are measured by fNIRS and fMRI. Results of mental calculation with nine subjects by using fNIRS and fMRI showed that the proposed methods were effective for the evaluation of brain activities due to the task. Finally, the proposed method is applied for evaluating brain function of car driver with and without adaptive cruise control (ACC) system for demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results showed that frontal lobe was less active when the subject drove with ACC.
Analyzing Force Concept Inventory with Item Response Theory  [PDF]
Jing Wang,Lei Bao
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1119/1.3443565
Abstract: Item Response Theory (IRT) is a popular assessment method used in education measurement, which builds on an assumption of a probability framework connecting students' innate ability and their actual performances on test items. The model transforms students' raw test scores through a nonlinear regression process into a scaled proficiency rating, which can be used to compare results obtained with different test questions. IRT also provides a theoretical approach to address ceiling effect and guessing. We applied IRT to analyze the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). The data was collected from 2802 students taking intro level mechanics courses at The Ohio State University. The data was analyzed with a 3-parameter item response model for multiple choice questions. We describe the procedures of the analysis and discuss the results and the interpretations. The analysis outcomes are compiled to provide a detailed IRT measurement metric of the FCI, which can be easily referenced and used by teachers and researchers for a range of assessment applications.
FIAR: An R Package for Analyzing Functional Integration in the Brain  [PDF]
Bjorn Roelstraete,Yves Rosseel
Journal of Statistical Software , 2011,
Abstract: Functional integration in the brain refers to distributed interactions among functionally segregated regions. Investigation of effective connectivity in brain networks, i.e, the directed causal influence that one brain region exerts over another region, is being increasingly recognized as an important tool for understanding brain function in neuroimaging studies. Methods for identifying intrinsic relationships among elements in a network are increasingly in demand. Over the last few decades several techniques such as Bayesian networks, Granger causality, and dynamic causal models have been developed to identify causal relations in dynamic systems. At the same time, established techniques such as structural equation modeling (SEM) are being modified and extended in order to reveal underlying interactions in imaging data. In the R package FIAR, which stands for Functional Integration Analysis in R, we have implemented many of the latest techniques for analyzing brain networks based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. The package can be used to analyze experimental data, but also to simulate data under certain models.
Development of a Driving Simulator with Analyzing Driver’s Characteristics Based on a Virtual Reality Head Mounted Display  [PDF]
Seyyed Meisam Taheri, Kojiro Matsushita, Minoru Sasaki
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2017.73023
Abstract: Driving a vehicle is one of the most common daily yet hazardous tasks. One of the great interests in recent research is to characterize a driver’s behaviors through the use of a driving simulation. Virtual reality technology is now a promising alternative to the conventional driving simulations since it provides a more simple, secure and user-friendly environment for data collection. The driving simulator was used to assist novice drivers in learning how to drive in a very calm environment since the driving is not taking place on an actual road. This paper provides new insights regarding a driver’s behavior, techniques and adaptability within a driving simulation using virtual reality technology. The theoretical framework of this driving simulation has been designed using the Unity3D game engine (5.4.0f3 version) and programmed by the C# programming language. To make the driving simulation environment more realistic, the HTC Vive Virtual reality headset, powered by Steamvr, was used. 10 volunteers ranging from ages 19 - 37 participated in the virtual reality driving experiment. Matlab R2016b was used to analyze the data obtained from experiment. This research results are crucial for training drivers and obtaining insight on a driver’s behavior and characteristics. We have gathered diverse results for 10 drivers with different characteristics to be discussed in this study. Driving simulations are not easy to use for some users due to motion sickness, difficulties in adopting to a virtual environment. Furthermore, results of this study clearly show the performance of drivers is closely associated with individual’s behavior and adaptability to the driving simulator. Based on our findings, it can be said that with a VR-HMD (Virtual Reality-Head Mounted Display) Driving Simulator enables us to evaluate a driver’s “performance error”, “recognition errors” and “decision error”. All of which will allow researchers and further studies to potentially establish a method to increase driver safety or alleviate “driving errors”.
An Online Productivity Measuring and Analyzing System: Proof-of-Concept  [PDF]
Bassim Shebeb
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2018.88126
Abstract: The principle aim of this applied research is to design and build up an Online Productivity Measuring and Analyzing System (OPMAS): Proof-of-Concept1 to measure and analyze the economic growth and its major sources; the multifactor productivity and factor-intensity at the firm, sub-industry (ISC 2-digit), and industry levels. Special features of this applied research are the instantaneous productivity measuring and analyzing. In addition, it is developing an educational and training HUB for productivity awareness and improvements for both researchers and organizations. Thus, the HUB comes with a prompt measuring tools/models (OPMAS) of the economic performance; the multifactor productivity and singly-factor productivity growth of a firm using its one-year loss/profit statement or/and time series data. Besides to the hub’s prompt measuring of productivity, the firm will also be provided with an instant-reporting about its economic performance in-compression to its related industry at two different levels (2-digit and i-digit ISC). For example, a firm operating within Food and Beverages manufacturing industry, it will be compared with the performances of the Food and Beverages manufacturing industry 2-digit ISC and with the performance of the overall Manufacturing Industry, D-ISC. Furthermore, a simulation model (Productivity Analytics) for investigating the impact of various policies on the firm’s economic performance could be proposed. The policies which they could be analyzed including environmental regulations, import and export taxes, and the provision of infrastructure.
The Concept of Metatheatre: A Functional Approach
Andrés Pérez-Simón
Trans : Revue de Littérature Générale et Comparée , 2011,
Abstract: This essay reviews the highly popular concept of metatheatre or metadrama, whose first formulation appeared in Lionel Abel’s collection of essays Metatheatre in 1963. Abel’s contribution in the field of theatre studies took place in the wake of Roman Jakobson’s model of six linguistic functions, which Jakobson had introduced in a conference held in Indiana five years before the publication of Metatheatre. In my review of Jakobson’s model, I argue that neither the metalinguistic nor the poetic function can fully explain the existence of multiple self-referential, anti-illusionist devices in twentieth-century dramaturgies (a few examples from the modernist years are discussed in my essay). In order to shed new light into Jakobson’s model, I propose a return to the four-function model developed by Jan Muka ovsky, the most important critic of the Prague School, in the late 1930s. Muka ovsky expanded upon Karl Bühler’s Sprachtheorie (with the functions Darstellung, presentation ; Ausdruck, expression ; and Appell, appeal), by conceptualizing a fourth function, the aesthetic, one that brings to the fore the structural components of the artistic work. El presente ensayo examina el hoy muy popular concepto de metateatro o metadrama, que apareció por primera vez en Metatheatre, de Lionel Abel, una colección de ensayos publicada en 1963. Esta contribución de Abel al campo de los estudios teatrales se basó en el modelo de seis funciones lingüísticas de Roman Jakobson, que Jakobson había presentado en una conferencia en Indiana cinco a os antes de la publicación de Metatheatre. Al analizar el modelo de Jakobson, argumento que ni la función metalingüística ni la función poética pueden explicar correctamente la existencia de múltiples mecanismos autorreferenciales y antiilusionistas en la dramaturgia del siglo veinte (en mi ensayo, hago mención a algunos ejemplos del periodo modernista). Para ofrecer una nueva lectura del modelo de Jakobson, propongo un retorno al modelo de cuatro funciones desarrollado por Jan Muka ovsky, el crítico más importante del Círculo de Praga, a finales de los a os treinta. Muka ovsky expandió la Sprachtheorie de Karl Bühler (con las tres funciones Darstellung, presentación ; Ausdruck, expresión ; y Appell, apelación), al a adir una cuarta función, la estética, que destaca en un primer plano los componentes estructurales de la obra artística.
Real Time Based Driver's Safeguard System by Analyzing Human Physiological Signals  [PDF]
Nithin.K.Kurian1 and D.Rishikesh2
International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: - In this paper a new approach based on bio-signal sensing was used for real time accident avoidance. A wireless embedded system with real time bio-signal processing techniquewas proposed. The bio-signals sensor module consists of ECG, EEG, EOG and alcohol sensor. These bio-signals were first acquired by the sensor module .Then the signal is processed and scheduled in the processor with the help of the RTOS installed in it. The processed signal is transmitted to the receiving section by using the wireless data communication. The receiver unit can read the sensor data from wireless receiver module using zig-bee protocol. This received real time sensor data is compared with the pre-determined data stored in the processor memory and the decision was taken. This can provide warning to the driver by giving alarm and also having vehicle engine ignition control for stopping the vehicle. The parking light must be turned on before the engine stops so that the driver’s coming behind can control the vehicle and thereby accident can be avoided.
CanDrA: Cancer-Specific Driver Missense Mutation Annotation with Optimized Features  [PDF]
Yong Mao, Han Chen, Han Liang, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Gordon B. Mills, Ken Chen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077945
Abstract: Driver mutations are somatic mutations that provide growth advantage to tumor cells, while passenger mutations are those not functionally related to oncogenesis. Distinguishing drivers from passengers is challenging because drivers occur much less frequently than passengers, they tend to have low prevalence, their functions are multifactorial and not intuitively obvious. Missense mutations are excellent candidates as drivers, as they occur more frequently and are potentially easier to identify than other types of mutations. Although several methods have been developed for predicting the functional impact of missense mutations, only a few have been specifically designed for identifying driver mutations. As more mutations are being discovered, more accurate predictive models can be developed using machine learning approaches that systematically characterize the commonality and peculiarity of missense mutations under the background of specific cancer types. Here, we present a cancer driver annotation (CanDrA) tool that predicts missense driver mutations based on a set of 95 structural and evolutionary features computed by over 10 functional prediction algorithms such as CHASM, SIFT, and MutationAssessor. Through feature optimization and supervised training, CanDrA outperforms existing tools in analyzing the glioblastoma multiforme and ovarian carcinoma data sets in The Cancer Genome Atlas and the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia project.
Analyzing Brazilian Driver’s License Authenticity by Easy Ambient Sonic-Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  [PDF]
Deleon Nascimento Correa, Eduardo Morgado Schmidt, Marcos Fernando Franco, Jorge Jardim Zacca, Werickson Fortunato de Carvalho Rocha, Antony de Paula Barbosa, Rodrigo Borges, Wanderley de Souza, Marcos Nogueira Eberlin
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2016.74032
Abstract:

Fast and unequivocal methods of questioned document analysis are essential in forensic science. Here, a desorption/ionization technique, EASI-MS, was assessed for its ability to investigate questioned driver’s licenses (DL). Two suspects DL, displaying the same personal data in the proper fields (name and ID numbers), but with different individual photos, showing similar impressions on microscopic analysis, and authentic standards documents specimens were used as test cases. Profiles from authentic DL surface were dominated by a set of few minor ions, mainly from the plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and dibutylphthalate. The seized suspect counterfeit DL on points from personal data and photo were, however, dominated by abundant diagnostic ions of m/z 463, 507, 551, 595, 639, 683, which confirmed counterfeiting. Surfynol® and Nonoxynol-9®, which are common constituents of inkjet printing, were detected in the counterfeiting areas by high-accuracy EASI(+)-FT-ICR MS. The EASI-MS technique is shown therefore to offer an attractive tool for forensic investigation of questioned documents.

The Concept of Human Functional State in Russian Applied Psychology  [PDF]
Anna B. Leonova
Psychology in Russia : State of Art , 2009,
Abstract: The concept of human functional states (HFS) is considered in the framework of activity regulation approach developed in Russian applied psychology. Aimed at the analysis of changes in regulatory mechanisms of on-going activity, structural methods for multilevel assessment of workers’ states are discussed. Three different strategies of data integration are proposed regarding the types of essential practical problems. Their usability is exemplified with the help of two empirical studies concerned with reliability of fire-fighters’ work in the Chernobyl Zone and effects of interruptions in computerized office environment. A general framework for applied HFS research is proposed in order to develop new ecologically valid psychodiagnostic procedures that can help to create efficient stress-management programs for enhancing human reliability and performance in complex job environment.
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