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A Multi-Scalar Approach to Theorizing Socio-Ecological Dynamics of Urban Residential Landscapes  [cached]
Rinku Roy Chowdhury,Kelli Larson,Morgan Grove,Colin Polsky
Cities and the Environment , 2011,
Abstract: Urban residential expansion increasingly drives land use, land cover and ecological changes worldwide, yet social science theories explaining such change remain under-developed. Existing theories often focus on processes occurring at one scale, while ignoring other scales. Emerging evidence from four linked U.S. research sites suggests it is essential to examine processes at multiple scales simultaneously when explaining the evolution of urban residential landscapes. Additionally, focusing on urbanization dynamics across multiple sites with a shared research design may yield fruitful comparative insights. The following processes and social-hierarchical scales significantly influence the spatial configurations of residential landscapes: household-level characteristics and environmental attitudes; formal and informal institutions at the neighborhood scale; and municipal-scale land-use governance. While adopting a multi-scale and multi-site approach produces research challenges, doing so is critical to advancing understanding of coupled socio-ecological systems and associated vulnerabilities in a dynamic and environmentally important setting: residential landscapes.
The Impending Crisis  [cached]
Raymond L. Kaplan,Thomas E. Burgess
Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education , 2010, DOI: 10.1128/jmbe.v11i2.230
Abstract: When you are ill and consult a physician for his or her expertise, many times laboratory testing is part of the clinical workup. This testing is critical to the physician's ability to diagnose the patient's condition. What if testing was not available ... because there was no one to do the testing? Although seemingly far-fetched, this scenario could play itself out in the next ten years due to an impending manpower crisis in laboratory medicine. The profession of Medical Technology, also known as Clinical Laboratory Science, is experiencing a shortage of qualified individuals for a variety of reasons - not the least of which is the closure of almost 70% of the schools teaching this critical profession. Health care workers (HCW) rely on accurate and timely clinical laboratory results in order to make decisions for their patients. Because ~ 70% of patient care decisions are based on clinical laboratory results, it is important to have a well-trained supply of laboratory professionals. This article will give an overview of the situation and the possible causes of this shortage, and pose challenges to our profession as to how this crisis can be averted. Visibility of this profession must be a prime focus of this effort in order for the population in general to be aware of the role Clinical Laboratory Scientists play in the health care consortium. This effort should begin early in the educational process, potentially as early as Middle School (junior high school), bringing awareness of the profession not only to students but to educators as well.
EUrope – History, Violence and “Peripheries”  [cached]
Hartmut Behr
Review of European Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/res.v4n3p7
Abstract: The idea and study of international society can be applied empirically to Europe and the Europe Union (EU), with a significant overlap between the idea of Europe and the EU being symbolized as EUrope. As the example of EUrope demonstrates, the development of international society genuinely depends upon violence in its peripheries, in EUrope’s case exemplified by colonialism and imperialism of European states: states of which most are now core members of the European Union, but until only some 50 years ago have been fierce and violent colonizers of the world. As such, the study of Europe and the EU is ontologically linked to the study of colonialism and post-colonialism what founds and necessitates epistemologically an historical and comparative approach. The refusal of this ontology and epistemology may enable to study internal policy processes, but would remain within self-centric and solipsistic foci on the European ‘Self’ and would thus block systematically all attempts to interrelate the EU to the world. Such a refusal would further render it impossible to envision the EU as an international or even global actor conducting policies other than hegemonic and paternalistic (even if self-understood as benevolent).
Postmodern Values in Rural Peripheries  [PDF]
éva G. FEKETE,Katalin LIPTáK
Journal of Settlements and Spatial Planning , 2011,
Abstract: Some new values and trends based on strengthened needs for nature, culture and safety have emerged and offer favourable opportunities for the less developed rural areas. The environmental and social aspects of economies are getting to have more power as well as the information society provides assets to break off the distances and these processes lead to change the term of underdevelopment especially in rural peripheries. While the rural spaces have resources necessary to start a new way of development, they are in a dual cultural snare. On one hand, rural policy forces to follow one kind of modernization, most of the rural areas do not have resources for that. On the other hand, local societies are not ready to follow a post-modern way. Post-modern values are imported by migrants and this is accompanied by important conflicts. The main question of our research is how the pure nature, the sustainability, the cultural heritage and social participation as some of the basic values for post-modern type development are present in rural spaces. According to our hypothesis the relation of local society to post-modern values depends on economic development, the size of community and their links to the outside of the region. We have started an empirical research project in 8 groups of villages (6 in Hungary, 2 in Transylvania) in order to verify the hypothesis. About 420 local residents have been asked about their values and preferences. The paper shows some of the results of these surveys.
Theorizing and Social Gerontology  [cached]
Bengtson, Vern
International Journal of Ageing and Later Life , 2006,
Abstract: Theory is increasingly important in social gerontology. Thus it is grati-fying to see the debut of a new journal that encourages theorizing about age and aging. The papers in Volume 1, number 1 of the International Journal of Ageing and Later Life reflect a concern for developing theory that is laudable. I hope that in the future researchers who submit manuscripts to IJAL and the reviewers who evaluate them will share this concern for building theory. This is because we are at a tipping point, a watershed, in the development of knowledge about the social and psychological dimensions of aging.
The feasibility Problem in Theorizing Social Justice  [cached]
Eugen Huzum
Sfera Politicii , 2012,
Abstract: G. A. Cohen and Andrew Mason have recently argued, against many contemporary philosophers, that feasibility is not a legitimate constraint in theorizing about social justice. Their main argument is that principles of justice are logically independent of issues of feasibility and, consequently, feasibility has no bearing on the correctness of these principles. This article is a critical examination of three attempts to show that Cohen and Mason’s argument is unsound. The examined attempts are those of Harry Brighouse, Collin Farrelly, and David Miller. I argue that all these arguments are based on false, unjustified or implausible, premises and/or assumptions. Consequently, they cannot discredit the soundness of Cohen and Mason’s argument and of the thesis that feasibility is not, in fact, a legitimate constraint in theorizing about social justice.
On Reducing the Magnitude of an Impending Catastrophic Earthquake  [PDF]
Michael G. Noppe
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2019.1012059
Abstract: This article develops the ideas presented in the previous article, justifying the project proposed to determine the epicenter of a future short-focus earthquake tens of hours before the earthquake and the project to reduce the magnitude of an impending catastrophic earthquake. A physical and mathematical model of the prototype of a mercury earthquake precursor sensor is proposed, and the signal received by the old sensor is calculated. Analysis of an existing sensor prototype provides an understanding of physical processes and shows the fundamental advantage of the new sensor. An approach is formulated to explain the physical mechanism for reducing the magnitude of an impending catastrophic earthquake. A vibrator described in the literature is considered, the effectiveness of which for reducing the magnitude of future catastrophic short-focus earthquakes is estimated by the calculations of the long time of the earthquake precursor. The requirements for future specialized vibrators for the purpose of Reducing the Magnitude of an Impending Catastrophic Earthquake are formulated.
Magnetic fields near the peripheries of galactic discs  [PDF]
E. Mikhailov,A. Kasparova,D. Moss,R. Beck,D. Sokoloff,A. Zasov
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201323341
Abstract: Magnetic fields are observed beyond the peripheries of optically detected galactic discs, while numerical models of their origin and the typical magnitudes are still absent. Previously, studies of galactic dynamo have avoided considering the peripheries of galactic discs because of the very limited (though gradually growing) knowledge about the local properties of the interstellar medium. Here we investigate the possibility that magnetic fields can be generated in the outskirts of discs, taking the Milky Way as an example. We consider a simple evolving galactic dynamo model in the "no-z" formulation, applicable to peripheral regions of galaxies, for various assumptions about the radial and vertical profiles of the ionized gas disc. The magnetic field may grow as galaxies evolve, even in the more remote parts of the galactic disc, out to radii of 15 to 30 kpc, becoming substantial after times of about 10 Gyr. This result depends weakly on the adopted distributions of the half thickness and surface density of the ionized gas component. The model is robust to changes in the amplitude of the initial field and the position of its maximum strength. The magnetic field in the remote parts of the galactic disc could be generated in situ from a seed field by local dynamo action. Another possibility is field production in the central regions of a galaxy, followed by transport to the disc's periphery by the joint action of the dynamo and turbulent diffusivity. Our results demonstrate the possibilities for the appearance and strengthening of magnetic fields at the peripheries of disc galaxies and emphasize the need for observational tests with new and anticipated radio telescopes (LOFAR, MWA, and SKA).
POST-INDUSTRIAL LANDSCAPES IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC – A GIS ASSISTED SEARCH FOR PRESENT STATE
JAROMIR KOLEJKA,MARTIN KLIMáNEK
Geographia Napocensis , 2012,
Abstract: Post-industrial landscapes in the Czech Republic – A GIS assisted search for present state. Using additional datasets on industrial areas in CORINE, brownfields, human-made landforms, undermined sites, open air mining sites, contaminated sites and industrial architectural heritage, 128 examples of postindustrial landscapes (PILs) were identified on the Czech territory. All the adopted data sets were preprocessed for the GIS mapping procedure. These PILs were subdued to the genetic classification. One- to four-word-names were applied to describe individual PIL types. Their geographic distribution was analyzed in the Czech Republic and their location compared with selected natural landscape features.
Relaxation creep model of impending earthquake  [cached]
V. A. Morgounov
Annals of Geophysics , 2001, DOI: 10.4401/ag-3603
Abstract: The alternative view of the current status and perspective of seismic prediction studies is discussed. In the problem of ascertainment of the uncertainty relation Cognoscibility-Unpredictability of Earthquakes, priorities of works on short-term earthquake prediction are defined due to the advantage that the final stage of nucleation of earthquake is characterized by a substantial activation of the process while its strain rate increases by the orders of magnitude and considerably increased signal-to-noise ratio. Based on the creep phenomenon under stress relaxation conditions, a model is proposed to explain different images of precursors of impending tectonic earthquakes. The onset of tertiary creep appears to correspond to the onset of instability and inevitably fails unless it is unloaded. At this stage, the process acquires the self-regulating character and to the greatest extent the property of irreversibility, one of the important components of prediction reliability. Data in situ suggest a principal possibility to diagnose the process of preparation by ground measurements of strain-rate-dependent parameters, like electromagnetic emission, etc. Laboratory tests of the measurements of acoustic and electromagnetic emission in the rocks under constant strain in the condition of self-relaxed stress until the moment of fracture are discussed in context. It was obtained that electromagnetic emission precedes but does not accompany the phase of macrocrack development.
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