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Sperm motility and morphology as changing parameters linked to sperm count variations.  [cached]
Dua A,Vaidya S
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 1996,
Abstract: Variations in semen analyses of 177 males over a 1 year period were assessed. The average means of total counts, motility, morphology, total motile count and non-motile % were determined for 5 classes of patients ranging from azoospermic to normospermic. Positive relationships between a falling sperm count, a decrease in motility and total motile counts were seen. Also, increasingly, abnormal forms were found with lower sperm counts.
Effect of Alcohol Extracts of the Ruta graveolens L. On the Count, Motility and in vitro Fertilization Capacity of Rat's Sperm  [PDF]
F. Rahim,G. Saki,M. Bazrafkan
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: This study is an attempt to elucidate the effect of alcoholic extract of the Ruta graveolens L. on the sperm count, motility and in vitro fertilization capacity of Wistar rats. Total 24 adult male Wister rats, 90- day-old and weighing 210±10.6 g were used in this study. All animals were housed individually per cage under a 12 h light/dark cycle, 20±2°C temperature and 60-65% humidity-controlled room with food and water ad libitum. All counts were performed at 37°C in T6 media. The sperm motility was assessed and classified as progressive, no progressive. Initial sperm motility was manually assessed by a single individual in duplicate for each sample by evaluating 100 sperms. In every group of this study 8 adult male rats were used. The sperm count was 2798.5±192.40 in group 1, 2801.8±418.67 in group 2 and 1017.4±820.69 in group 3. Therefore, group 3 has a significant lower sperm count in comparison with other groups. Progressive sperm motility was 57.20±2.81 in group 1, 55.25±1.82 in group 2 and 19.26±3.17 in group 3. The analysis shows that rats in group 3 have significant lower sperm motility in comparison with other groups. The fertilization capacity of sperm of rats in group 3 was significantly lower than other groups. As a conclusion, the alcohol extract of Ruta graveolens L. can be suggested as agent against male fertility but the exact mechanism of action is not understood yet so more experimental shall be done to reveal its effect as a contraceptive plant.
EFFECT OF SMILAX CHINA LINN ON TESTICULAR ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND SPERMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN RATS SUBJECTED TO FORCED SWIMMING STRESS  [PDF]
C.D. Saraswathi,M.V. Suresh,Satyanarayan Sreemantula,K.Venkata krishna
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential benefits of ethanolic extract of Smilax china Linn. on testicular antioxidant activity and spermatological parameters in rats subjected to forced swimming stress. Animals of the experimental groups except vehicle control were subjected to forced swimming stress (FSS) 15 min/day for 52 days. Animals were pretreated with two doses of ethanolic extract of Smilax china rhizomes (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w., p.o.) for 15 days prior to the starting of FSS and were continued further for 52 days along with induction of stress. Testicular SOD, catalase and lipid peroxidation were determined. The cauda epididymis was isolated and sperms were released into saline and sperm count, viability, morphology and motility were analysed. Rats with forced swimming stress showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in testicular SOD, catalase, sperm count, viability and motility. Many abnormal forms of sperms were seen. Rats pretreated with ethanolic extract of Smilax china rhizomes at both doses significantly prevented the stress induced changes. Hence, ethanolic extract of Smilax china rhizomes at both doses showed good protection against testicular antioxidant activity and spermatological parameters in rats subjected to forced swimming stress.
Proteins Involved in Motility and Sperm-Egg Interaction Evolve More Rapidly in Mouse Spermatozoa  [PDF]
Alberto Vicens, Lena Lüke, Eduardo R. S. Roldan
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091302
Abstract: Proteomic studies of spermatozoa have identified a large catalog of integral sperm proteins. Rapid evolution of these proteins may underlie adaptive changes of sperm traits involved in different events leading to fertilization, although the selective forces underlying such rapid evolution are not well understood. A variety of selective forces may differentially affect several steps ending in fertilization, thus resulting in a compartmentalized adaptation of sperm proteins. Here we analyzed the evolution of genes associated to various events in the sperm’s life, from sperm formation to sperm-egg interaction. Evolutionary analyses were performed on gene sequences from 17 mouse strains whose genomes have been sequenced. Four of these are derived from wild Mus musculus, M. domesticus, M. castaneus and M. spretus. We found a higher proportion of genes exhibiting a signature of positive selection among those related to sperm motility and sperm-egg interaction. Furthermore, sperm proteins involved in sperm-egg interaction exhibited accelerated evolution in comparison to those involved in other events. Thus, we identified a large set of candidate proteins for future comparative analyses of genotype-phenotype associations in spermatozoa of species subjected to different sexual selection pressures. Adaptive evolution of proteins involved in motility could be driven by sperm competition, since this selective force is known to increase the proportion of motile sperm and their swimming velocity. On the other hand, sperm proteins involved in gamete interaction could be coevolving with their egg partners through episodes of sexual selection or sexual conflict resulting in species-specific sperm-egg interactions and barriers preventing interspecies fertilization.
The Effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME) on epididymal sperm count, motility, and morphology in varicocelized rat
Bahmanzadeh M.,Abolhassani F.,Amidi F.,Ejtemaiemehr Sh.
DARU : Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: Introduction: Increase in the nitric oxide in the spermatic veins of men by varicocele has been reported. Although Several studies have considered the relationship between varicocele and semen NO concentrations, no study on the effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME) on epididymal sperm count, motility and morphology which are important in fertility of the individual has been reported. The aim of study was to evaluate the effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME) on epididymal sperm count, motility, and morphology in varicocelized rat.Methods: Twenty four Wistar male rats divided into four groups. The group A and B underwent a left experimental varicocele (by 20-gauge needle). Group C, underwent a procedure similar to groups A and B without any change on spermatic vein (as sham group). Group D referred to as control. Animals in group A were killed 10 weeks after the operation and both left and right epididymal sperm were counted and their morphology and motility were analyzed. Animals in group B received 10mg/kg L-NAME intraperitoneally daily for ten weeks.Results: In group A, Sperm count decreased and the morphology changed significantly in comparison with the groups C and D. The sperm morphology in groups A and B showed statistically significant differences (P<0.0001). Sperm motility decreased significantly in the group A in comparison with the groups C and D. Although motility in group A of animals were different in comparison with group B , it was not statistically significant.Conclusion: These findings suggest that nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME) improved sperm count and morphology.
Sperm competition: linking form to function
Stuart Humphries, Jonathan P Evans, Leigh W Simmons
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-319
Abstract: We critically evaluate the evidence for links between sperm morphology and swimming speed, and draw on cross-disciplinary studies to show that the assumption that velocity is directly related to sperm length will rarely be satisfied in the microscopic world in which sperm operate.We show that increased sperm length is unlikely to be driven by selection for increased swimming speed, and that the relative lengths of a sperm's constituent parts, rather than their absolute lengths, are likely to be the target of selection. All else being equal, we suggest that a simple measure of the ratio of head to tail length should be used to assess the possible link between morphology and speed. However, this is most likely to be the case for external fertilizers in which females have relatively limited opportunity to influence a sperm's motility.Although several theories regarding the evolution of sperm size exist [for reviews see [1,2]], there is a general assumption in the literature on sperm competition that selection will favour males with longer sperm, due to their enhanced swimming velocity and therefore competitiveness. This assumption rests broadly on three observations. First, a number of comparative studies have reported that sperm are on average longer in polyandrous species compared to monandrous species [e.g. [3-5]]. These evolutionary associations are generally taken as evidence that selection for enhanced sperm competitive ability favours increased sperm length in polyandrous species, where females mate with more than one male during a single reproductive episode and sperm from different males must compete to fertilize available ova [6]. Second, a handful of studies have reported that relative sperm size can be associated with competitive fertilization success [e.g. [7]]. And third, four studies have reported that sperm swimming velocity, and therefore possibly sperm competitiveness, covaries with some measure of sperm length, hinting at a functional relationship be
Tale of Fish Sperm and Factors Affecting Sperm Motility: A Review
Advances in Life Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.5923/j.als.20110101.03
Abstract: Motility is an important function of the male gamete, which allows sperm to actively reach and penetrate the female gamete in organisms with internal and external fertilization. Sexual activity of some fish is generally seasonal and fertilization is external. Sperm, once differentiated in the gonad, remain there completely quiescent until they are released into the external medium, which is either freshwater or sea water. Various parameters such as ion concentrations (K+, Na+, Ca2+), osmotic pressure, pH, and temperature affect motility. In the present paper, we review the roles of these factors on sperm motility in the teleosts. Studying the effects of these factors on teleost sperm can help establish good activation and/or immobilizing media for improving either artificial fertilization or cryopreservation.
Near-future levels of ocean acidification do not affect sperm motility and fertilization kinetics in the oyster Crassostrea gigas
J. N. Havenhand ,P. Schlegel
Biogeosciences (BG) & Discussions (BGD) , 2009,
Abstract: An increasing number of studies are now reporting the effects of ocean acidification on a broad range of marine species, processes and systems. Many of these are investigating the sensitive early life-history stages that several major reviews have highlighted as being potentially most susceptible to ocean acidification. Nonetheless there remain few investigations of the effects of ocean acidification on the very earliest, and critical, process of fertilization, and still fewer that have investigated levels of ocean acidification relevant for the coming century. Here we report the effects of near-future levels of ocean acidification (≈ 0.35 pH unit change) on sperm swimming speed, sperm motility, and fertilization kinetics in a population of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas from western Sweden. We found no significant effect of ocean acidification – a result that was well-supported by power analysis. Similar findings from Japan suggest that this may be a globally robust result, and we emphasise the need for experiments on multiple populations from throughout a species' range. We also discuss the importance of sound experimental design and power analysis in meaningful interpretation of non-significant results.
Near-future levels of ocean acidification do not affect sperm motility and fertilization kinetics in the oyster Crassostrea gigas
J. N. Havenhand,P. Schlegel
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: An increasing number of studies are now reporting the effects of ocean acidification on a broad range of marine species, processes and systems. Many of these are investigating the sensitive early life-history stages that several major reviews have highlighted as being potentially most susceptible to ocean acidification. Nonetheless there remain few investigations of the effects of ocean acidification on the very earliest, and critical, process of fertilization, and still fewer that have investigated levels of ocean acidification relevant for the coming century. Here we report the effects of near-future levels of ocean acidification (≈ 0.35 pH unit change) on sperm swimming speed, sperm motility, and fertilization kinetics in a population of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas from western Sweden. We found no significant effect of ocean acidification – a result that was well supported by power analysis. Similar findings from Japan suggest that this may be a globally robust result, and we emphasise the need for experiments on multiple populations from throughout a species' range. We also discuss the importance of sound experimental design and power analysis in accurate interpretation of non-significant results.
THE EFFECTS OF SPERM MORPHOLOGY AND MOTILITY ON THE OUTCOMES OF INTRACYTOPLASMIC SPERM INJECTION
Vildan Karpuz,Asl? G?ktürk,Meral Koyutürk
Marmara Medical Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Objective: The outcomes of ICSI (Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection) treatments were evaluated and compared with sperm morphology and motility classifications in order to determine whether strict criteria or motility could aid in predicting the ICSI outcomes.Materials and methods: The infertile couples admitted to the clinic, 242 of them were selected and ICSI treatment was performed. In study group, female partners required having at least 5 oocytes at metaphase II and for male partners only the presence of spermatozoa cells in the semen fluid was necessary. Semen analysis and motility was performed according to WHO (World Health Organisation) criteria and sperm morphology was assessed according to Kruger’s criteria.Results: There was no significant difference for the ICSI outcome assessment parameters indicated that fertilization and pregnancy rates between in the groups based on the percentages of sperms morphology and motility.Conclusion: Sperm morphology and motility were accepted as best parameters to evaluate the outcomes of IVF (In Vitro Fertilization). However, our results showed that ICSI outcomes were independent from these valuable parameters for IVF.
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