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Effect of goat production systems on meat quality and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) content in suckling kids  [cached]
A. Caputi Jambrenghi,M. A. Colonna,F. Giannico,F. Giannico
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.1s.612
Abstract: The effect of goat production systems was evaluated on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in meat obtained from suckling kids. Twenty male Ionica suckling kids fed only on maternal milk were subdivided into two groups of 10 subjects each according to their dams’ feeding treatment: kids in Group I were raised under dams reared by an intensive production system, while those of Group E were raised under dams grazing on pasture. Kids were slaughtered when 45 days old. The goat production system had no effect on kids’ growth rates, slaughtering yield and on the percentages of lean, fat and bone of the lumbar region and pelvic limb cuts. The pH value of the Longissimus lumborum (Ll) muscle 45 min after slaughter was higher in Group I (6.73 vs 6.54; P<0.05). Meat colour of Group E kids was lighter (50.63 vs 48.86) and showed greater (P<0.05) yellowness (13.42 vs 11.93) and Chroma values (14.92 vs 13.45). Cooking loss was higher in Group E (31.51 vs 26.98%; P<0.05), but meat tenderness of the Ll muscle was better (peak force of 2.86 vs 3.58 kg/cm2; P<0.05). Meat chemical composition did not differ between the two groups for either raw or cooked samples. On the whole, suckling kids raised under grazing goats showed a higher total CLA concentration in both raw (2.57 vs 2.25% on total fatty acids) and cooked meat (1.85 vs 1.44%), although the differences were not significant.
Manejo de herbicidas na cultura da soja Roundup Ready?
Petter, F.A.;Procópio, S.O.;Cargnelutti Filho, A.;Barroso, A.L.L.;Pacheco, L.P.;
Planta Daninha , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-83582007000300015
Abstract: this study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of different herbicide management systems in weed control and the development and yield of different roundup ready? soybean cultivars. a randomized block experimental design with four replicates was used under a 5x5 factorial scheme, using five herbicide application systems: [(1) glyphosate (1.080 g ha-1) + 2.4-d (241.8 g ha-1) at 14 days before sowing (das), paraquat + diuron (400 + 200 g ha-1) at the sowing day, and glyphosate (960 g ha-1) at 35 days after crop emergence (dae); (2) glyphosate (1.080 g ha-1) + 2.4-d (241.8 g ha-1) at 14 das, paraquat + diuron (400 + 200 g ha-1) at the sowing day, and glyphosate (480 g ha-1) 17 at dae; (3) glyphosate (1.080 g ha-1) + 2.4-d (241.8 g ha-1) at 14 das, and glyphosate (960 g ha-1) at 35 dae; (4) glyphosate (1.080 g ha-1) + 2.4-d (241.8 g ha-1) at 14 das and glyphosate (480 g ha-1) at 17 days after plant emergence; and (5) control - glyphosate (1.080 g ha-1) + 2.4-d (241.8 g ha-1) at 14 das, without herbicide application at post-emergence] combined with five rr? soybean varieties (m-soy 8585, p98r91, valiosa, cd 219 and tmg 108),comprising 25 treatments. all herbicide application systems controlled the weed species chamaesyce hirta, alternanthera tenella, euphorbia heterophylla, spermacoce latifolia and tridax procumbens. this control was superior to that without herbicide application at post-emergence, being thus efficient in controlling those species. "system 3" showed a lower control level of the species spermacoce latifolia, tridax procumbens and chamaesyce hirta, the last one only in the plots sowed with the cultivar cd 219. herbicide management systems affected the height of the soybean plants, with the lowest values being found for tmg108 cv. under "system 3" application. although soybean grain yield did not differ among the herbicide application systems, all were superior to that of the control. tmg 108 cv. showed the highest grain yield in all the herbicide
Avalia??o de formula??es de glyphosate sobre soja Roundup Ready
Santos, J.B.;Ferreira, E.A.;Reis, M.R.;Silva, A.A.;Fialho, C.M.T.;Freita, M.A.M.;
Planta Daninha , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-83582007000100018
Abstract: this study aimed to evaluate the effects of three glyphosate formulations (roundup ready? and r. transorb? - both with isopropylamine salt and zapp qi?, formulated as potassium salt), on transgenic soybean. cd 219rr variety soybean plants displaying the cp4epsps gene, tolerant to glyphosate, were cultivated. at 25 days after emergence (dae), when plants showed the second trifolium completely expanded (stadiums v2-v3 ), formulations were applied at 2,000 g ha-1 . plants intoxication was evaluated 15 days after application as well as the number and dry matter of leaflets, number of radicular nodules and foliar content of n, p, k, s, ca, mg, fe, cu, zn, and mn at flowering and grain yield at the end of the cycle. soil basal respiration rate, microbial biomass carbon and metabolic quotient were evaluated through soil samples collected during soybean flowering. isopropylamine salt, present in the roundup transorb formulation, was more harmful to the soybean plants, also providing a negative effect on the soil microbiota. roundup ready formulation, registered as transgenic soybean, should not be applied on this crop at a higher rate, since it could alter the content of some nutrients, such as n, ca, mg, fe and cu, besides causing intoxication in the plants.
The Effect of Fat Supplementation in Shami Goat Diets on Milk Production and Composition, Does Body Weight and Growth Performance of Their Suckling Kids
Fawzi M. AL-Dabbas,Azmi D. Hawari
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding a dry fat source to Shami does on their milk production and composition, body weight change, weaning weight and average daily gain of their suckling kids. For this purpose we used thirty two multiparous Shami does weighing (47.431.38 kg) and randomly assigned into four dietary treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) set. Does were housed with their suckling kids and fed one of four isonitrogenous total mixed rations containing 0, 2, 3 or 4% of dry fat. Milk production and milk fat content were higher (p<0.05) for fat treated does, with no differences between 2% fat level and control group while there was no differences among groups in milk protein content. Final body weight of does was not affected by fat supplementation while body weight changes were higher (p=0.05) for fat treated groups. Weaning weight and average daily gain of suckling kids were increased (p=0.05) for fat treated does, with no differences between 2% fat level and control group. It is concluded that supplemental fat to does rations at 3 or 4% during their postpartum period can improve their milk production and milk fat content, as well as body weight change of does, weaning weight and average daily gain of suckling kids, without any effect on their milk protein content.
Efficacy of Tylosine against Clinical Cryptosporidiosis in Goat Kids  [PDF]
Ethem Mutlu Temizel*, Sezgin Senturk, Onur Girisgin1, Bayram Senlik1 and Gulsah Demir
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate tylosine efficacy administered by intramuscular for treatment of cryptosporidiosis in naturally infected goat kids. These animals were randomly assigned to test group (n=10) and control (n=10) group after routine clinical examination. All kids showed mild mental depression, decrease in suckling reflex and diarrhea in different severity. Fecal samples were analyzed via virological, bacteriological and coccidial examinations. The consistency of feces was assessed as pastose, semiliquid, or liquid. The rates of infection of the samples were evaluated semi-quantitatively. Tylosine was given by intramuscular route to test group - 2 at a dosage of 10 mg/kg of body weight, twice a day for 5 days. However, isotonic saline solution (1.0 ml) was used by intramuscular route to the control group, once a day for 5 days. Hematological results of all the kids were within normal limits except for hematocrit rates which were mild high in 15 kids as a result of dehydration. However, OPG was not detected in both of group after treatment. It was suggests that tylosine applied animals has been shown more rapid recovery than control group. Tylosine may be useful in order to reduce of treatment period in the disease. In future, more detailed studies which evaluate the effects of tylosine in goat kids with cryptosporidiosis are needed.
Carcass quality of Criollo Cordobes and Anglo Nubian suckling kids: Effects of age at slaughter
Pe?a,F.; Bonvillani,A.; Morandini,M.; Freire,V.; Domenech,V.; García,A.;
Archivos de Zootecnia , 2011, DOI: 10.4321/S0004-05922011000200007
Abstract: the objective of this study was to assess the carcass characteristics of two goat breed types reared under extensive system. forty male kids, 20 criollo cordobes and 20 anglo nubian, were used. the animals were slaughtered at 60±2 days old (group i) and at 90±3 days old (group ii). the carcass yield and fatness was significantly higher in anglo nubian than in criollo cordobes kids. breed and age at slaughter significantly affect carcass conformation, some carcass measures and indices, and non-carcass components.
Desempenho da soja roundup ready sob aplica??o de glyphosate em diferentes estádios
Albrecht, L.P;Barbosa, A.P;Silva, A.F.M;Mendes, M.A;Maraschi-Silva, L.M;Albrecht, A.J.P;
Planta Daninha , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-83582011000300012
Abstract: previous studies and speculation involving the behavior of roundup ready soybean under glyphosate application requires further investigations to clarify this issue. this study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance and oil and protein contents of transgenic soybean culture under glyphosate application. thus, an assay was carried out in a completely randomized block design, with four replications. treatments consisted of foliar sprays in increasing doses of glyphosate applied at stages v6 and r2. the variables evaluated were: plant height, number of pods per plant, thousand grain weight and yield, as well as oil and protein contents. it was verified that glyphosate, especially when used in r2, can compromise both the agronomic performance and protein contents.
Glyphosate-Residues in Roundup-Ready Soybean Impair Daphnia magna Life-Cycle  [PDF]
Marek Cuhra, Terje Traavik, Micka?l Dando, Raul Primicerio, Daniel Ferreira Holderbaum, Thomas B?hn
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2015.41003
Abstract: Herbicide tolerant plants such as Roundup-Ready soybean contain residues of glyphosate herbicide. These residues are considered safe and previous animal-feeding-studies have failed to find negative effects related to such chemical residues. The present study tests 8 experimental soy- meal diets as feed in groups (each containing 20 individuals) of test-animals (D. magna). The diets have different levels of glyphosate residues and we show that animal growth, reproductive maturity and number of offspring are correlated with these chemicals. The tested soybeans are from ordinary agriculture in Iowa USA and the residues are below the regulatory limits. Despite this, clear negative effects are seen in life-long feeding. The work enhances the need for including analysis of herbicide residues in future assessment of GMO.
Detection and quantification of Roundup Ready? soybean residues in sausage samples by conventional and real-time PCR
Marcelino, Francismar Corrêa;Guimar?es, Marta Fonseca Martins;De-Barros, Everaldo Gon?alves;
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612008000500007
Abstract: the increasing presence of products derived from genetically modified (gm) plants in human and animal diets has led to the development of detection methods to distinguish biotechnology-derived foods from conventional ones. the conventional and real-time pcr have been used, respectively, to detect and quantify gm residues in highly processed foods. dna extraction is a critical step during the analysis process. some factors such as dna degradation, matrix effects, and the presence of pcr inhibitors imply that a detection or quantification limit, established for a given method, is restricted to a matrix used during validation and cannot be projected to any other matrix outside the scope of the method. in brazil, sausage samples were the main class of processed products in which roundup ready? (rr) soybean residues were detected. thus, the validation of methodologies for the detection and quantification of those residues is absolutely necessary. sausage samples were submitted to two different methods of dna extraction: modified wizard and the ctab method. the yield and quality were compared for both methods. dna samples were analyzed by conventional and real-time pcr for the detection and quantification of roundup ready? soybean in the samples. at least 200 ng of total sausage dna was necessary for a reliable quantification. reactions containing dna amounts below this value led to large variations on the expected gm percentage value. in conventional pcr, the detection limit varied from 1.0 to 500 ng, depending on the gm soybean content in the sample. the precision, performance, and linearity were relatively high indicating that the method used for analysis was satisfactory.
Endocrine and metabolic traits in goat kids around weaning
D. Magistrelli,G. Polo Dimel,F. Rosi
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.1s.625
Abstract: Eleven Saanen kids, three days after birth, were divided into two groups: WEAN and MILK. All kids were fed goat milk until the 5th week of age, when the WEAN group began a weaning protocol. MILK group continued to receive goat milk for the entire experimental period, while WEAN group was weaned at 47 days of age. Starting from the 3rd week of age, body weight was recorded and blood samples were taken weekly, before the first meal of the day. Plasma was analysed for glucose, total protein, free aminoacid, insulin, leptin and ghrelin.Weaning did not affect plasma levels of total protein and leptin, but decreased plasma glucose and free aminoacid, and increased ghrelin concentration. Moreover, weaning decreased plasma insulin level more than three times. This result was probably the consequence of the lower concentration of plasma glucose of the WEAN group, but the effect could be enforced by the milk-borne insulin ingested by the MILK kids with the diet. Goat milk contains peptides that can pass across the intestinal epithelium and enter the systemic circulation, suggesting a possible role in accomplishing the immature ability of suckling animals to produce hormones and growth factors.
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