Abstract:
The existence and uniqueness of a solution to a generalized Blasius equation with asymptotic boundary conditions are proved. A new numerical approximation method is proposed.

Abstract:
We prove the existence of a pseudo-polynomial O(|V |^2 |E| W) time algorithm for the Value Problem and Optimal Strategy Synthesis in Mean Payoff Games. This improves by a factor log(|V | W) the best previously known pseudo-polynomial upper bound due to Brim et al. (2011). The improvement hinges on a suitable characterization of values and optimal strategies in terms of reweightings.

Abstract:
We provide an explicit upper bound on the number of Reidemeister moves required to pass between two diagrams of the same link. This leads to a conceptually simple solution to the equivalence problem for links.

Abstract:
We provide a nontrivial upper bound for the nonnegative rank of rank-three matrices, which allows us to prove that [6(n+1)/7] linear inequalities suffice to describe a convex n-gon up to a linear projection.

Abstract:
We prove that the sumset or the productset of any finite set of real numbers, $A,$ is at least $|A|^{4/3-\epsilon},$ improving earlier bounds. Our main tool is a new upper bound on the multiplicative energy, $E(A,A).$

Abstract:
The holographic upper bound on entropy is applied to the gravitational action associated with the non-relativistic contraction of a nebula. A critical radius is identified, as a function of the initial radius and mass, for which the number of bits associated with the action would equal the maximum number of bits allowed to the body. The gravitational action of a typical star approximately saturates the holographic bound, perhaps suggesting a physical link between holographic principles and astrophysical processes.

Abstract:
We study bond percolation for a family of infinite hyperbolic graphs. We relate percolation to the appearance of homology in finite versions of these graphs. As a consequence, we derive an upper bound on the critical probabilities of the infinite graphs.

Abstract:
The Monotone Upper Bound Problem asks for the maximal number M(d,n) of vertices on a strictly-increasing edge-path on a simple d-polytope with n facets. More specifically, it asks whether the upper bound M(d,n)<=M_{ubt}(d,n) provided by McMullen's (1970) Upper Bound Theorem is tight, where M_{ubt}(d,n) is the number of vertices of a dual-to-cyclic d-polytope with n facets. It was recently shown that the upper bound M(d,n)<=M_{ubt}(d,n) holds with equality for small dimensions (d<=4: Pfeifle, 2003) and for small corank (n<=d+2: G\"artner et al., 2001). Here we prove that it is not tight in general: In dimension d=6 a polytope with n=9 facets can have M_{ubt}(6,9)=30 vertices, but not more than 26 <= M(6,9) <= 29 vertices can lie on a strictly-increasing edge-path. The proof involves classification results about neighborly polytopes, Kalai's (1988) concept of abstract objective functions, the Holt-Klee conditions (1998), explicit enumeration, Welzl's (2001) extended Gale diagrams, randomized generation of instances, as well as non-realizability proofs via a version of the Farkas lemma.

Abstract:
Generalizing a result (the case $k = 1$) due to M. A. Perles, we show that any polytopal upper bound sphere of odd dimension $2k + 1$ belongs to the generalized Walkup class ${\cal K}_k(2k + 1)$, i.e., all its vertex links are $k$-stacked spheres. This is surprising since the $k$-stacked spheres minimize the face-vector (among all polytopal spheres with given $f_0,..., f_{k - 1}$) while the upper bound spheres maximize the face vector (among spheres with a given $f_0$). It has been conjectured that for $d\neq 2k + 1$, all $(k + 1)$-neighborly members of the class ${\cal K}_k(d)$ are tight. The result of this paper shows that, for every $k$, the case $d = 2k +1$ is a true exception to this conjecture.

Abstract:
Let $A = K[X_1,...,X_n]$ and let $I$ be a graded ideal in $A$. We show that the upper bound of Multiplicity conjecture of Herzog, Huneke and Srinivasan holds asymptotically (i.e., for $I^k$ and all $k \gg 0$) if $I$ belongs to any of the following large classes of ideals: \begin{enumerate}[\rm (1)] \item radical ideals. \item monomial ideals with generators in different degrees. \item zero-dimensional ideals with generators in different degrees. \end{enumerate} Surprisingly, our proof uses local techniques like analyticity, reductions, equimultiplicity and local results like Rees's theorem on multiplicities.