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Short form of the Changes in Outlook Questionnaire: Translation and validation of the Chinese version
Yinyin Zang, Nigel C Hunt, Tom Cox, Stephen Joseph
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-10-41
Abstract: The English language version of the 10-item CiOQ was translated into simplified Chinese and completed along with other measures in a sample of earthquake survivors (n?=?120). Statistical analyses were performed to explore the structure of the simplified Chinese version of CiOQ-S (CiOQ-SCS), its reliability and validity.Principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted to test the structure of the CiOQ-SCS. The reliability and convergent validity were also assessed. The CiOQ-SCS demonstrated a similar factor structure to the English version, high internal consistency and convergent validity with measures of posttraumatic stress symptoms, anxiety and depression, coping and social support.The data are comparable to those reported for the original version of the instrument indicating that the CiOQ-SCS is a reliable and valid measure assessing positive and negative changes in the aftermath of adversity. However, the sampling method cannot permit us to know how representative our samples were of the earthquake survivor population.
Social Motivation for the Emergence of New Terms in Modern Chinese Language  [cached]
Hongzhi Wu
Asian Social Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v6n2p91
Abstract: This paper attempts to discuss social motivation for the emergence of new terms in modern Chinese language from six perspectives. They are social development, foreign influence, social stratification, the change of values, the organic whole of media and the growth of specialized knowledge as well as people’s life style, and “???”. Linguistic motivation is also discussed briefly as the complementary reason for this language phenomenon.
Study on translating Chinese into Chinese sign language
Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

Xu Lin,and Gao Wen,
XU Lin
,GAO Wen

计算机科学技术学报 , 2000,
Abstract: Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearingimpaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transformation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed. Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is implemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.
Approaches to Translation of Chinese Publicity Materials  [cached]
Lu Yin
English Language Teaching , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v2n2p8
Abstract: Chinese publicity materials are the windows for foreigners to know about China. There has been some problems in the translation for publicity materials both made by the enterprises and government departments. Especially for the growing international communication, the dispute between Chinese and its foreign counterpart is increasingly coming into being because of poor translation. Thus, how to translate Chinese publicity materials and whether you can translate them well have great impact on image and interests of China and its enterprises. This paper intends to discuss culture differences and the differences of language forms, some translation strategies or approaches, translation principles and so on. The paper pays much attention to the efficient information transfer in translation. Feasible methods have been proposed from different aspects in this paper, so that we can improve translation performance in order to convey information effectively and facilitate international communication.
Application of Functional Equivalence Theory in English Translation of Chinese Idioms  [cached]
Qing Zhang,Jiaqi Wang
Journal of Language Teaching and Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4304/jltr.1.6.880-888
Abstract: Eugene A. Nida’s theory of functional equivalence has been highly valued and has influenced the practice of translation in general. It can be applied as a guiding criterion in Chinese idiom translation. This paper attempts to apply the functional equivalence theory to the English translation of Chinese idioms so as to overcome the difficulties encountered by translation practitioners. After the study on literal, free translation and other feasible translating methods, the author believes that it is only the equivalence in both meaning and function that the essence of Chinese idiom translation counts on. In other words, after reading the translation, the target language readers should react the same as the source language readers do to the biggest degree.
Spoken Language Translation for Polish  [PDF]
Krzysztof Marasek,?ukasz Brocki,Danijel Korzinek,Krzysztof Wo?k,Ryszard Gubrynowicz
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Spoken language translation (SLT) is becoming more important in the increasingly globalized world, both from a social and economic point of view. It is one of the major challenges for automatic speech recognition (ASR) and machine translation (MT), driving intense research activities in these areas. While past research in SLT, due to technology limitations, dealt mostly with speech recorded under controlled conditions, today's major challenge is the translation of spoken language as it can be found in real life. Considered application scenarios range from portable translators for tourists, lectures and presentations translation, to broadcast news and shows with live captioning. We would like to present PJIIT's experiences in the SLT gained from the Eu-Bridge 7th framework project and the U-Star consortium activities for the Polish/English language pair. Presented research concentrates on ASR adaptation for Polish (state-of-the-art acoustic models: DBN-BLSTM training, Kaldi: LDA+MLLT+SAT+MMI), language modeling for ASR & MT (text normalization, RNN-based LMs, n-gram model domain interpolation) and statistical translation techniques (hierarchical models, factored translation models, automatic casing and punctuation, comparable and bilingual corpora preparation). While results for the well-defined domains (phrases for travelers, parliament speeches, medical documentation, movie subtitling) are very encouraging, less defined domains (presentation, lectures) still form a challenge. Our progress in the IWSLT TED task (MT only) will be presented, as well as current progress in the Polish ASR.
Translation of Chapter Titles from the Perspective of Sociosemiotics  [cached]
Mei DONG,Yushan ZHAO
Studies in Literature and Language , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.sll.1923156320120501.1257
Abstract: A chapter title as the title for every chapter in a chapter novel is to introduce the whole chapter. A research will be made on the translation techniques of chapter title from the perspective of Sociosemiotics. Sociosemiotics as an interdisciplinary science is dedicated to the research on the relationship between systems of signs and human society. Moreover, Sociosemiotics views language as the most comprehensive system of signs in the human society. Compared with other linguistic theories, Sociosemiotics pays more attention to the application of symbolic systems in society. In the practical translation process, translators should place linguistic signs in the social situation besides the infl uence of internal factors, thus facilitating a more comprehensive research. The paper integrates Sociosemiotics -- three meanings proposed by Morris Charles, namely, referential meaning, linguistic meaning and pragmatic meaning) into the chapter title translation firstly by taking the chapter titles of four Chinese classic novels as examples to explore the translation techniques of chapter titles, and comes to the conclusion: translation techniques such as literal translation, addition and substitution are favorable to transfer referential meaning; translation technique such as conversion is more appropriate to transfer linguistic meaning; as for pragmatic meaning, the technique of free translation is an ideal choice. Key words: Chapter title; Sociosemiotics; Referential meaning; Linguistic meaning; Pragmatic meaning; Translation techniques
Chinese Thoughts vs. Western Notion on Author’s Translation Rights  [cached]
Wei LU
Cross-Cultural Communication , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/2303
Abstract: When apprenticed to the big powers, China thought it justified to translate without considering international copyright so as to enlighten the Chinese people and change the then backward China at the lowest cost. Such thoughts, deeply rooted in China’s academic tradition, have been in conflict with the Western notion of copyright for over a century. Although from the perspective of modern international copyright conventions, China was wrong in the past to infringe upon the source-text author’s translation rights, yet if power is taken into consideration in the process of translation, things are not that simple. Translation has been regarded as “a catalyst for social change” in China, however, with great power differentials between China and the big powers, this catalyst would not have been possible if China had been completely submissive to the Western notion of copyright. While wrestling with other powerful countries on the issue of translation-related copyright, China is striving to dialogue with them on a relatively equal footing. On the other hand, as the nature of translation is revealed more and more in Translation Studies, scholars are calling for the translator’s visibility, which raises an issue concerning the authorship of the translator and limiting the source-text author’s translation rights. In this case, traditional Chinese thoughts on the source-text author’s translation rights would contribute a subversive power in deconstructing the Western concepts of the original authorship. Key Words: The Source-Text Author’s Translation Rights; Conflict; Power Differentials. Résumé: Lors de l’apprenti aux grandes puissances, la Chine a estimé qu’il est justifié de traduire sans tenir compte du droit d’auteur international, afin d’éclairer le peuple chinois et de changer l’arrière, puis le co t de de la traduction le plus bas se trouve en Chine. De telles pensées, profondément enracinées dans la tradition académique de la Chine, ont été en conflit avec la notion occidentale du droit d’auteur pour plus d’un siècle. Bien que du point de vue modernes conventions internationales sur le copyright, la Chine a eu tort dans le passé pour porter atteinte aux droits de traduction de l’auteur texte-source, et pourtant si l’alimentation est prise en considération dans le processus de traduction, les choses ne sont pas aussi simple que cela. La traduction a été considéré comme un catalyseur pour le changement social en Chine, cependant, avec des écarts de grande puissance entre la Chine et les grandes puissances, ce catalyseur n’aurait pas été possible si la Chi
Influences of Cultural Differences between the Chinese and the Western on Translation
Guimei He
Journal of Language Teaching and Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4304/jltr.2.2.483-485
Abstract: The Factors of cultural differences on translation should not be underestimated .Exchange of different ethnic languages is essentially different cultural exchanges. We have to well master the two languages and deeply understand the two cultures, especially the differences between them. We’ll overcome the barriers of language translation. This paper analysis the influences of the differences between the Chinese culture and the Western culture toward translation, from the perspective of religious belief, geographical environment, modes of thinking and different historical culture.
Three Types of Episodic Associations for the Semantic/Syntactic/Episodic Model of Language Prospective in Applications to the Statistical Translation
Zi-Jian Cai
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103830
Recently, it was proposed by Cai a new semantic/ syntactic/ episodic model of language encompassing the sentential meanings, while deriving three corresponding principles from it for machine translation, respectively as first to establish the dictionary of words/phrases, second to translate the grammar, and third to determine the meanings of some words/phrases of multiple meanings by statistical translation. In this article, it is discovered three types of episodic associations for this linguistic model, prospective in applications to statistical translation, as: 1) It is classified the living/natural words and phrases of multiple meanings by behavior, adopting both the zoological/ organizational/ physical/ categorical and affective/ behavioral/ logic/ characteristic/ changing characters to classify the nouns and verbs, the affective/ behavioral/ logic/ characteristic/ changing/ spatial/ temporal characters to the adjectives and adverbs, helpful to discern the meanings of them using these episodic associations with others within the sentence. 2) Likewise, it is classified the sentence/paragraph into the category of natural/social subjects like physics, biology, art, economy, etc., which was improved by the Chinese people in television from my original sentential/thematic category. 3) It is suggested to collect the frequent word-pairs during statistical translation, such as “bank money”, “war declaration”, etc., helpful to determine the episodic associations of some prepositions or terminal “which” clauses. It is suggested to use word episodic symbolization to apply them to computer. It is therefore improved the third principle of machine translation as third to determine the meanings of some words/ phrases of multiple meanings by episodic associations with others using the behavioral classification of words, the categorization of sentence/paragraph and the collection of frequent word-pairs.
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