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Metadrama and Themes in Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead
Canadian Social Science , 2007,
Abstract: English playwright Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead is one of the most successful adaptations of Shakespeare’s Hamlet, transformed from a revenge tragedy into an Absurd drama. The two minor characters in Shakespeare’s play, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, are taken into limelight on Stoppard’s stage and are apparently at a loss in their new world, thrown into a predicament far beyond their understanding. Like other plays of the Theatre of the Absurd, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead presents in philosophical ways man’s lack of absolute values, the problem of freedom and the uncertainty of knowledge and perception. The themes of the play have been familiar in contemporary literature — confusion, helplessness and the absence of identity. This paper is to try a closer look at the application of metadrama in Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead to see how the metadramtic is used to reinforce the themes of man’s confusion, helplessness and the absence of identity in the play. Key words: Stoppard, metadrama, theme Résumé: La pièce du dramaturge anglais Tom Stoppard intitulée Rosencrantz and Guildenstern sont morts est l’une des adaptations les plus réussies de Hamlet de Shakespeare. La tragédie de vengeance est transformé en une pièce absurde. Deux figurants Rosencrantz et Guildenstern dans la pièce de Shakerpeare sont portés sur le devant de la scène par Stoppard. Désorientés sur la scène, ils tombent dans la détresse. Comme d’autres pièces absurdes, cette pièce pleine de philosophie démontre le manque de conception de la valeur parfaite, la détresse de la liberté et l’incertitude de la cognition de l’homme. Ses thèmes sont familiers à la littérature contemporaine- perplexité, solitude et manque de sentiment d’identité. Et l’expression de ces thèmes doit beaucoup à l’utilisation des techniques propres au théatre des Yuan dans la pièce de Stoppard. L’article présent vise à étudier comment Stoppard emploie les techinques du théatre Yuan pour faire ressortir ces thèmes. Mots-Clés: Stoppard, théatre desYuan, thème
A Postmodernist Reading of Tom Stoppard's "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead"
Noorbakhsh Hooti,Samaneh Shooshtarian
Studies in Literature and Language , 2011,
Abstract: This study presents a postmodernist reading of Tom Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. Although both modern and postmodern tendencies are traceable in Stoppard's dramatic achievements, the present study strives to analyze some vivid postmodernist features in his most controversial play, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, as a model of postmodernism in theatre. The selected play will be analyzed in accordance with the specific concepts and theories which are more apparent in Stoppard's dramatic achievements including Lyotard's theory of the end of meta-narratives and also the theory of language game, Fredric Jameson's consumer society, Jacques Derrida's deconstruction and Jean Baudrillard's simulation. As an example of postmodernist play, Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead seems to embody ambiguity, discontinuity, disintegration, pluralism, uncertainty and deconstruction, which are the most outstanding features of postmodern works. Thus, the researchers make an attempt to consider his dramatic work as an example of postmodernist theatre and to apply these postmodern theories to his Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. Key words: Deconstruction; Difference; Intertextuality; Language game; Meta-narratives; Postmodernism; Simulation
Réécriture des pièces de Shakespeare : l’enjeu de la modernité ? Rewriting Shakespeare’s Plays: the Challenge of Modernity?
Estelle Rivier
Revue LISA / LISA e-journal , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/lisa.409
Abstract: Shakespeare’s works remain a reference when artists — either playwrights or stage professionals — aim at philosophising on human nature. These artists use the Shakespearean material to give vent to their own imagination and critical approach to the world they live in. Not surprisingly, Shakespeare’s plays have constantly been adapted on stage and in the cinema to comment upon contemporary facts and to voice either political or social concerns. But the same plays have also been the pretexts for other plays, written in modern English so as to serve new prospects. This study is based on the work of three twentieth-century writers – Arnold Wesker, Edward Bond and Tom Stoppard – who rewrote Shakespearean plays: The Merchant of Venice (The Merchant, 1977), King Lear (Lear, 1972) and Hamlet (Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead, 1967). This article explores the way these plays were elaborated with reference to the original versions and why their authors decided to adapt the Elizabethan text.
Distribution of complexities in the Vai script  [PDF]
Andrij Rovenchak,Ján Ma?utek,Charles Riley
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: In the paper, we analyze the distribution of complexities in the Vai script, an indigenous syllabic writing system from Liberia. It is found that the uniformity hypothesis for complexities fails for this script. The models using Poisson distribution for the number of components and hyper-Poisson distribution for connections provide good fits in the case of the Vai script.
Automatic Script Identification in the Wild  [PDF]
Baoguang Shi,Cong Yao,Chengquan Zhang,Xiaowei Guo,Feiyue Huang,Xiang Bai
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: With the rapid increase of transnational communication and cooperation, people frequently encounter multilingual scenarios in various situations. In this paper, we are concerned with a relatively new problem: script identification at word or line levels in natural scenes. A large-scale dataset with a great quantity of natural images and 10 types of widely used languages is constructed and released. In allusion to the challenges in script identification in real-world scenarios, a deep learning based algorithm is proposed. The experiments on the proposed dataset demonstrate that our algorithm achieves superior performance, compared with conventional image classification methods, such as the original CNN architecture and LLC.
The Number System of the Old European Script  [PDF]
Eric Lewin Altschuler,Nicholas Christenfeld
Mathematics , 2003,
Abstract: The oldest (c. 4000 BC) undeciphered language is the Old European Script known from approximately 940 inscribed objects (82% of inscriptions on pottery) found in excavations in the Vinca-Tordos region Transylvania. Also, it is not known for what the script was used, but the prevailing theory is that it had a religious purpose. We note that more than a quarter of the inscriptions are on the bottom of a pot-seemingly a most illogical and inglorious place to pay homage to a deity. Consistent with this, in a survey we performed of pots and containers in modern locations, we could not find a single religious inscription. Here we delineate the number system of the Old European Script, and propose that the Old European Script may have been used for economic purposes. The delineation of the number signs of the Old European Script should facilitate further understanding of the rest of the script and of the Old European culture, especially as new archaeologic findings emerge.
Study on the Pictograph of Dongba Script in Lijiang Area  [PDF]
Yin Zhou
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.63008
Lijiang, located in the northwest of Yunnan province, is famous for its dongba script. Dongba script is an important pictograph, which is still in use in border area between Yunnan and Sichuan. This article researches on the pictograph of dongba script, and focuses on the classification of pictograph of dongba script. The study of dongba script helps to study the origin and development of script.
The Dead State  [cached]
Richard Gaggioli
International Journal of Thermodynamics , 2012, DOI: 10.5541/ijot.423
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance for the selection of the dead state for exergy analysis, guidance that is especially important in applications to energy-conversion and materials processing plant engineering, and to ecology. First, the general definition of the dead state is provided, based on the concept of ‘the available energy of a body’ as originally presented by Gibbs. Gibbs ‘body’ can be any overall system, no matter how complex and a crucial point is that there is no need to include or have a ‘reference environment.’ On this groundwork, criteria underlying the selection of the appropriate dead state for a variety of practical engineering systems are referred to; while these cases are not exhaustive, they provide examples of the rationale for selection of an appropriate dead state for any case. Finally, the implications and relevance of the dead state on applications of exergy considerations to the issues of ecology and sustainability are discussed.
Study on the Variant Pictograph of Dongba Script in Lijiang Area  [PDF]
Yin Zhou
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.611025
Abstract: Dongba scripture is an important pictograph, and the study of dongba script helps to study the origin and development of writing. Through Lijiang dongba scripture, we find there is a special way to create new script by the change of the script’s shape, called variant pictographs. This article researches on the variant pictograph.
An edit script for taxonomic classifications
Roderic DM Page, Gabriel Valiente
BMC Bioinformatics , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-6-208
Abstract: In this paper, we present a solution to the problem of generating modifications of the NCBI taxonomy, based on the computation of an edit script that summarises the differences between two classification trees. Our algorithms find the shortest possible edit script based on the identification of all shared subtrees, and only take time quasi linear in the size of the trees because classification trees have unique node labels.These algorithms have been recently implemented, and the software is freely available for download from http://darwin.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rpage/forest/ webcite.The NCBI Taxonomy [1] provides one of the most powerful ways to navigate the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) sequence data bases. Every sequence in GenBank is associated with a taxon (which, however, may be unidentified), and each taxon has a unique place in the NCBI taxonomy. Hence, not only can the user retrieve sequences for a given species (such as Homo sapiens), but also for a group of species, such as mammals (Mammalia) or animals (Animalia).The NCBI provides a single classification, assembled from a variety of sources including published literature, a panel of expert advisors, and the taxonomy provided by users when they submit new sequences. Given that there is not universal agreement on the classification of organisms, providing a single classification places constraints on the questions biologists can ask.To give a concrete example, Figure 1 shows a simplified classification of animals, based on the current NCBI taxonomy. In this classification, the Bilateria are split into three groups (Acoelomata, Pseudocoelomata, and Coelomata) based on the nature of the internal body cavity (coelom). The Coelomata are themselves split into two groups, the Protostomia and the Deuterostomia, characterised by the fate of the blastopore during development (in the Protostomia this becomes the mouth, in the Deuterostomia it becomes the anus).An alternative view of animal classifi
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