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Modelling Electricity Generation and Capacity with CO2 Emissions for Sub Saharan Africa  [PDF]
Aissa Boudjella, Andrew Mugumya
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2018.85057
Abstract: In this investigation the electricity generation and the electricity capacity of energy mix for sub Saharan Africa from 2020 to 2040 including CO2 emission from (coal, oil, gas) (Total Final Consumption, transport) and power generation were analyzed. These energy sources include conventional and renewable energy sources such as coal, oil, gas, hydro, nuclear, bioenergy, solar PV, and other renewables. We developed a linear regression equation based on the least-square method of estimation to forecast the value of energy and CO2 emission. We fit a linear trend to the energy time series including CO2
PV-Hybrid Off-Grid and Mini-Grid Systems for Rural Electrification in Sub-Saharan Africa  [PDF]
Jordy Charly Isidore Rabetanetiarimanana, Mamy Harimisa Radanielina, Hery Tiana Rakotondramiarana
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2018.910011
Abstract: Rural electrification remains a great challenge for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as access to electricity is a prerequisite to accelerate its development. The present paper reviews the measures adopted to promote access to electricity in rural and remote areas of SSA. The main barriers to rural electrification in these developing countries are presented before showing technologies used for the aforementioned purpose. Then, adopted methods for enhancing the use of renewable energy in SSA are shown. Moreover, the policy adopted by decision makers and project planners are also highlighted. In addition, the optimal solutions proposed by researchers are given such as the cost-effective off-grid system type that might be a viable alternative to diesel power generation.
mHealth in Sub-Saharan Africa  [PDF]
Thomas J. Betjeman,Samara E. Soghoian,Mark P. Foran
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/482324
Abstract: Mobile phone penetration rates have reached 63% in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and are projected to pass 70% by 2013. In SSA, millions of people who never used traditional landlines now use mobile phones on a regular basis. Mobile health, or mHealth, is the utilization of short messaging service (SMS), wireless data transmission, voice calling, and smartphone applications to transmit health-related information or direct care. This systematic review analyzes and summarizes key articles from the current body of peer-reviewed literature on PubMed on the topic of mHealth in SSA. Studies included in the review demonstrate that mHealth can improve and reduce the cost of patient monitoring, medication adherence, and healthcare worker communication, especially in rural areas. mHealth has also shown initial promise in emergency and disaster response, helping standardize, store, analyze, and share patient information. Challenges for mHealth implementation in SSA include operating costs, knowledge, infrastructure, and policy among many others. Further studies of the effectiveness of mHealth interventions are being hindered by similar factors as well as a lack of standardization in study design. Overall, the current evidence is not strong enough to warrant large-scale implementation of existing mHealth interventions in SSA, but rapid progress of both infrastructure and mHealth-related research in the region could justify scale-up of the most promising programs in the near future. 1. Introduction Mobile phones are increasingly accessible worldwide. There are an estimated 6.8 billion mobile phones being used in the world in 2013, compared to 1 billion in 2002, corresponding to penetration rates of approximately 96% globally: 128% in developed countries and 89% in developing countries [1]. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the penetration of cell phones is estimated to be 63% in 2013 and projected to pass 70% by 2015 [2]. Hundreds of millions of people in SSA who never gained access to traditional landlines for telecommunication now use mobile phones on a regular basis [3]. In many developing countries, wireless technology is less expensive and more readily available than wired technology [4]. This technology has unique potential to reach large numbers of people living in resource-limited or remote locations. Mobile health (mHealth) is the use of mobile phone technology for health-related purposes. This relatively new, dynamic, and rapidly evolving field includes the development and study of mobile phone applications such as short messaging service (SMS), voice calling, and
Determinants of Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa
SL Adeyemi, GT Ijaiya, UA Raheem
African Research Review , 2009,
Abstract: This paper examines the determinants of poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa using a set of cross-country data drawn from 48 countries. It adopts a multiple regression analysis. The results obtained indicates that factors like increase in the rate of population, inflation and external debt servicing, lack of safe water, low economic activities, gender discrimination, ethnic and religious conflicts and HIV/AIDS have influenced the increase in the rate poverty in the sub-region. Given these results, measures such as debt forgiveness, use of family planning devices, stable macro-economic variables like inflation and exchange rate volatility and good governance are suggested as possible solutions to poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Overcoming the Digital Divide  [PDF]
Oyedokun Agbeja,R.O. Salawu
Information Technology Journal , 2007,
Abstract: In an increasingly digitalized world economy, there exists a digital gap between Sub-Saharan Africa and the rest of the world that translates into economic marginalization of the African region. Consequently, the following phases of development are crucial for the region: (1) the phase of massive digitalization during which the digital divide is bridged and (2) the phase of information and knowledge management in which information is systematically converted into knowledge and the latter into innovative-sustainable development. Information for conversion into knowledge is supplied by the first phase. The second phase is therefore existence dependent on the first. Therefore, the attainment of digitalized state is primary-sine qua non. The envisaged digitalized state can be actualized and consolidated with a combination of: (a) curriculum in computer education consisting of computer taxonomy, networking and ICTS in general for secondary and tertiary institutions but also aptly adoptable for informal groups and (b) establishment of multipurpose telecentres in rural areas and a diffusion of networks in urban centres. Once a steady digitalized state evidenced by uninterrupted connectivity to the internet is attained, the second phase can be realized. Without steady supply of electricity, however, sustainable development and competitive edge may be hard to come by in a world of fierce competition.
Energy Security and Sub-Saharan Africa  [cached]
Emily Meierding
International Development Policy/Revue Internationale de Politique de Développement , 2012, DOI: 10.4000/poldev.744
Abstract: Published by Palgrave MacmillanOver the last decade the topic of energy security has reappeared on global policy agendas. Most analyses of international energy geopolitics examine the interests and behaviour of powerful energy-importing countries like the US and China. This chapter begins by examining foreign powers’ expanded exploitation of oil and uranium resources in Sub-Saharan Africa. It goes on to examine how energy importers’ efforts to enhance their energy security through Africa are impacting energy security within Africa. It assesses Sub-Saharan states’ attempts to increase consumption of local oil and uranium reserves. Observing the constraints on these efforts, it then outlines some alternative strategies that have been employed to enhance African energy security. It concludes that, while local community-based development projects have improved the well-being of many households, they are not a sufficient guarantor of energy security. Inadequate petroleum access, in particular, remains a development challenge. Foreign powers’ efforts to increase their oil security are undermining the energy security of Sub-Saharan African citizens.
Improving influenza surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa
Steffen,C; Debellut,F; Gessner,BD; Kasolo,FC; Yahaya,AA; Ayebazibwe,N; Bassong,O; Cardoso,Y; Kebede,S; Manoncourt,S; Vandemaele,KA; Mounts,AW;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862012000400014
Abstract: problem: little is known about the burden of influenza in sub-saharan africa. routine influenza surveillance is key to getting a better understanding of the impact of acute respiratory infections on sub-saharan african populations. approach: a project known as strengthening influenza sentinel surveillance in africa (sisa) was launched in angola, cameroon, ghana, nigeria, rwanda, senegal, sierra leone and zambia to help improve influenza sentinel surveillance, including both epidemiological and virological data collection, and to develop routine national, regional and international reporting mechanisms. these countries received technical support through remote supervision and onsite visits. consultants worked closely with health ministries, the world health organization, national influenza laboratories and other stakeholders involved in influenza surveillance local setting: influenza surveillance systems in the target countries were in different stages of development when sisa was launched. senegal, for instance, had conducted virological surveillance for years, whereas sierra leone had no surveillance activity at all. relevant changes: working documents such as national surveillance protocols and procedures were developed or updated and training for sentinel site staff and data managers was organized. lessons learnt: targeted support to countries can help them strengthen national influenza surveillance, but long-term sustainability can only be achieved with external funding and strong national government leadership.
Democratic consolidation in sub-Saharan Africa
ángel Pérez González
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 2001,
Abstract: The contributions made by theory on democratic consolidation in Eastern Europe are also pertinent to analysis of processes of democratization and democratic consolidation in other areas, such as sub-Saharan Africa. The parameters of analysis highlight the importance of a strong state (organized, with legitimated institutions) and a structured society (whether multiethnic or not) as necessary conditions for democratization. On the assumption that the colonizing powers basically used two models –the French assimilationist model and the British indirect government model– the study of how these conditions were fulfilled in various sub-Saharan states leads to two conclusions: the first, the possibility of a process of democratization in those states where European (French) colonization produced a total assimilation of the colonized society, including above all the colonizer’s political values; and the second, the possibility of processes of democratization in states produced by British colonization where the indigenous structures and those of the metropolis were superimposed, a phenomenon which allowed the application of democratic values by legitimated local institutions.
Understanding the Scourge of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa
Inungu Joseph,Karl Sarah
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1758-2652-8-4-30
Abstract: Sub-Saharan Africa is the part of the world that has been hit hardest by the HIV epidemic. To fight the spread of HIV in the continent, it is necessary to know and effectively address the factors that drive the spread of HIV. The purpose of this article is to review the factors associated with the spread of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa and to propose 6 essential activities, which we refer to by the acronym "ESCAPER," to help curb the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa.
Adolescent childbearing in sub-Saharan Africa  [cached]
Gupta Neeru,Mahy Mary
Demographic Research , 2003,
Abstract: This article examines whether increased years of schooling exercised a consistent impact on delayed childbearing in sub-Saharan Africa. Data were drawn from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in eight countries over the period 1987-1999. Multiple logistic regressions were used to assess trends and determinants in the probability of first birth during adolescence. Girls' education from about the secondary level onwards was found to be the only consistently significant covariate. No effect of community aggregate education was discernible, after controlling for urbanity and other individual-level variables. The results reinforce previous findings that improving girls' education is a key instrument for raising ages at first birth, but suggest that increases in schooling at lower levels alone bear only somewhat on the prospects for fertility decline among adolescents.
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