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Two-Party Quantum Protocols Do Not Compose Securely Against Honest-But-Curious Adversaries  [PDF]
Louis Salvail,Miroslava Sotakova
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: In this paper, we build upon the model of two-party quantum computation introduced by Salvail et al. [SSS09] and show that in this model, only trivial correct two-party quantum protocols are weakly self-composable. We do so by defining a protocol \Pi, calling any non-trivial sub-protocol \pi N times and showing that there is a quantum honest-but-curious strategy that cannot be modeled by acting locally in every single copy of \pi. In order to achieve this, we assign a real value called "payoff" to any strategy for \Pi and show that that there is a gap between the highest payoff achievable by coherent and local strategies.
The need for scientists and judges to work together: regarding a new European network  [cached]
Santosuosso Amedeo,Redi Carlo
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2003,
Abstract: Is it always true to say that science is, by definition, universal whilst laws and the courts which apply them are a classic state and national expression? Yes and no. In recent years a new scenario has opened all over the world. Courts intervene more and more in disputes on matters related to scientific procedures in the biological field. In doing so the courts' decisions are affected by scientific issues and ways of reasoning and, on the other hand, affect the scientific field and its way of reasoning. While the old matter of bioethics was still alive and while judges were improving their skill in dealing with hard matters, like refusal of medical treatments, abortion, euthanasia et cetera, a new challenge appeared on the horizon, the challenge of biological sciences, and especially of the most troubled field of human genetics. A completely new awareness is developing among judges that they belong to an international judiciary community, as informal as it is real. Such a community is, even at an embryonic stage, sufficiently universal to be able to come together with the international scientific community. The authors maintain we are in urgent need for new interaction between judges and scientists and of new international means in the light of such cooperation. Judges and jurists need to become better acquainted with scientific questions and learn to exchange ideas with scientists. They also need to set themselves against the latters' conceptual systems and be willing to put their own up for discussion. A European Network for Life Sciences, Health and the Courts is taking its first steps, and judges and scientists are working side by side to tackle the new challenges. The provisional headquarters are located at the University of Pavia (I), Laboratorio di Biologia dello Sviluppo and Collegio Ghislieri (e-mail:. enlsc@unipv.it). ENLSC activity is inspired by the following idea: to be against science is as much antiscientific as to be acritically pro-science.
The need for scientists and judges to work together: regarding a new European network
Amedeo Santosuosso, Carlo Redi
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-1-22
Abstract: Is it always true to say that science is, by definition, universal whilst laws and the courts which apply them are a classic state and national expression? Yes and no.In this commentary we point out the new scenario that in recent years has opened all over the world. Courts intervene more and more in disputes on matters related to scientific procedures in the biological field. In doing so the courts' decisions are affected by scientific issues and ways of reasoning and, on the other hand, affect the scientific field and its way of reasoning. Nowadays science affects law more and more and vice versa.We maintain we are in urgent need for new interaction between judges and scientists and of new international means in the light of such cooperation. A European Network for Life Sciences, Health and the Courts is taking its first steps, and judges and scientists are working side by side to tackle the new challenges.Although the intervention of the law in the field of medicine and life sciences is not a novelty, in recent years legal intervention in old bioethical and new science related matters has increased dramatically. Court decisions have become widespread in most countries. Parliamentary acts have regulated many aspects of women's and men's choices regarding their own bodies. Codes of conduct have been enacted in many fields: we may remember, in the field of experimentation on human beings, the Good Clinical Practice or the new issues of the Declaration of Helsinki or the documents by the World Health Organisation. They all lay down greatly important regulations, although not in a strictly legal sense. Finally, a new wave of solemn declarations has sprung up from international institutions. The European Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine (Oviedo, 1997) is one of these, but not the only one. Let's remember the UNESCO Genome Declaration (1997) and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union passed by the European Council of Nice, 7th–10th December 20
On honest times in financial modeling  [PDF]
Ashkan Nikeghbali,Eckhard Platen
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: This paper demonstrates the usefulness and importance of the concept of honest times to financial modeling. It studies a financial market with asset prices that follow jump-diffusions with negative jumps. The central building block of the market model is its growth optimal portfolio (GOP), which maximizes the growth rate of strictly positive portfolios. Primary security account prices, when expressed in units of the GOP, turn out to be nonnegative local martingales. In the proposed framework an equivalent risk neutral probability measure need not exist. Derivative prices are obtained as conditional expectations of corresponding future payoffs, with the GOP as numeraire and the real world probability as pricing measure. The time when the global maximum of a portfolio with no positive jumps, when expressed in units of the GOP, is reached, is shown to be a generic representation of an honest time. We provide a general formula for the law of such honest times and compute the conditional distributions of the global maximum of a portfolio in this framework. Moreover, we provide a stochastic integral representation for uniformly integrable martingales whose terminal values are functions of the global maximum of a portfolio. These formulae are model independent and universal. We also specialize our results to some examples where we hedge a payoff that arrives at an honest time.
On arbitrages arising from honest times  [PDF]
Claudio Fontana,Monique Jeanblanc,Shiqi Song
Quantitative Finance , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s00780-014-0231-1
Abstract: In the context of a general continuous financial market model, we study whether the additional information associated with an honest time gives rise to arbitrage profits. By relying on the theory of progressive enlargement of filtrations, we explicitly show that no kind of arbitrage profit can ever be realised strictly before an honest time, while classical arbitrage opportunities can be realised exactly at an honest time as well as after an honest time. Moreover, stronger arbitrages of the first kind can only be obtained by trading as soon as an honest time occurs. We carefully study the behavior of local martingale deflators and consider no-arbitrage-type conditions weaker than NFLVR.
A curious identity for Bernoulli numbers  [PDF]
Daniel B. Grunberg,Hao Pan,Zhi-Wei Sun
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: We prove a curious identity for the Bernoulli numbers.
On the complexity of traffic judges' decisions
David Leiser,Dov-Ron Schatzberg
Judgment and Decision Making , 2008,
Abstract: Professional judges in traffic courts sentence many hundreds of offenders per year. Using 639 case files from archives, we compared the Matching Heuristic (MH) to compensatory, weighing algorithms (WM). We modeled and cross validated the models on different subsets of the data, and took several other methodological precautions such as allowing each model to select the optimal number of variables and ordering and weighing the variables in accordance to different logics. We did not reproduce the finding by Dhami (2003), who found the MH to be superior to a compensatory algorithm in modeling bail-granting decisions. These simulations brought out the inner logic of the two family of models, showing what combination of parameters works best. It remains remarkable that using only a fraction of the variables and combining them non-compensatorily, MH obtained nearly as good a fit as the weighing method.
The Role of Judges in Identifying the Status of Combatants
Nobuo Hayashi
Acta Societatis Martensis , 2006,
Abstract: International humanitarian law facilitates legitimate human endeavours and safeguards social values in armed conflict. Persuasive standards of belligerent conduct ought to account for its peculiarities. Combatants make life-and-death decisions — e.g. the status of persons present in the battlefield — quickly and based on limited and often conflicting information. Judges tasked with reviewing such decisions must utilise legal presumptions. Arguably, some judicial rulings have created the impression that presumptive civilians under international humanitarian law become presumptive combatants under international criminal law. This need not be so, however. In case of doubt whether a victim was liable to attacks, in dubio pro reo does not require that he or she be considered an able-bodied, non-surrendering enemy combatant. It only requires that the victim be considered a civilian directly participating in hostilities, leaving the mandatory civilian presumption unaffected. International humanitarian law creates no mandatory presumption against direct participation in hostilities. Whereas combatants are duty-bound to treat a person with doubtful status as a civilian, they are not forbidden to treat a presumptive civilian with doubtful behaviour as a direct participant in hostilities. When reviewing the factual basis for combat decisions, judges must examine whether the relevant information was known or reasonably knowable to the decision-makers at the time. This necessitates a sound understanding of the realities of hostilities. Judges must avoid alienating reasonable and law-abiding combatants by holding them to unrealistic standards, such as a choice between self-sacrifice and criminal liability. Nor should judges risk undermining the legal protection of war victims by being unduly deferential to military commanders.
On the Modeling of Honest Players in Reputation Systems
Qing Zhang,Wei Wei,Ting Yu,
Qing
,Zhang

计算机科学技术学报 , 2009,
Abstract: Reputation mechanisms are a key technique to trust assessment in large-scale decentralized systems. The effectiveness of reputation-based trust management fundamentally relies on the assumption that an entity's future behavior may be predicted based on its past behavior. Though many reputation-based trust schemes have been proposed, they can often be easily manipulated and exploited, since an attacker may adapt its behavior, and make the above assumption invalid. In other words, existing trust schemes are in general only effective when applied to honest players who usually act with certain consistency instead of adversaries who can behave arbitrarily. In this paper, we investigate the modeling of honest entities in decentralized systems. We build a statistical model for the transaction histories of honest players. This statistical model serves as a profiling tool to identify suspicious entities. It is combined with existing trust schemes to ensure that they are applied to entities whose transaction records are consistent with the statistical model. This approach limits the manipulation capability of adversaries, and thus can significantly improve the quality of reputation-based trust assessment.
Generalizations of Andrews' curious identities  [PDF]
Chuanan Wei,Xiaoxia Wang
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: According to the method of series rearrangement, we establish two generalizations of Andrews' curious $q$-series identity with an extra integer parameter. The limiting cases of them produce two extensions of Andrews' curious $_3F_2(\frac{3}{4})$-series identity with an additional integer parameter. Meanwhile, several related results are also given.
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