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Disaster Risk Reduction: Cases from urban Africa  [cached]
Willi Faling
Jàmbá : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/jamba.v3i1.37
Abstract: Very little has been written on the growing number of urban disaster risk hotspots, or the integration of disaster risk reduction and human settlement planning in Africa aside from publications by the World Bank, United Nations and a few other international organisations. This book aspires to fill these gaps, and I recommend it as essential reading for any urban development or disaster management practitioner or academic concerned with risk reduction in African cities. I also recommended the book for courses on sustainable human settlements, development planning and disaster risk reduction.
Disaster Risk Management of Urban Systems  [PDF]
Ana-Diana Anca?,Florin Leon,Gabriela-Maria Atanasiu
Bulletin of the Polytechnic Institute of Jassy, Constructions, Architechture Section , 2006,
Abstract: Evaluating the risk of natural disasters is an intensely debated issue, both on national and international level. In the present paper, after a brief review of the international research in this field and an introduction in risk management, we insisted on risk analysis of an urban area, called urban system. More precisely, we investigated the evaluation of risk and the behavior of the pipelines infrastructure characteristic in an urban area during an earthquake.By taking into account a certain region in Jassy city area, we present a methodology of evaluating seismic risk of the utilities network of the region. The method consists in establishing the necessary steps to be taken in such an evaluation. These steps are also graphically displayed for the gas pipelines of the area, and emphasizing the critical points existent in that sector e.g. gas stations). Using the cellular automata technique, inspired from the artificial intelligence and complex system fields, based on the GIS map of the analysed region, we obtained a map with the risk areas in case of an earthquake, taking into account the gas pipelines network and the existing critical points.
Evaluation of the Relationships between Urban Infrastructure and Flood Disaster in Gombe Metropolis  [cached]
Dabara Ibrahim Daniel,Okorie Augustina,Ankeli Anthony,Alabi Jimoh Kayode
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v5n7p137
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between urban infrastructure and flood disaster in Gombe metropolis, Nigeria. In this research work, the survey research design was used to obtain data from the field. Stratified sampling technique was adopted in determining the study sample which consisted of 250 households (i.e. 13% of the population, made up of 1,923 households). 250 questionnaires were administered on household heads in the study area; however, only 237 questionnaires were retrieved and used for analysis. Spearman’s rank correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were used to examine the relationships between the criterion variable (flood disaster) and the predictor variables (urban infrastructure). The study showed that inadequacy of appropriate urban infrastructure is the major factor responsible for flood disaster in Gombe metropolis [R = 0.792, P = 0.000<0.01(2-tailed)]. It was recommended among others, that there should be improvement on the maintenance of available drainage infrastructure in the metropolis and the integration of solid waste management to prevent over flowing of flood as a result of blockage of drains. Government and all other stakeholders should expedite the provision of appropriate urban infrastructure in the metropolis.
Web-GIS Based Visualization System of Predicted Ground Vibration Induced by Blasting in Urban Quarry Sites  [PDF]
Youhei Kawamura, Yoshio Moriyama, Hyongdoo Jang
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2019.111002
Abstract: Blasting is routinely carried out at various resource extraction sites, even in urban areas. As a consequence of this, residents around urban quarry sites are affected by ground vibration induced by blasting on a regular basis. In this study, a prediction and visualization system for ground vibrations is developed for the purpose of reducing the adverse psychological effects of blasting. The system consists of predicting ground vibration using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and visualizing it on an online map using Web-GIS. A prediction model using ANN that learned the optimum weight by taking 50 sets of data indicated a regression value of 0.859 and a Mean Square Error (MSE) of 0.0228. Compared with previous researches, these values are not bad results. Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) was used as a metric to measure ground vibration intensity. A color contour is generated using GIS tools based on the PPV value of each prediction point. The system is completed by overlaying the contour onto a basic map in a website. The basic map shows the surrounding area through the use of Google Maps data. This system can be used by anyone with access to the internet and a browser, requiring no special software or hardware. In addition, mining operations can utilize the data to modify blasting design and planning to minimize ground vibration. In conclusion, this system has the potential to alleviate the worries of surrounding residents caused by ground vibrations from blasting due to the fact that they can personally check the predicted vibration around their locale. Furthermore, since this data will be publicly available on the internet, it is also possible that this system can contribute to research in other fields.
Urban resilience in post-disaster reconstruction: Towards a resilient development in Sichuan, China
Yan Guo
International Journal of Disaster Risk Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s13753-012-0006-2
Abstract: This article discusses the post-disaster urban resilience design framework in the case of post-disaster urban reconstruction in Sichuan after the Great Sichuan Earthquake (also known as the Wenchuan Earthquake) in May 2008 in China. The focus is on three main aspects of post-disaster urban reconstruction: sociospatial coherence, temporal continuity, and multistakeholder integration and communication. Critical interpretation of the government-guided reconstruction reveals that reconstruction was limited to the generic production and implementation of top-down planning. From the perspective of urban resilience, and through an alternative design scenario developed in this research, this article highlights an urban resilience design framework based on post-disaster development in the Sichuan city of Dujiangyan. By identifying the deficiencies of the governmental reconstruction where in many aspects resilience has not been considered, and by proposing the alternative where resilience has been considered to develop a better living, this research seeks to integrate urban resilience as a key aspect in the Sichuan reconstruction and as essential for developing the post-disaster city towards a more coherent, sustainable, and integral urban future.
Data Survivability in Networks of Mobile Robots in Urban Disaster Environments  [PDF]
Nicolas Kourtellis,Adriana Iamnitchi,Cristian Borcea,Robin Murphy
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Mobile multi-robot teams deployed for monitoring or search-and-rescue missions in urban disaster areas can greatly improve the quality of vital data collected on-site. Analysis of such data can identify hazards and save lives. Unfortunately, such real deployments at scale are cost prohibitive and robot failures lead to data loss. Moreover, scaled-down deployments do not capture significant levels of interaction and communication complexity. To tackle this problem, we propose novel mobility and failure generation frameworks that allow realistic simulations of mobile robot networks for large scale disaster scenarios. Furthermore, since data replication techniques can improve the survivability of data collected during the operation, we propose an adaptive, scalable data replication technique that achieves high data survivability with low overhead. Our technique considers the anticipated robot failures and robot heterogeneity to decide how aggressively to replicate data. In addition, it considers survivability priorities, with some data requiring more effort to be saved than others. Using our novel simulation generation frameworks, we compare our adaptive technique with flooding and broadcast-based replication techniques and show that for failure rates of up to 60% it ensures better data survivability with lower communication costs.
Coupling Analysis of Disaster Bearing Capacity of Urban Lifeline System Based on Brittleness Entropy  [PDF]
Wei Huang, Xinnan Zhang, Chenmin Li, Fengzhou Wang, Zhenli Ma
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering (CWEEE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/cweee.2014.33013
Abstract:

Urban or regional disaster bearing capacity mainly depends on the disaster bearing capacity of lifeline systems. In the analysis of disaster bearing capacity evaluation of lifeline system, we should not only investigate the complexity, balance and reliability of network characteristics, but also consider the relation between each subsystem. A new brittleness entropy of city disaster vulnerability associated coupling analysis method is proposed based on the brittleness of complex system theory. Correlation characteristics are reflected and evaluated in the brittle link entropy and the whole lifeline system, and then the vulnerability of city lifeline system can be quantified in flood scenarios. As a result of the coupling analysis and calculation, power system has the greatest effect among other subsystems. Because the key factors and influence of water supply system are uncertainties, the water supply system work or supply should be restored first after the disaster. The results show that the method can provide the basis for the optimization of system management, and control the repair work after disaster and coordination between subsystems.

Application of Geographical Information system (GIS) in urban water of Amol in Iran at Time of Natural Disaster  [PDF]
Mohsen Alizadeh,Ibrahim Bin Ngah Designation,Esmaeil Alizadeh,Himan Shahabi
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2012,
Abstract: For the management of urban disaster risk, periodic updating of geo- databases of urban water is crucial, particularly in developing countries where urbanisation rates are very high. However, collecting information on the characteristics of buildings and lifelines through full ground surveys can be very costly and time-consuming. this article has done operationally in Amol city which is located in Mazandaran Province of Iran and it tries to represent by using rules and data of collected from different maps, urban designing and capabilities of Geographical Information system (GIS) in urban water management at the time of natural disasters. Structure of this article is like that in first we established a comprehensive data base related to water utilities by collecting, entering, saving and data management, then by modeling water utilities we had practically considered its operational aspects related to water utilities problems in urban regions.
A Study of Common Episodic Disaster Events in Zaria Urban Area, Nigeria
Abdulhamid A. Ibrahim,Ibrahim Jaro Musa
Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: This study is an assessment of common episodic disaster events in greater Zaria area, Nigeria. The primary and secondary methods were used to obtain information for this study. In the primary method the questionnaire was used while the secondary method provided information on the rate of occurrence of some disasters, which was obtained from fire service in Zaria, Sabon Gari, Soba, Zaria and Markarfi Local government Councils. The common episodic disaster events studied are fire outbreak, violent distinctive Wing or storm, flooding and collapse of buildings and the outbreak of diseases or epidemic. The result revealed that these common episodic disaster events are caused naturally while some are man or human induced. The multiple regression results showed that there is a positive relationship between the occurrence of the episodic disaster events and the causative factors (measured by poverty, ignorance, room heating methods style and the discriminate disposal of waste). The result also revealed that fire outbreak and action of violent wind or storm cause a lot of destruction to peoples houses and properties. And the place of occurrence of the disaster is more at homes, offices places and markets. Also the percentage calculation showed that factors like room heating or warming style, poverty, discriminate disposal of waste, poor drainage system, contribute positively to the occurrence of episodic disaster events. Thus, confirming the result of the multiple regression analysis. It was recommended that people should be educated on how to develop their environment according to development plan, stop the use of wood fuel and charcoal for room heating and stop the discriminate disposal of waste which lend up blocking the drainages.
Urban and rural dimensions in post-disaster adjustment challenges in selected communities in Kwara State, Nigeria  [cached]
Raheem Usman Adebimpe
Jàmbá : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/jamba.v3i2.38
Abstract: Human populations are exposed to climate change directly through changing weather patterns as manifested in the more frequent extreme events and indirectly through changes in ecosystem functions. Rainstorm disasters are common events associated with environmental change and settlements in Kwara state, Nigeria were ravaged by rainstorm events between 2003 and 2006. More than 1000 households were displaced from their habitual homes with consequences for human health and other adjustment challenges. This paper examines the variations in the post-disaster adjustment challenges of rural and urban households so as to identify location specific intervention strategies in the domains of environ- ment and health of the victims. A sample of 200 households was drawn from all households affected by rainstorm disaster as reflected in the FEMA records during the period. A structured questionnaire was administered in addition to the secondary data and analyzed using relevant statistical techniques. The findings include that most households required support before replacing the roofs and/or walls of their homes. Sources of support however vary. Urban households received more institutional support but lower than the amount required for the renovation. A signifficant proportion of urban households moved to poorer homes where they faced challenges relating to the quality of environmental services. Many urban respondents also reported increases in the occurrence of water-borne and weather-related diseases and ailments. Rural households indicated no signi$cant ecological differences between their former homes and the areas to which they relocated. The paper concludes that signi$cant variations exist in the adjustment challenges faced by rural and urban dwellers after a disaster. Community efforts hold promise for emergency response particularly during disasters in rural areas.
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