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Histoid leprosy with filariasis  [cached]
Aggrawal Kamal,Jain V,Dayal Surbhi
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2002,
Abstract: A patient with filariasis, taking treatment in the form diethyl carbamazime citrate developing "de-novo" histoid leprosy during the course of the disease is being reported.
Filariasis and serum specific gravity
Viroj Wiwanitkit
Iranian Journal of Medical Hypotheses & Ideas , 2009,
Abstract: "nFilariasis is a problematic tropical vector borne infection. Here, the author proposes an idea on a physical change, serum specific gravity, in serum of filariasis cases and further extrapolates for its clinical usefulness. According to this study, the finalized estimated serum specificity in filariasis is more than that of normal condition. The change of the specific gravity due to additional content or mass can be demonstrated and might be useful for diagnosis and following up of filariasis.
Eliminating lymphatic filariasis
Ichimori, Kazuyo;Ottesen, Eric A.;
Boletín médico del Hospital Infantil de México , 2011,
Abstract: one of the oldest of the neglected tropical diseases, lymphatic filariasis, is caused by filarial worms transmitted by insect vectors that live in the lymphatic system and most commonly cause lymphedema, elephantiasis and hydrocele, which may lead to severe deformity, stigma and disability. similar to other neglected tropical diseases, lymphatic filariasis occurs mostly among the poor disenfranchised populations living in highly endemic settings perpetuating a cycle that traps people into further poverty and destitution. through the leadership of the world health organization, the global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis has reached substantial achievements in decreasing the transmission of lympahtic filariasis in multiple settings. the strategic plan for the next 10 years of the global programme, in addition to working within the new 'neglected tropical diseases environment,' lays out necessary mass drug administration implementation goals for the filariasis-endemic countries that have not yet started their elimination programs (principally in africa). the neglected tropical diseases programs-and the lymphatic filariasis program in particular-are among the very least expensive, most cost-effective tools to benefit needy populations of the developing world.
Surgical manifestations of filariasis  [cached]
Subrahmanyam M,Belokar W,Gole Sanjeevani
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 1978,
Abstract: Surgical manifestations of filariasis as seen in 150 cases over a period of three years in the department of Surgery, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha are reviewed. The genital manifestations are more common than the elephantiasis in this endemic zone.
Hoedojo Hoedojo
Bulletin of Health Research , 2012,
Abstract: Malaria at present is still one of the important mosquito-borne diseases in Indonesia. The disease is widespread all over the country and involves nearly all islands. Sixteen Anopheles species have been reconfirmed as malaria vectors. They were distributed geographi-cally as follows: Coastal areas and lagoons ------------------------------------- An sundaicus and An.subpictus Cultivated ricefields and swampy areas -------------------- An.aconitus, An.barbirostris, An.nigerrimus and An.sinensis Forest inland areas in shaded temporary pools, muddy animal wallows and hoof-prints -------------------------------------------------------- An.balabacensis, An.bancrofti, An.farauti, An.koliensis and An.punctulatus Swamp forest edge in ditches with vegeta- ---------------- An.letifer and An.ludlowae don Hilly areas in seepages, streams and clear moving water ---------------------------------------------- Anflavirostris, An.maculatus and Anminimus. The species (of most general importance is An.sundaicus, which is restricted) by its preference for brackish water and is prevalent in coastal areas of Java. Their types in behaviour of An.sundaicus appear as follows : 1. An.sundaicus in South Coast of Java in general. This species is essentially anthropophilic, exophagic and rests outdoor. It shows susceptible to DDT. 2. An.sundaicus in Cilacap, Central Java. This mosquito is a pure anthropophilic form. It bites man in houses and outdoors, rests indoors and is known resistant to DDT. 3. An.sundaicus in Yogyakarta and Purworejo, Central Java. This mosquito is a strong zoophilic species. It rests and prefers to bite outdoors and shows tolerance to DDT. Human filariasis in Indonesia is the result of infection by three endemic species, namely, Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori.W.bancrofti infection is found in both urban and rural areas. Twenty species of mosquitoes are confirmed as filariasis vectors. The urban type bancroftian filariasis is transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus, whereas the rural type is transmitted mosdy by Anopheles spp., such as An.aconitus and An.punctulatus complex. The periodic species of Mansonia transmit the subperiodic noctural B.malayi. B.timori which is distributed in the Eastern part of Indonesia (East Nusa Tenggara), is transmitted by An.barbirostris. Some filariasis vectors such as An.aconitus and the An.puctulatus complex may function both as filariasis vector and malaria vector as well. An.barbirostris with is confirmed as a vector of malaria in South Sulawesi, a vector of periodic nocturnal malayan filariasis in Ce
Reduction in Acute Filariasis Morbidity during a Mass Drug Administration Trial to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis in Papua New Guinea  [PDF]
Daniel J. Tisch,Neal D. E. Alexander,Benson Kiniboro,Henry Dagoro ?,Peter M. Siba,Moses J. Bockarie,Michael P. Alpers,James W. Kazura
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001241
Abstract: Background Acute painful swelling of the extremities and scrotum are debilitating clinical manifestations of Wuchereria bancrofti infection. The ongoing global program to eliminate filariasis using mass drug administration is expected to decrease this and other forms of filarial morbidity in the future by preventing establishment of new infections as a consequence of eliminating transmission by the mosquito vector. We examined whether mass treatment with anti-filarial drugs has a more immediate health benefit by monitoring acute filariasis morbidity in Papua New Guinean communities that participated in a 5-year mass drug administration trial. Methodology/Principal Findings Weekly active surveillance for acute filariasis morbidity defined by painful swelling of the extremities, scrotum and breast was performed 1 year before and each year after 4 annual mass administrations of anti-filarial drugs (16,480 person-years of observation). Acute morbidity events lasted <3 weeks in 92% of affected individuals and primarily involved the leg (74–79% of all annual events). The incidence for all communities considered together decreased from 0.39 per person-year in the pre-treatment year to 0.31, 0.15, 0.19 and 0.20 after each of 4 annual treatments (p<0.0001). Residents of communities with high pre-treatment transmission intensities (224–742 infective bites/person/year) experienced a greater reduction in acute morbidity (0.62 episodes per person-year pre-treatment vs. 0.30 in the 4th post-treatment year) than residents of communities with moderate pre-treatment transmission intensities (24–167 infective bites/person/year; 0.28 episodes per person-year pre-treatment vs. 0.16 in the 4th post-treatment year). Conclusions Mass administration of anti-filarial drugs results in immediate health benefit by decreasing the incidence of acute attacks of leg and arm swelling in people with pre-existing infection. Reduction in acute filariasis morbidity parallels decreased transmission intensity, suggesting that continuing exposure to infective mosquitoes is involved in the pathogenesis of acute filariasis morbidity.
Cytological diagnosis of microfilariae in filariasis endemic areas of eastern Uttar Pradesh  [cached]
Mitra Shaila,Mishra Rajiv,Verma Pallavi
Journal of Cytology , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Filariasis is a major health problem in tropical countries including India. Fine needle aspiration cytology plays an important role in prompt recognition of disease. Aim: To assess the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in diagnosis of filariasis at all possible sites. Materials and Methods : Total 250 cases of superficial swellings at various sites were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology. Results: Out of 250 cases, 24 cases of filariasis were detected which include breast lumps (8 cases), lymph nodes (6 cases), scrotal swellings (4 cases), thyroid swellings (3 cases), soft tissue swellings (2 cases) and ascitic fluid (1 case). Eosinophilia was present in 8 out of 24 cases with a percentage ranging from 12-24%. Significant adherence of inflammatory cells and macrophages to microfilariae was present in 3 out of 24 cases. Conclusions: In endemic areas, it should be considered one of the differential diagnoses of a superficial swelling. Careful screening of FNAC smears help in detecting microfilaria even in asymptomatic patients and thus plays a significant role in recognition of the disease and institution of specific treatment.
Sekar Tuti,Armedy Ronny Hasugian,Ryanti Ekowatiningsih
Bulletin of Health Research , 2012,
Pathology of lymphatic filariasis  [PDF]
Joon-Wah Mak
International e-Journal of Science, Medicine & Education , 2012,
Abstract: Developing and adult worms of the humanlymphatic filarial parasites (Wuchereria bancrofti,Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori) are located mainly inthe lymphatic system and occasionally in aberrant siteslike subcutaneous and conjunctival cysts. Lymphaticpathology ranging from dilatation of lymphatic channelsand lymphangiectasia are detected on ultrasonography inapparently healthy, amicrofilaraemic, but filarial antigenpositive individuals in endemic areas. Microfilariae aredistributed in various organs and may be associatedwith immune mediated pathology at these sites; tropicalpulmonary eosinophilia is characterized by intenseimmune mediated destruction of microfilariae in thelung parenchyma. In the spleen and other sites, nodulargranulomatous lesions can occur where microfilariaeare trapped and destroyed. The finding of Wolbachiaendosymbionts in all stages of lymphatic filarial parasiteshas provided new insight on the adverse reactionsassociated with anti-filarial chemotherapy. Inflammatorymolecules mainly lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-likemolecules released from endosymbionts on death of theparasites are largely responsible for the adverse reactionsencountered during anti-filarial chemotherapy. Prenataltolerance or sensitization to parasite derived moleculescan immune-modulate and contribute to both pathologyand susceptibility/resistance to infection. Pathologicalresponses thus depend not only on exposure tofilarial antigens/infection, but also on host-parasiteendosymbiontfactors and to intervention with antifilarialtreatment. Treatment induced or host mediateddeath of parasites are associated with various grades ofinflammatory response, in which eosinophils and LPSfrom endosymbionts play prominent roles, leadingto death of the parasite, granulomatous formation,organization and fibrosis.The non-human primate (Presbytis spp.) model ofBrugia malayi developed for the tertiary screeningof anti-filarial compounds has provided uniqueopportunities for the longitudinal study of the pathologyassociated with lymphatic filariasis. The pathology in thisnon-human primate model closely follows that seen in human lymphatic filarial infections and correlates withclinical evidence of lymphatic pathology as detectedwith ultrasonography. These studies also show thatsuccessful treatment as detected by loss of motility andcalcification of worms on ultrasonography is associatedwith reversal of early dilatations of lymphatic channels.
Extralymphatic disease due to bancroftian filariasis
Dreyer, G.;Dreyer, P.;Piessens, W.F.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X1999001200003
Abstract: infection with wuchereria bancrofti, brugia malayi, or b. timori not only affects the structure and function of lymphatic vessels but is also associated with extralymphatic pathology and disease. because it is now possible to detect living adult worms by ultrasonography, much emphasis is placed on lymphatic pathology. however, the finding of renal damage in asymptomatic microfilaremic carriers has led to increased recognition of the importance of extralymphatic clinical manifestation in bancroftian filariasis. the authors present a number of clinical syndromes that may be manifestations of extralymphatic filarial disease and discuss possible mechanisms that cause these conditions. the main purpose of this paper is to raise the awareness of students and physicians of the prevalence and the importance of extralymphatic disease in bancroftian filariasis so that it is diagnosed and treated properly and also to alert for the need of additional research in this area.
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