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Association between diabetic retinopathy and serum lipoproteins level  [PDF]
K Shakya,JK Shrestha,SN Joshi
Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/nepjoph.v1i2.3684
Abstract: Introduction: Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness of working-age patients in the urban areas. Objective: To find out the association between diabetic retinopathy and serum lipoproteins in patients with diabetes mellitus Materials and methods: A community-based cross-sectional study involving 100 subjects with type II diabetes living in the cities of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Lalitpur of Nepal was carried out using a purposive sampling method. The retinopathy was classified according to the modified Airlie House classification of diabetic retinopathy. The patients with systolic hypertension were excluded. The blood sugar level was assessed by using glycosylated hemoglobin. The fasting serum lipoproteins were assessed by photometric enzymatic methods. Statistics: The SPSS version 10.0 software was used. The p value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The majority (n=91) of the patients were in the age group 31-60 years with the mean of 48.2 ± 9.5. The mean duration of diabetes mellitus in the patients with no-diabetic-retinopathy was 4 ±3.4 years and that in those with the retinopathy was 6.4 ± 4years, (p =0.006). The mean glycosylated hemoglobin level for no-diabetic-retinopathy group was 6.9 ±1.1 %, whereas for the diabetic retinopathy group, it was 7.7 ± 1.5% (p = 0.004). The mean values of serum lipoproteins when taken together were slightly higher in the diabetic retinopathy group than in the group with no-diabetic-retinopathy. The serum triglyceride value was higher in the group with diabetic retinopathy than in the group with no retinopathy. Serum triglyceride had a low degree of positive correlation with HbA1c value. Conclusion: There is no significant association between the serum lipoprotein levels and diabetic retinopathy in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Serum triglyceride level has a low degree of positive correlation with HbA1c value. Keywords: diabetic retinopathy; lipoproteins; glycosylated hemoglobin DOI: 10.3126/nepjoph.v1i2.3684 Nep J Oph 2009;1(2):107-113
Association of obesity with hypertension and type 2 diabetes and the role of the menopausal status  [PDF]
Kawaljit Kaur Khokhar,Gurcharan Kaur,Sharda Sidhu
Human Biology Review , 2012,
Abstract: Background: In India, Punjab ranks one with 33.9% of population being overweight or obese and the prevalence is higher among women.Aim: The present cross-sectional study was carried out to find out the association of obesity with hypertension and type 2 diabetes among women and to further assess the impact of the menopausal status on it.Subjects and Methods: 595 working women (330-pre- and 265-postmenopausal) were personally interviewed for the study. Their body measurements were taken. Blood pressure and blood glucose were checked. Subjects were divided into non-obese and obese groups as per WHO guidelines. Prevalence of hypertension and type 2diabetes was calculated among non-obese and obese subjects as per standardized criteria.Results: The prevalence of pre-hypertension was 3.44 % and 13.24%, hypertension as 5.17% and 17.65%, and diabetes as 5.17% and 9.19%, respectively among non-obese and obese premenopausal subjects. Similarly, among non-obese and obese postmenopausal women, the prevalence of pre-hypertension was 7.40% and 13.03%, hypertension as 14.82% and 30.25%, and diabetes as 7.41% and 15.55%, respectively. Pearsona€ s correlation co-efficient reflects the association of BMI with Blood pressure.Conclusions: Obese women are at higher risk of hypertension and type 2 diabetes and the effect of obesity on these diseases seems to be independent of the menopausal status. But as the chi square test didna€ t reveal the significant differences between non-obese and obese groups, it is suggested that overweight or obesity might be contributing but is not the sole factor in the etiology of hypertension and type 2 diabetes.
Association of Serum Lipid Profiles with Depressive and Anxiety Disorders in Menopausal Women  [PDF]
Chien-Chih Chen,Tiao-Lai Huang
Chang Gung Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Background: Several studies have investigated the relationships of lipid levels withdepressive and anxiety disorders, and their results revealed an associationbetween low cholesterol and higher levels of depressive symptoms in young,middle-aged, and postpartum women. However, few studies have exploredthis relationship in menopausal women. Hence, in this study of menopausalTaiwanese women, we attempted to determine the correlation of depressiveand anxiety disorders with serum lipid profiles.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study covering a 2-year period. Sixty-ninemenopausal women who visited the gynecologic outpatient department ofour hospital were enrolled. Psychiatric diagnoses were made using the semistructuredclinical interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSMIV)criteria. Blood samples for serum lipid profiles were simultaneously collected.Data were analyzed using analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) adjustedfor age and body mass index (BMI).Results: Total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were higher inpostmenopausal women than in perimenopausal women, but this was nottrue for triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very-low-densitylipoprotein (VLDL), the TC/HDL ratio, or the LDL/HDL ratio. However,when peri- and postmenopausal women were categorized into normal controlsand those having anxiety disorders and depressive disorders, no significantdifferences were found in lipid concentrations of TG, TC, HDL, VLDL,LDL, TC/HDL, or LDL/HDL among the 3 groups.Conclusions: Although these results do not suggest that serum lipid profiles can be used asbiological markers to distinguish depressive or anxiety disorders inmenopausal women, larger samples are required to prove such results in thefuture.
Association between Soy Isoflavone Intake and Breast Cancer Risk for Pre- and Post-Menopausal Women: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Studies  [PDF]
Meinan Chen, Yanhua Rao, Yi Zheng, Shiqing Wei, Ye Li, Tong Guo, Ping Yin
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089288
Abstract: Background Conclusions drawn from meta-analyses on the association between soy isoflavone intake and breast cancer risk for pre- and post-menopausal women are not fully consistent. These meta-analyses did not explore the influence of different study designs on the pooled results on the basis of distinguishing between pre- and post-menopausal women. Methodology and Principal Findings We performed a meta-analysis of 35 studies which reported results of association between soy isoflavone intake and breast cancer risk for pre- and/or post-menopausal women, calculated pooled odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals of pre- and post-menopausal women respectively, and further explored soy isoflavone-breast cancer association on the basis of considering different study regions and designs. Summary results suggested that soy isoflavone intake has a protective effect against breast cancer for both pre- and post-menopausal women. However, they are influenced by study design and region. Pooled ORs of studies carried out in Asian countries suggested that soy isoflavone’s protective effect exist in both pre- and post-menopausal women (OR = 0.59, 95%CI: 0.48–0.69 for premenopausal women; OR = 0.59, 95%CI: 0.44–0.74 for postmenopausal women). However, there are some differences between the results pooled from different study designs for women in Asian countries (test for consistency, P = 0.04). Pooled OR of studies on postmenopausal women in Western countries suggested that soy isoflavone intake has a marginally significant protective effect (OR = 0.92; 95%CI: 0.83~1.00), but further analyses stratifying by study design found no statistically significant association. Conclusions We meta-analyzed more and newer research results, and separated women according to menopausal status to explore soy isoflavone-breast cancer association. We founded that soy isoflavone intake could lower the risk of breast cancer for both pre- and post-menopausal women in Asian countries. However, for women in Western countries, pre- or post-menopausal, there is no evidence to suggest an association between intake of soy isoflavone and breast cancer.
womens'language: a struggle to overcome inequality
Bola?os Cuellar,Sergio;
Forma y Función , 2006,
Abstract: this paper attempts to show that the intellectual construct womens language is entirely justified on a political, ideological, and economic basis that stresses the fact that women have historically been victims of overt (and covert) discrimination and exploitation in our society. linguistically speaking, however, a womens'language seems not to exist in traditional strict terms, but rather as a rhetorical term used in the form of a synecdoche. despite their incompleteness, two attempts of characterizing truly women languages, nu shu and láadan, are discussed, underlining and recognizing their legitimate symbolic value as equalizing manoeuvres. women have resorted to more subtle linguistic means to emerge as visible agents in our society. linguistic resources go from a passive acceptance of the traditional all-inclusive generic masculine forms, through the equalizing use of both masculine and feminine markers, to the most progressive, liberal and controversial strategies of using feminizing forms, i.e. all-inclusive generic feminine forms. womens'struggle to overcome inequity and inequality is a legitimate endeavour which is leaving visible linguistic traces in our languages. women are changing languages around the world.
Association of Cholesterol-rich Lipoproteins with Coronary Artery Disease in Subjects Who Referred to Yazd Cardiovascular Research Center for Coronary Angiography  [PDF]
B.A. Jalali-khanabadi,H. Mozaffari-khosravi,M. Rafiei,S.M.Ghoreishian
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in many populations, including Iranians. The best way to control CAD, is to identify and modify more effective local risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine and comparison of lipids, lipoproteins and lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] in patients with CAD who referred to cardiovascular research center. One hundred patients (37 females, 63 males) with CAD and 92 controls (58 females, 34 males) were investigated. The fasting plasma Total-cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), was determined by routine laboratory methods. Lp (a), apo-A1 and apo-B100 were determined by electroimmunoassay method. Statistical test included, t-test for comparison of lipids and U-test for comparison of Lp (a) in two groups. TC and Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients (227±35 and 147±40 mg dL-1, respectively) were higher than controls (208±54 and 127±39 mg dL-1). There were not any significant differences in TG, HDL-C and apo-A1 between two groups, but apo-B100 was higher in patients (1.25±0.4 g L-1) than controls (1.13±0.36 g L-1). Lp (a) was higher in patients (25±27 mg dL-1) than control (18.8±19.5), but was not statistically significant (p = 0.067). We concluded that high levels of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich lipoproteins are more associated with CAD. Lp (a) is more associated with CAD in women and TG is more effective risk factor for MI in our study population. These lipids and lipoproteins may be more effective local risk factor for incidence of CAD in some Iranian populations.
The association of the Clock 3111 T/C SNP with lipids and lipoproteins including small dense low-density lipoprotein: results from the Mima study
Kokoro Tsuzaki, Kazuhiko Kotani, Yoshiko Sano, Shinji Fujiwara, Kaoru Takahashi, Naoki Sakane
BMC Medical Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-11-150
Abstract: In 365 community-dwelling subjects (170 men and 195 women, mean age 63 ± 14 years), the 3111 T/C SNP was genotyped using a fluorescent allele-specific DNA primer assay system. The levels of sdLDL were measured with the electrophoretic separation of lipoproteins employing the Lipoprint system.The frequency of the Clock 3111 C allele was 0.14. The area of sdLDL did not differ between the subjects with obesity and those without. In carriers of T/T homozygotes, the area of sdLDL was significantly higher compared with carriers of the C allele (T/C or C/C) (1.7 ± 3.4 vs. 0.8 ± 1.9%; p < 0.05). A multiple regression analysis showed that the area of sdLDL was significantly and negatively correlated with the Clock 3111 T/C SNP (β = -0.114, p < 0.05), independently of age, sex, body mass index, and exercise habits.Our findings indicated that the Clock 3111 T/C SNP might be associated with the existence of sdLDL.Sleep can be interrelated with various lifestyle and genetic factors. The sleep-wake cycle is generated through circadian rhythmicity and homeostasis [1,2]. In mammals, physiological processes show approximate 24-hour rhythms [3] derived by the clock molecules controlled not only by the master circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) [4-6] but also by peripheral clocks in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue [7-9]. The clock molecule groups, such as brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 (BMAL1) and circadian locomotor output cycles protein kaput (CLOCK), also play major roles in circadian rhythmicity and regulating lipid and glucose metabolism in peripheral organs [10]. The human Clock gene located on chromosome 4q12 has a basic helix-loop-helix domains (for binding DNA). Mutant mice homozygous for Clock exibit an altered diurnal feeding rhythm, developing metabolic syndrome with hyperlipidemia [11], and a reduced amount of time spent asleep both in entrained and free-running conditions [12]. So, disruption of the circadian rhythm leads to metabolic and sle
Chocolate rheology
Gon?alves, Estela Vidal;Lannes, Suzana Caetano da Silva;
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612010000400002
Abstract: rheology is the science that studies the deformation and flow of solids and fluids under the influence of mechanical forces. the rheological measures of a product in the stage of manufacture can be useful in quality control. the microstructure of a product can also be correlated with its rheological behavior allowing for the development of new materials. rheometry permits attainment of rheological equations applied in process engineering, particularly unit operations that involve heat and mass transfer. consumer demands make it possible to obtain a product that complies with these requirements. chocolate industries work with products in a liquid phase in conching, tempering, and also during pumping operations. a good design of each type of equipment is essential for optimum processing. in the design of every process, it is necessary to know the physical characteristics of the product. the rheological behavior of chocolate can help to know the characteristics of application of the product and its consumers. foods are generally in a metastable state. their texture depends on the structural changes that occur during processing. molten chocolate is a suspension with properties that are strongly affected by particle characteristics including not only the dispersed particles but also the fat crystals formed during chocolate cooling and solidification. chocolate rheology is extensively studied, and it is known that chocolate texture and stability is strongly affected by the presence of specific crystals
Immune Response to Lipoproteins in Atherosclerosis  [PDF]
Sonia Samson,Lakshmi Mundkur,Vijay V. Kakkar
Cholesterol , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/571846
Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease, is characterized by chronic inflammation and altered immune response. Cholesterol is a well-known risk factor associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Elevated serum cholesterol is unique because it can lead to development of atherosclerosis in animals and humans even in the absence of other risk factors. Modifications of low-density lipoproteins mediated by oxidation, enzymatic degradation, and aggregation result in changes in their function and activate both innate and adaptive immune system. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been identified as one of the most important autoantigens in atherosclerosis. This escape from self-tolerance is dependent on the formation of oxidized phospholipids. The emerging understanding of the importance of immune responses against oxidized LDL in atherosclerosis has focused attention on the possibility of development of novel therapy for atherosclerosis. This review provides an overview of immune response to lipoproteins and the fascinating possibility of developing an immunomodulatory therapy for atherosclerosis.
Immune Response to Lipoproteins in Atherosclerosis  [PDF]
Sonia Samson,Lakshmi Mundkur,Vijay V. Kakkar
Cholesterol , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/571846
Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease, is characterized by chronic inflammation and altered immune response. Cholesterol is a well-known risk factor associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Elevated serum cholesterol is unique because it can lead to development of atherosclerosis in animals and humans even in the absence of other risk factors. Modifications of low-density lipoproteins mediated by oxidation, enzymatic degradation, and aggregation result in changes in their function and activate both innate and adaptive immune system. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been identified as one of the most important autoantigens in atherosclerosis. This escape from self-tolerance is dependent on the formation of oxidized phospholipids. The emerging understanding of the importance of immune responses against oxidized LDL in atherosclerosis has focused attention on the possibility of development of novel therapy for atherosclerosis. This review provides an overview of immune response to lipoproteins and the fascinating possibility of developing an immunomodulatory therapy for atherosclerosis. 1. Introduction Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. As per the WHO estimates 17.3 million people died of CVD in 2008 representing almost 30% of global mortality. It is estimated that this number will rise to 23.6 million by 2030 with almost 80% of the death occurring in low and middle income countries. The most important risk factors of heart disease and stroke are unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and harmful use of alcohol. These result in raised blood pressure, raised levels of glucose and lipids in blood, overweight, and obesity which constitute the metabolic syndrome [1]. Higher level of cholesterol in blood has traditionally been considered as established risk factors for CVD. However, increased total cholesterol concentrations in plasma do not accurately predict the risk of coronary heart disease as it includes the sum of all cholesterol carried not only by atherogenic lipoproteins, that is, very low-density lipoprotein [VLDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], and intermediate-density lipoprotein [IDL], but also by antiatherogenic lipoproteins, that is, high-density lipoprotein, [HDL]. It is also known that the small, dense LDL cholesterol is more atherogenic than large, buoyant particles, and oxidation of LDL increases its atherogenicity. The relationship between LDL cholesterol and risk for CVD is well established, and measurement of LDL is routinely
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