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Extremal Behaviour in Multiagent Contract Negotiation  [PDF]
P. E. Dunne
Computer Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1613/jair.1526
Abstract: We examine properties of a model of resource allocation in which several agents exchange resources in order to optimise their individual holdings. The schemes discussed relate to well-known negotiation protocols proposed in earlier work and we consider a number of alternative notions of rationality covering both quantitative measures, e.g. cooperative and individual rationality and more qualitative forms, e.g. Pigou-Dalton transfers. While it is known that imposing particular rationality and structural restrictions may result in some reallocations of the resource set becoming unrealisable, in this paper we address the issue of the number of restricted rational deals that may be required to implement a particular reallocation when it is possible to do so. We construct examples showing that this number may be exponential (in the number of resources m), even when all of the agent utility functions are monotonic. We further show that k agents may achieve in a single deal a reallocation requiring exponentially many rational deals if at most k-1 agents can participate, this same reallocation being unrealisable by any sequences of rational deals in which at most k-2 agents are involved.
Compositional Patterns of Non-Functional Properties for Contract Negotiation  [cached]
Hervé Chang,Philippe Collet
Journal of Software , 2007, DOI: 10.4304/jsw.2.2.52-63
Abstract: Providing powerful and fine-grained capabilities for the analysis and management of non-functional properties is a major challenge for component-based software systems. This article presents an approach that relies on some integration patterns of non-functional properties in hierarchical software components. These patterns are based on a classification of low-level non-functional properties, which takes into account their nature and lifecycle. They make explicit the implementation of these properties in relation with components. The proposed model also provides appropriate support for some forms of compositional reasoning on theses properties. The compositional patterns have been implemented on a hierarchical component platform and directly exploited in non-functional contract negotiation on a validating application. The proposed patterns enable negotiation processes to be precisely propagated down the component hierarchy, so that better runtime adaptations can be conducted on reaction to non-functional degradations.
Authorization method based on contract and negotiation
一种基于契约和协商的授权方法*

GUI Jin-song,CHEN Zhi-gang,DENG Xiao-heng,LIU An-feng,
桂劲松
,陈志刚,邓晓衡,刘安丰

计算机应用研究 , 2008,
Abstract: Owing to lack of study works of prompting honest trust negotiation at present,the paper proposed an authorization method based on contract and negotiation through introducing contract theory of game theory.It guaranteed honest trust negotiation to strangers and was a helpful complementarity to trust negotiation mechanism.Performance analysis of the method show that the cost of contract negotiation is acceptable.The method presented an effective means to solve authorization management problems in strange environments.
El contrato de maternidad subrogada: La experiencia estadounidense Surrogate motherhood contract: The US American experience
Camilo A Rodríguez-Yong,Karol Ximena Martínez-Mu?oz
Revista de Derecho , 2012,
Abstract: El artículo tiene como propósito identificar y presentar la experiencia de los Estados Unidos frente al contrato de maternidad subrogada. Esta experiencia tiene como características principales las siguientes: a) existe una regulación del contrato a partir de la ley y la jurisprudencia, b) no hay una posición uniforme entre los estados frente a la validez jurídica del contrato, c) se acude a la noción de orden público y a las normas del derecho de familia para determinar su validez, y d) la regulación del contrato de maternidad subrogada está encaminada a contrarrestar los efectos negativos que se derivan del contrato. Igualmente, el artículo busca identificar los puntos comunes que existen entre esta visión y la postura colombiana en la materia. The article has the purpose of identifying and presenting the United States experience regarding the contract on surrogate motherhood. This experience has the following main features: a) there is a regulation of the contract founded in the law and case law, b) there is no uniform position among the states regarding the legal enforceability of the contract, c) public policy and family law are used to determine the legal validity of the agreement, and d) the regulation of the contract is directed to counter the negative effects of contract. Likewise, the article wants to identify the common points between the U.S′s vision and the Colombian.
Acerca de la verleugnung en el contrato masoquista // About the Verleugnung in the masoquist′s contract  [PDF]
Elena Bisso
Affectio Societatis , 2012,
Abstract: El objetivo de este estudio es mostrar la lógica del contrato masoquista en la relación entre el sujeto y el gran Otro. En este caso, la Verleugnung es el modo de desmentida de "lo que no cesa de no escribirse" en las fórmulas de la sexuación de Jacques Lacan. La diferencia más relevante entre la literatura del amor cortés y este tipo de contrato en el modo en que enfrentan lo imposible, es que la primera es el producto de la sublimación. El contrato masoquista tiene la naturaleza del fetiche. La importancia del contrato masoquista fue un punto de coincidencia entre Jacques Lacan y Gilles Deleuze en el período 1966-1969, y constituye un elemento destacado para el estudio de la perversión en psicoanálisis. // The purpose of this study is to show the logic of the contract′s masochist in the relation between the subject and the big Other. In this case, the Verleugnung is the way of disavowal "that which does not cease to not write itself" or the impossible in Jacques Lacan's sexuation formulas. The most relevant difference between the literature of courtly love and this sytle of contract about facing the impossible is that the first is the product of sublimation. The contract′s masochist has the nature of a fetish. The importance of the contract′s masochist was a point of coincidence between Jacques Lacan and Gilles Deleuze in the period 1966-1969, and it constitutes a remarkable element for the studies of the perversion in psychoanalysis
Validity and efficacy of the labor contract Validez y eficacia del contrato de trabajo  [cached]
Jorge Toyama
Derecho PUCP , 2012,
Abstract: The validity and efficacy of the labor contract as well as cases of nullity and defeasibility import an analysis of scopes of the supplementary application of Civil Code taking into account the peculiarities of Labor Law. Labor contract, while legal business has as regulatory framework to the regulations of Civil Code but it is necessary to determine, in each case, whether to apply fully this normative body, or modulate its supplemental application, or simply conclude that it doesn’t result compatible its regulation due to the special nature of labor relations. Specifically, this issue will be analyzed from cases of nullity and defeasibility of the labor contract. La validez y eficacia del contrato de trabajo así como los supuestos de nulidad y anulabilidad importan un análisis de los alcances de la aplicación supletoria del Código Civil teniendo en cuenta las peculiaridades del Derecho del Trabajo. El contrato de trabajo, en tanto negocio jurídico, tiene como marco de regulación a las disposiciones del Código Civil pero es necesario apreciar, en cada caso, si corresponde aplicar plenamente este cuerpo normativo, o modular su aplicación supletoria, o simplemente concluir que no resulta compatible su regulación por la naturaleza especial de las relaciones laborales. Especialmente, este tema será analizado a partir de los supuestos de nulidad y anulabilidad del contrato de trabajo
El contrato social en el liberalismo político de Rawls Social contract in Rawls’ political liberalism  [cached]
Mariano C Melero de la Torre
Revista de Derecho , 2004,
Abstract: La relevancia del pensamiento de John Rawls en la filosofía política actual se debe, entre otras razones, a que incluye los dos tipos de justificación actualmente preponderantes de un régimen democrático constitucional. La evolución de su teoría contractual representa de manera ejemplar los dos posibles usos del contrato social como principio de legitimación política. Nuestra primera intención aquí es poner de manifiesto el contraste entre ambos usos, para luego pasar a analizar las dificultades que lleva consigo el uso meramente "político" del método contractual que defiende el último Rawls. The relevance of John Rawls’ thought in the political philosophy of our time is due, among other reasons, to the fact that it includes the two types of justifications currently in vogue in any constitutional democratic regime. The evolution of his contractual theory represents exemplarily the two possible uses of the social contract as political legitimation. Our first intention in this paper is to underline the contrast between both uses, and then analyse the difficulties entailed by the merely "political" use of the contract method that Rawls defends in his latest works.
Responsibility due to the non-accomplishment of contract duties A responsabilidade decorrente do inadimplemento dos deveres anexos do contrato  [cached]
Cláudio José Franzolin
Scientia Iuris , 2009,
Abstract: Contracts are the main instrument of circulation of wealth as well as of the most diverse interests. The problem arises if it does not achieve its purposes and frustrate the interests of those involved, who may decide for the breach of the duty, the core of a contractual relationship, or for the breach of any duty that may have disturbed the economic results of the parties. This paper is concerned precisely with the liability arising from the breach of duties of the principal supply control, which generates consequences for the contractor or for a third party. O contrato é o principal instrumento de circula o de riquezas e dos mais variados interesses. O problema ocorre se ele n o atinge a finalidade e frustram-se interesses de algum envolvido. Estes podem proceder do descumprimento da presta o, que é o núcleo fundamental da rela o contratual ou de algum dever que tenha perturbado o resultado econ mico das partes. A preocupa o deste artigo é justamente com a culpa decorrente do descumprimento de tais deveres de contorno à presta o principal e que gera alguma conseqüência ao contratante ou a um terceiro.
Conservation biology in Chile: Are we fulfilling our social contract? Conservación biológica en Chile: Estamos cumpliendo nuestro contrato social?  [cached]
JAVIER A SIMONETTI
Revista chilena de historia natural , 2011,
Abstract: Biodiversity conservation needs to be informed by science. On this regard, scientific efforts ought to be allocated to tackle research priorities; offer sound and explicit advice, and results ought to be translated into conservation plans and programs. If such conditions are met, scientists would be fulfilling their social contract, sensu Lubchenco. In this brief essay I analyze the fulfillment of such a contract in Chile. In general, the scarce priorities set for addressing conservation issues are not considered, only a third of scientific publications in conservation-related issues offer explicit advice and a minor fraction of relevant scientific information is considered in the preparation of conservation plans. Current mismatch between conservation science and practice weakens longstanding efforts to achieve an effective conservation of the Chilean biota. Suggestions are advanced to close the gap. La conservación de la biodiversidad requiere apoyo científico. En este sentido, desde el ámbito científico se deberían destinar esfuerzos para abordar las prioridades de investigación, ofrecer recomendaciones explícitas, y los resultados de la investigación científica deberían ser incorporados a los planes y programas de investigación. De cumplirse estos pasos, los científicos estarían satisfaciendo su contrato social, sensu Lubchenco. En este breve ensayo analizo el cumplimiento de tal contrato en Chile. En general, el escaso conjunto de prioridades existente no ha sido abordado, solamente un tercio de las publicaciones científicas en temas de conservación biológica ofrecen consejo explícito y una fracción menor de la información relevante y pertinente es considerada en la elaboración de planes y programas de conservación. El desacople entre la ciencia y la práctica de la conservación debilita esfuerzos de larga data tendientes a lograr una efectiva conservación de la biota chilena. Para intentar cerrar esta brecha, ofrezco algunas sugerencias.
Fun o social do contrato: um estudo sobre a nova ótica contratual. Social function of the contract: a study on the new contractual perspective.
Pedro Paulo Abreu e Silva
Revista de Direito dos Monitores da Universidade Federal Fluminense , 2010,
Abstract: A fun o social do contrato é fruto de uma idéia protetiva dos chamados “direitos de terceira gera o”, marcados pelo lema solidariedade e fraternidade, que s o consagrados pela Lei Magna de 1988. A partir dessa ideologia, cingiram-se os direitos transindividuais, podendo-se, inclusive, falar em Estado pós-social de Direito. Nesta perspectiva, especialmente diante do princípio da dignidade da pessoa humana, fundamento na República Federativa do Brasil e princípio-matriz de todos os direitos fundamentais (art.1o, III, da Lei Fundamental), é mais adequado, ent o, compreender a aplica o n o só do princípio da fun o social dos contratos, mas do ordenamento civil como um todo, através do fen meno da constitucionaliza o do direito civil. Assim sendo, consagrou-se a tendência de fazer uma leitura do direito privado à luz das regras constitucionais e, em muitos casos, reconhecer a aplica o direta dos direitos fundamentais nas rela es privadas. Desta forma, a no o de fun o social do contrato convida o intérprete a deixar de lado a leitura do Direito Civil sob a ótica clássica, baseada na doutrina voluntarista, e a buscar valores sociais existenciais do homem, sempre tendo em vista a realiza o da dignidade da pessoa humana. The social function of the contract is the result of an idea of protective called "third generation rights", marked by solidarity and fraternity motto, which are enshrined in the Magna Act 1988. From this ideology, girded up trans rights, and we can even talk about post-social state of law. In this perspective, especially in light of the principle dignity of the human person, ground the Federative Republic of Brazil and principle-matrix of all fundamental rights (article 1, III of the Basic Law), is more appropriate, then, to understand the application does not only the principle of the social contract, but civil order as a whole, through the phenomenon of constitutionalization of civil law. Thus, the trend was devoted to a reading of private law in the light of constitutional rules and in many cases, recognize the direct application of fundamental rights in private relations. In this way, the notion of the social function of the contract invites the interpreter to put aside the reading of Civil Law from the viewpoint classic, based on the voluntarist doctrine, social values and seek existential man, always with a view to the realization of human dignity human.
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