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Feed Intake and Digestibility of Total Mixed Ration fed Murciano-Granadina Dairy Goats
C. Fernandez,P. Sanchez-Seiquer
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2003,
Abstract: A digestibility trial was carried out in order to determine the quality of a commercial total mixed ration offered to lactating dairy goats. Three, 3 years old Murciano-Granadina goats at mid lactation were used in a Latin Square Design and, intake, apparent total tract digestibility and milk production and composition was determined in a total mixed ration offered at three levels; 2, 3 and 4 kg/d. When 2 kg/d was offered, lower dry matter intake than 3 or 4 kg/d was observed, and no significant differences were found for apparent digestibility among treatments. Significant differences were found for milk production and, greater and significant values for chemical composition (energy, protein and fat) were observed for 3 and 4 than 2 kg offered per day. No lactose difference was obtained. Although goats selected the ingredients and higher percentage of particles < 0.99 mm were found into the refusals for 2 kg/d of diet offered, the use of 4 kg/d is not of economical interest because it is necessary to permit 40% of refusals and it is not efficient because the increase in voluntary DMI and milk yield was only about 6 and 7% respectively.
Use of high moisture corn silage replacing dry corn on intake, apparent digestibility, production and composition of milk of dairy goats
Canizares, G.l.L.;Gon?alves, H.C.;Costa, C.;Rodrigues, L.;Menezes, J.J.L.;Gomes, H.F.B.;Marques, R.O.;Branco, R.H.;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982011000400021
Abstract: twenty primiparous and multiparous alpine breed goats at approximately 80 days of lactation were used in this experiment. the animals were housed individually in metal cages and distributed according to milk production in five 4 × 4 latin squares. the experimental diets used in the experiment presented concentrate:forage ratio of 65:35. the treatments were characterized by increasing levels of 0, 33, 67 and 100% of high moisture corn silage (hmcs) replacing corn dry grain (cdg). average intake of dm (1.62 kg/day, 3.90 % bw), cp (0.22 kg/day), nfc (0.76 kg/day) and tdn (1.29 kg/day) were not influenced by levels of hmcs. however, intake of ndf (0.53 kg/day) was significant for the different level of hmcs. daily milk production and production of milk correct at 3.5% of fat, feed efficiency (mp/dmi), fat percentage, protein, lactose, total solids and milk urea nitrogen, with means of 1.86; 1.69; 1.11; 2.96; 2.85; 4.36; 10.96 and 17.1, respectively, were not influenced by the levels of hmcs. percentage of non fat solids (8.00%) was affected by replacing levels of hmcs. the use of high moisture corn silage in the diet does not change milk production and it can be applied in total or partial substitution to dry corn grain in the feeding of milk goats.
Intake and digestibility of flor-de-seda hay in diets for dairy goats Consumo e digestibilidade do feno de flor-de-seda em dietas para cabras leiteiras  [cached]
Genildo Fonseca Pereira,Gherman Garcia Leal de Araújo,Ariosvaldo Nunes de Medeiros,Guilherme Ferreira da Costa Lima
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produ??o Animal , 2010,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Calotropis procera hay in the diet of dairy goats at different levels (0, 9, 18, 27 and 36%), on intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC), total carbohydrates (TC), and water consumption. Five multiparous goats of were used, weighing 42 ± 0.59 kg BW, in a 5 x 5 latin square design. Animals were fed twice meals daily, after milking, at 6 and 16 hours. A surplus of 20% was offered in relation to the previous day. The inclusion of Calotropis procera hay had a quadratic effect on the consumption of almost all nutrients, except for NFC and water. The highest DM intake was 1.66 kg/day, 3.95% of BW, or 100.66 g/kg0,75 when 22% of Calotropis procera hay was included in the diet. The average water consumption was 7.07 kilograms. There was an improvement in nutrient digestibility, although not significant. Under the conditions of this research, it was concluded that the addition of Calotropis procera hay in dairy goat diets may be beneficial up to 0.397 kg per day by increasing intake and nutrient digestibility. Avaliou-se o efeito da utiliza o do feno de flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera Ait.Br.) na dieta de cabras leiteiras, em diferentes níveis (0, 9, 18, 27 e 36%), sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade da matéria seca (MS), matéria organica (MO), proteína bruta (PB), do extrato etéreo (EE), fibra em detergente neutro ( FDN), fibra em detergente ácido (FDA), carboidrato n o fibroso (CNF), carboidratos totais (CHOT) na matéria seca, além do consumo de água. Utilizaram-se cinco cabras multíparas do tronco alpino, com 42±0,59kg de peso vivo (PV), em delineamento quadrado latino 5 x 5. A alimenta o foi fornecida em duas refei es diárias, logo após as ordenhas, às 6 e 16 horas. Trabalhou-se com uma sobra de 20% do ofertado, em rela o ao dia anterior. Os níveis de inclus o do feno de flor-de-seda exerceram efeito quadrático para o consumo de quase todos os nutrientes, com exce o do consumo de CNF e água. O consumo máximo de MS estimado foi 1,66kg/dia, 3,95% PV e 100,66g/kg0,75 e atingiu o nível de 22% de inclus o do feno de flor-de-seda na dieta. O consumo médio de água foi de 7,07kg. Observou-se uma melhoria na digestibilidade dos nutrientes, apesar de n o significativa, com a inclus o do feno de flor-de-seda na dieta. Nas condi es da presente pesquisa, a adi o do feno de flor-de-seda em dieta para cabras leiteiras pode ser utilizada até a quantidade d
Nutrient limits in diets for growing dairy goats
Martínez-Marín,AL; Pérez-Hernández,M; Pérez-Alba,LM; Carrión-Pardo,D; Gómez-Castro,AG;
Archivos de medicina veterinaria , 2012, DOI: 10.4067/S0301-732X2012000100003
Abstract: dry matter intake and nutrient requirements of young growing dairy goats were reviewed in this paper to derive nutrient limits applicable for diet optimization through minimum cost linear programming. the diets offered to growing goats should be optimized from both nutritional and economic view. to get those objectives, the nutritionist has to estimate accurately forage and total dry matter intake, and the nutrient supply and requirements. the reviewed literature suggests that intake of young growing goats ranges between physical and physiological limits imposed by gut fill and energy requirements. the filling effect of the diet is related to its structural carbohydrate content, whereas the physiological satiety effect is related to diet metabolizable energy content. the minimum intake of forage required to keep rumen health is low, whereas maximum forage intake is probably related to the neutral detergent fibre content of the total diet. the energy and protein supply and requirements calculated according to the two most recent feed evaluation systems are similar, what makes no difference using any of both to optimize diets. recent proposals to calculate calcium and phosphorus supply and requirements provide greater accuracy than the older ones.
The preference for water nipples vs. water bowls in dairy goats
Knut E B?e, Rebecca Ehrlenbruch, Inger L Andersen
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-53-50
Abstract: In each of the two experiments (exp. 1, dry goats, exp. 2 lactating goats), 42 dairy goats were allotted into 6 groups of 7 goats. In period 1, the goats had access to a water nipple. In period 2, they had access to a water bowl and in period 3 (preference test) they had access to both a water nipple and a water bowl. Water usage and wastage was recorded and water intake (water usage - water wastage) was calculated for each group for the two last days of each period. In experiment 2, water samples from each dispenser were analyzed for heterotrophy germs at 22°C, Escherichia coli and turbidity.Water usage was higher from water nipples than from water bowls both in experiment 1 (dry goats) and experiment 2 (lactating goats). There was however, no difference in water intake from water nipples and water bowls. In the preference test (period 3), the water intake tended to be higher from the water nipple than from the water bowl both for the dry goats (exp. 1) and lactating goats (exp. 2). Especially for the dry goats, the differences between groups were large. Turbidity and heterotrophy germs were much higher in the samples from the water bowls than from the water nipples.Water wastage from the water bowls was negligible compared to the water nipples. From the water nipples the water wastage was 30% and 23% of water usage for the dry and lactating goats respectively.We conclude that type of water dispenser (nipple or bowl) was probably of minor importance for water intake in goats, but water bowls had a lower water quality.The literature on water intake in goats is scare, and the studies mainly concern goats living in desert conditions under heat stress and/or water restrictions [e.g. 1]. In temperate climates, the water intake for goats is reported to be 139 g/kg W0.75 at mid-pregnancy, and lactating goats need 1.28 kg of water to produce one kg milk [2]. Ehrlenbruch et al. (2010) measured the water intake in lactating goats to be 6.2 and 4.4 liters/day when fed hay and
Consumo, digestibilidade e produ o de cabras leiteiras alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes fontes de lipídios = Intake, digestibility and milk production of dairy goats fed with different fat sources
Guilherme de Lira Sobral Silva,Aderbal Marcos de Azevêdo Silva,Giovanna Henriques da Nóbrega,Solange Absal?o Azevedo
Acta Scientiarum : Animal Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Foram utilizados 12 animais da ra a Saanen, com peso vivo de 35 kg e produ o leiteira de 1,2 kg, para avalia o da suplementa o lipídica sobre o consumo, digestibilidade, produ o e composi o do leite e quatro animais fistulados no rúmen para observa o do pH. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta-controle e três dietas suplementadas com semente de faveleira, torta de faveleira e caro o de algod o. Os dados foram analisados em quadrados latinos 4 x 4, com três repeti es e as análises estatísticas feitas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. A suplementa o lipídica diminuiu o consumo de matéria seca e da maioria dos nutrientes, com reflexo sobre a produ o e composi o do leite de cabras Saanen. A suplementa o com torta de faveleira e com caro o de algod o pode ser considerada uma boa alternativa alimentar para cabras Saanen. This study used 12 Saanen goats with BW of 35 kg and daily milkproduction of 1.2 kg, in order to evaluate the effect of fat supplementation on the intake, digestibility and milk yield. Four animals were fistulated in the rumen for pH observation. The treatments consisted of a control diet and three diets supplemented with faveleira seed, faveleira cake and cotton seed. The data were analyzed in 4 x 4 chi squares, with three repetitions and the statistical analyses by Tukey's test at 5% probability. Fat supplementation decreases the intake of dry matter and of most nutrients, affecting milk yield and the composition of Saanen goat milk. Supplementation with faveleira cake and cotton seeds can be considered as an alternative feed for those animals.
Intake of Dairy Products in Relation to Periodontitis in Older Danish Adults  [PDF]
Amanda R. A. Adegboye,Lisa B. Christensen,Poul Holm-Pedersen,Kirsten Avlund,Barbara J. Boucher,Berit L. Heitmann
Nutrients , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/nu4091219
Abstract: This cross-sectional study investigates whether calcium intakes from dairy and non-dairy sources, and absolute intakes of various dairy products, are associated with periodontitis. The calcium intake (mg/day) of 135 older Danish adults was estimated by a diet history interview and divided into dairy and non-dairy calcium. Dairy food intake (g/day) was classified into four groups: milk, cheese, fermented foods and other foods. Periodontitis was defined as the number of teeth with attachment loss ≥3 mm. Intakes of total dairy calcium (Incidence-rate ratio (IRR) = 0.97; p = 0.021), calcium from milk (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.025) and fermented foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.03) were inversely and significantly associated with periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, vitamin D intake, heart disease, visits to the dentist, use of dental floss and bleeding on probing, but non-dairy calcium, calcium from cheese and other types of dairy food intakes were not. Total dairy foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.003), milk (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.028) and fermented foods intakes (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.029) were associated with reduced risk of periodontitis, but cheese and other dairy foods intakes were not. These results suggest that dairy calcium, particularly from milk and fermented products, may protect against periodontitis. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.
Prediction of feed intake in the Italian dairy sheep  [cached]
Marcella Avondo
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2005.1s.35
Abstract: Recommendations on feed intake for sheep are based on assessments of genetic types, feeding systems and environ- mental conditions that are very different from Italian ones. These considerations underline the need for intake data or models that derive from local trials. For this reason intake data of lactating and dry ewes, pregnant ewes, rams and growing lambs have been collected from selected literature based on sheep feeding trials mainly conducted on dairy breeds in Italy or in other Mediterranean countries. Equations and intake tables differentiated according to the physio- logical and productive categories, as well as feeding typology are reported. Particular consideration is given to pasture intake with supplementation, reporting three equations developed for three qualitative levels of the pasture, recogniz- able from the CP content of herbage: < 10% DM; ≥ 10% and ≤ 16% DM; >16% DM. The equations include animal and pasture variables and supplementation, expressed as grams of CP given with feeds other than pasture. Only when pas- ture CP content is lower than 10% DM, supplement is not included in the equation, as no or negative substitution effect is expected.
Effects of dairy intake on weight maintenance
Michael B Zemel, Joseph E Donnelly, Bryan K Smith, Debra K Sullivan, Joanna Richards, Danielle Morgan-Hanusa, Matthew S Mayo, Xiaocun Sun, Galen Cook-Wiens, Bruce W Bailey, Emily L Van Walleghen, Richard A Washburn
Nutrition & Metabolism , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-5-28
Abstract: Two site (University of Kansas-KU; University of Tennessee-UT), 9 month, randomized trial. Weight loss was baseline to 3 months, weight maintenance was 4 to 9 months. Participants were maintained randomly assigned to low dairy (< 1 dairy serving/d) or recommended dairy (> 3 servings/d) diets for the maintenance phase. Three hundred thirty eight men and women, age: 40.3 ± 7.0 years and BMI: 34.5 ± 3.1, were randomized; Change in weight and body composition (total fat, trunk fat) from 4 to 9 months were the primary outcomes. Blood chemistry, blood pressure, resting metabolism, and respiratory quotient were secondary outcomes. Energy intake, calcium intake, dairy intake, and physical activity were measured as process evaluation.During weight maintenance, there were no overall significant differences for weight or body composition between the low and recommended dairy groups. A significant site interaction occurred with the low dairy group at KU maintaining weight and body composition and the low dairy group at UT increasing weight and body fat. The recommended dairy group exhibited reductions in plasma 1,25-(OH)2-D while no change was observed in the low dairy group. No other differences were found for blood chemistry, blood pressure or physical activity between low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group showed significantly greater energy intake and lower respiratory quotient compared to the low dairy group.Weight maintenance was similar for low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group exhibited evidence of greater fat oxidation and was able to consume greater energy without greater weight gain compared to the low dairy group. Recommended levels of dairy products may be used during weight maintenance without contributing to weight gain compared to diets low in dairy products.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00686426Almost two thirds of US adults are overweight or obese [1] and at any given time 50% are attempting to control their weight [2]. D
In vitro degradability and gas production parameters of Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) mixed with varying types and levels of roughages
JO Ouda, IV Nsahlai, PM Mahundu
South African Journal of Animal Science , 2006,
Abstract: Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) regrowth was harvested at early (ELP) or late (LLP) flowering stages, mixed with varying types and levels of roughage and fermented for 72 h in vitro, using the gas production (GP) technique. The roughage : lespedeza ratios were 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100. The roughages included maize stover harvested at grain milk (MM) or dry (MD) stages and veld grass hay (GH). The crude protein (CP) content of ELP, LLP, MM, MD and GH were 187, 97, 48, 29 and 34 g/kg dry matter (DM), respectively. The corresponding NDF values were 283, 589, 696, 73.3 and 665 g/kg DM. Degradability was slightly higher in MM as compared to MD and GH (means 704.9 vs. 676.6 and 685.0 g/kg, respectively) between ELP rations. The roughages had similar but lower degradability in LLP rations (means 633.4, 632.6 and 631.1 g/kg for MM, MD and GH, respectively). Increased proportion of ELP and LLP resulted in decreased degradability in all the roughages. Microbial yield was similar among roughages in ELP rations, but the roughages differed in microbial yield among LLP rations whereby GH had the highest value and MD the lowest. Increased proportion of ELP elicited an increase in microbial yield but increasing LLP had no effect (range 135.0 – 264.8 g/kg among ELP and 143.4 – 295. 9 g/kg among LLP rations). Roughage type affected GP with MD and GH having the lowest and highest values, respectively. The values ranged from 167.4 – 209.8 and 160.4 – 221.0 mL among ELP and LLP rations, respectively. There was a decrease in GP as the proportion of ELP or LLP increased and roughage type x supplement level interaction had effect. The ratio of degradability to GP, i.e. the partitioning factor (PF) ranged from 3.43 – 4.74 and 3.13 – 4.23 among ELP and LLP rations, respectively, whereby GH had highest and MD lowest values. The rate of GP from soluble fraction was not affected, but that of the fibre fraction differed among the roughages in ELP rations whereby GH had lower rate than MM and MD (mean 0.023 vs. 0.026 and 0.025, respectively). The lag time (lt) tended to be reduced as ratio of ELP increased (range 1.83 to 6.59 h). In LLP rations, roughage type, supplementation level, roughage type x supplementation level interactions affected lt. The GH had the longest and MM had the shortest lt among the roughages (range 0.88 – 9.61 h), and likewise lt reduced as ratio of LLP increased. The results indicate that the various nutritive attributes considered are differentially influenced by lespedeza type and level, roughage type and the interactions among these aspects, hence the importance of their implications in formulating ruminant diets. The results indicate that when using roughages with similar quality as those studied, lespedeza ratio of 40 - 60% of DM consumed can be beneficial. South African Journal of Animal Science Vol. 36(2) 2006: 111-121
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