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Parallel structures for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in Southern Africa
Per Becker,Marcus Abrahamsson,Magnus Hagelsteen
Jàmbá : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies , 2013, DOI: 10.4102/jamba.v5i2.68
Abstract: During the last decade, the interest of the international community in the concepts of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation has been growing immensely. Even though an increasing number of scholars seem to view these concepts as two sides of the same coin (at least when not considering the potentially positive effects of climate change), in practice the two concepts have developed in parallel rather than in an integrated manner when it comes to policy, rhetoric and funding opportunities amongst international organisations and donors. This study investigates the extent of the creation of parallel structures for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. The chosen methodology for the study is a comparative case study and the data are collected through focus groups and content analysis of documentary sources, as well as interviews with key informants. The results indicate that parallel structures for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation have been established in all but one of the studied countries. The qualitative interviews performed in some of the countries indicate that stakeholders in disaster risk reduction view this duplication of structures as unfortunate, inefficient and a fertile setup for conflict over resources for the implementation of similar activities. Additional research is called for in order to study the concrete effects of having these parallel structures as a foundation for advocacy for more efficient future disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation.
Disaster Risk Reduction: Cases from urban Africa  [cached]
Willi Faling
Jàmbá : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/jamba.v3i1.37
Abstract: Very little has been written on the growing number of urban disaster risk hotspots, or the integration of disaster risk reduction and human settlement planning in Africa aside from publications by the World Bank, United Nations and a few other international organisations. This book aspires to fill these gaps, and I recommend it as essential reading for any urban development or disaster management practitioner or academic concerned with risk reduction in African cities. I also recommended the book for courses on sustainable human settlements, development planning and disaster risk reduction.
Towards improved public awareness for climate related disaster risk reduction in South Africa: A Participatory Development Communication perspective
Tigere Chagutah
Jàmbá : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies , 2009, DOI: 10.4102/jamba.v2i2.19
Abstract: Southern Africa has frequently been struck by damaging climate hazards which increasingly continue to threaten sustainable development efforts. Ominously, climate models predict that the incidence of major ‘wet’ events, such as floods and cyclones will increase in frequency against the background of a changing climate. Unfortunately, local mechanisms for communicating and raising public awareness of the consequent risks and appropriate risk reduction options remain weak. At the core of policy responses to the threat posed by climate related hazards, the South African government has adopted a disaster risk reduction approach to disaster management. This article details how, among many other measures to limit the adverse impacts of natural hazards, South Africa’s National Disaster Management Framework calls for the implementation of effective public awareness activities to increase the knowledge among communities of the risks they face and what risk-minimising actions they can take. Emphasis is laid on the importance of information provision and knowledge building among at-risk communities. Citing established theories and strategies, the author proposes a participatory development communication approach through Development Support Communication strategies for the provision of disaster risk reduction public awareness activities by government and other disaster risk reduction role-players in South Africa. By way of a review of completed studies and literature, the article provides guidance on the planning and execution of successful public communication campaigns and also discusses the constraints of communication campaigns as an intervention for comprehensive disaster risk reduction.
The Hyogo Framework for Action and its implications for disaster management and reduction in Africa
Dejo Olowu
Jàmbá : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/jamba.v3i1.22
Abstract: At the World Conference on Disaster Reduction, Hyogo, Japan, in January 2005, the international community adopted a 10-year plan to make the world safer from disasters. The resultant Hyogo Framework for Action is the global blueprint for disaster risk reduction with the goal of substantially reducing disaster losses in human lives and socio-economic assets. What is the signi!cance of the HFA for the adoption of disaster prevention, management and risk reduction frameworks in African States? Since 2005, what has been the attitude of African States to the promise of the HFA? In terms of policy and planning, how should African States engage the HFA towards securing human lives and properties against natural and human-induced disasters? With the myriad challenges of mass poverty and underdevelopment across Africa, what implications does the HFA hold for disaster risk reduction and management in African States? This article attempts to address this plethora of questions, drawing on lessons learned in Africa and beyond. The article examines the background of the HFA and its progress in shaping the global policy agenda towards disaster management and reduction. While the article acknowledges some of the inherent weaknesses in the promise of the HFA, it nonetheless accentuates its inimitable implications for broad legal and policy strategies towards ameliorating the usual horrific aftermath of disasters in Africa.
Translating disaster resilience into spatial planning practice in South Africa: Challenges and champions  [cached]
Willemien van Niekerk
Jàmbá : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies , 2013, DOI: 10.4102/jamba.v5i1.53
Abstract: It is highly likely that hazards and extreme climatic events will occur more frequently in the future and will become more severe – increasing the vulnerability and risk of millions of poor urbanites in developing countries. Disaster resilience aims to reduce disaster losses by equipping cities to withstand, absorb, adapt to or recover from external shocks. This paper questions whether disaster resilience is likely to be taken up in spatial planning practices in South Africa, given its immediate developmental priorities and challenges. In South Africa, issues of development take precedence over issues of sustainability, environmental management and disaster reduction. This is illustrated by the priority given to ‘servicing’ settlements compared to the opportunities offered by ‘transforming’ spaces through post-apartheid spatial planning. The City of Durban’s quest in adapting to climate change demonstrates hypothetically that if disaster resilience were to be presented as an issue distinct from what urban planners are already doing, then planners would see it as insignificant as compared to addressing the many developmental backlogs and challenges. If, however, it is regarded as a means to secure a city’s development path whilst simultaneously addressing sustainability, then disaster resilience is more likely to be translated into spatial planning practices in South Africa.
Land tenure insecurity, vulnerability to climate-induced disaster and opportunities for redress in southern Africa  [cached]
Tigere Chagutah
Jàmbá : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies , 2013, DOI: 10.4102/jamba.v5i2.79
Abstract: Land tenure is an important variable impacting on vulnerability to climate-related disaster. Land tenure insecurity is widespread in southern Africa and manifests itself in a number of ways that accentuate vulnerability to climate change impacts. Insecure tenure is seen to heighten vulnerability against growing demand for land for residential purposes and working space in urban areas while in the rural areas insecure tenure militates against diversified livelihoods and hinders investment in appropriate technologies and uptake of sound environmental management practices. Using the focused synthesis method, this article (1) maps the intersections between land tenure insecurity and vulnerability to climate-induced disaster in southern Africa; and (2) identifies the opportunities tenure reforms hold for vulnerability reduction in a region predicted to suffer widespread impacts from climate change. The paper contends that land tenure is a critical component of the milieu of factors – economic, social, cultural, institutional, political and even psychological – that are known to shape vulnerability and determine the environment that people live in. The study finds that land tenure reforms can help to reduce vulnerability and enhance community resilience to climate change. In this regard, the article outlines how tenure reforms can help build diverse household livelihoods, improve environmental management, particularly in the rural areas, and encourage investment in robust housing and safe neighbourhoods among the urban poor – all of which are integral to the region’s response to climate change.
Highly active antiretroviral therapy and tuberculosis control in Africa: synergies and potential
Harries,Anthony D.; Hargreaves,Nicola J.; Chimzizi,Rehab; Salaniponi,Felix M.;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862002000600010
Abstract: hiv/aids (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) and tb (tuberculosis) are two of the world's major pandemics, the brunt of which falls on sub-saharan africa. efforts aimed at controlling hiv/aids have largely focused on prevention, little attention having been paid to care. work on tb control has concentrated on case detection and treatment. hiv infection has complicated the control of tuberculosis. there is unlikely to be a decline in the number of cases of tb unless additional strategies are developed to control both this disease and hiv simultaneously. such strategies would include active case-finding in situations where tb transmission is high, the provision of a package of care for hiv-related illness, and the application of highly active antiretroviral therapy. the latter is likely to have the greatest impact, but for this therapy to become more accessible in africa the drugs would have to be made available through international support and a programme structure would have to be developed for its administration. it could be delivered by means of a structure based on the five-point strategy called dots, which has been adopted for tb control. however, it may be unrealistic to give tb control programmes the responsibility for running such a programme. a better approach might be to deliver highly active antiretroviral therapy within a comprehensive hiv/aids management strategy complementing the preventive work already being undertaken by aids control programmes. tb programmes could contribute towards the development and implementation of this strategy.
Highly active antiretroviral therapy and tuberculosis control in Africa: synergies and potential  [cached]
Harries Anthony D.,Hargreaves Nicola J.,Chimzizi Rehab,Salaniponi Felix M.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002,
Abstract: HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) and TB (tuberculosis) are two of the world's major pandemics, the brunt of which falls on sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts aimed at controlling HIV/AIDS have largely focused on prevention, little attention having been paid to care. Work on TB control has concentrated on case detection and treatment. HIV infection has complicated the control of tuberculosis. There is unlikely to be a decline in the number of cases of TB unless additional strategies are developed to control both this disease and HIV simultaneously. Such strategies would include active case-finding in situations where TB transmission is high, the provision of a package of care for HIV-related illness, and the application of highly active antiretroviral therapy. The latter is likely to have the greatest impact, but for this therapy to become more accessible in Africa the drugs would have to be made available through international support and a programme structure would have to be developed for its administration. It could be delivered by means of a structure based on the five-point strategy called DOTS, which has been adopted for TB control. However, it may be unrealistic to give TB control programmes the responsibility for running such a programme. A better approach might be to deliver highly active antiretroviral therapy within a comprehensive HIV/AIDS management strategy complementing the preventive work already being undertaken by AIDS control programmes. TB programmes could contribute towards the development and implementation of this strategy.
Modeling for transboundary water resources planning and allocation: the case of Southern Africa
D. Juízo,R. Lidén
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2010,
Abstract: International water resources agreements for transboundary rivers in southern Africa are generally founded in system analysis models for water planning and allocation. The Water Resources Yield Model (WRYM) developed in South Africa has so far been the only model applied in official joint water resources studies aimed to form water-sharing agreements. The continuous discussion around the model performance and growing distress over it being South African, where it was originally developed, while South Africa is one of the interested parties in the process, results in an increased controversy over the system analysis results that are often only meant to guide in selecting the options for water resources management in a given set of scenarios. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the model performance of two other models; WAFLEX and WEAP21 in the Umbeluzi River Basin system where the WRYM was previously applied as part of a Joint River Basin Study. A set of basin development scenarios was equally tested in the three models and the results compared. The results show that the three models all are possible tools for system analysis of river basins in southern Africa, although the structure and complexity of the models are different. The obtained level of satisfaction for specific water users could, however, vary depending on which model was used, which causes uncertainties. The reason for the diverse results is the structurally different ways of describing allocation and prioritization of water in the three models. However, the large degrees of freedom in all system models cause even larger uncertainty in the results since the model developer can, intentionally or unintentionally, direct the results to favor certain water user. The conclusion of this study is therefore that the choice of model does not per se affect the decision of best water allocation and infrastructure layout of a shared river basin. The chosen allocation and prioritization principles for the specific river basin and the model developer's experience and integrity are more important factors to find the optimal and equitable allocation.
Renal Replacement Therapy Resources in Africa
A Matri, E Elhassan, H Abu-Aisha
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation , 2008,
Abstract: Background: Africa is the world’s second-largest and most-populous continent. It is also the world’s poorest inhabited continent. Regarding chronic kidney disease (CKD), there are no reliable statistics in most African countries. However, there is a general impression that it is at least three to four times more frequent than in more developed countries Methods: a survey on renal replacement therapy in Africa was conducted in the context of the African Association of Nephrology (AFRAN) Congress 2007. A questionnaire was sent to leading African nephrologists, and data were also collected from the main dialysis supply companies and by personal communication. Data have been obtained from 32 out of 54 countries, representing 89% of the total population. Results: There are no reliable statistics regarding CKD in most African countries. The total number of nephrologists in the continent is 1154 (1-4 pmp). The total number of patients on hemodialysis (HD) is just over 60000 patients (<50 pmp in many countries). Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is only available in 12 African countries, and the total number of PD patients is around 2000. Renal transplantation is performed in 10 of the 53 countries, and only five countries have sustained programs that perform more than 50 cases per year. Conclusion: CKD is an under-recognized health challenge in Africa. Research should be encouraged to gauge the exact incidence and prevalence of CKD in African countries and define its regional risk factors. Efforts are needed to train physicians in this specialty, and strategies for judicious resources allocation should be implemented.
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