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A Distributed Energy-Efficient Clustering Algorithm for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks
异构传感器网络的分布式能量有效成簇算法

QING Li,ZHU Qing-Xin,WANG Ming-Wen,
卿利
,朱清新,王明文

软件学报 , 2006,
Abstract: In order to prolong the network lifetime, energy-efficient protocols should be designed to adapt the characteristic of wireless sensor networks. Clustering Algorithm is a kind of key technique used to reduce energy consumption, which can increase network scalability and lifetime. This paper studies the performance of clustering algorithm in saving energy for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. A new distributed energy-efficient clustering scheme for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks is proposed and evaluated. In the new clustering scheme, cluster-heads are elected by a probability based on the ratio between residual energy of node and the average energy of network. The high initial and residual energy nodes will have more chances to be the cluster-heads than the low energy nodes. Simulational results show that the clustering scheme provides longer lifetime and higher throughput than the current important clustering protocols in heterogeneous environments.
Energy-Efficient Target Monitoring Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks  [cached]
Samayveer Singh
Journal of Global Research in Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper, an energy-efficient target monitoring algorithm for wireless sensor networks have been reported. Here, we have proposed new energy efficient algorithms HADEEPS, based on the scheduling that allow sensor nodes can interchange its state into idle, sleep and active modes. The network lifetime increases with the number of sensors at different targets and sensing range. The simulation results for target supervising protocol, HADEEPS verify that with the adjustable sensing range, heterogeneous nodes and different targets, the overall network lifetime improved as compared with existing protocols. Keywords: WAN, HADEEPS, network model, heterogeneous nodes
Multi-Hop Clustering Protocol using Gateway Nodes in Wireless Sensor Network  [PDF]
S. Taruna,Rekha Kumawat,G.N.Purohit
International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks , 2012,
Abstract: Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are composed of many homogeneous or heterogeneous sensor nodes with limited resources. A sensor node is comprised of three components: a sensor, a processor and a wireless communication device. These sensor nodes dispersed throughout it to monitor, collect, and transmit data. The sensors are inexpensive, simple, and their power source is irreplaceable. Knowing the sensors power levels cannot be restored, many protocols have been developed to make collecting, receiving and transferring data more energy efficient. In this paper, we propose a multi-hop cluster based routing protocol which is more energy efficient than single hop protocol. Simulation results show that the protocol offers a better performance than single-hop clustering routing protocols in terms ofnetwork lifetime and energy consumption by improving FND.
Energy-Efficient Target Monitoring Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks
Samayveer Singh
Journal of Global Research in Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper, an energy-efficient target monitoring algorithm for wireless sensor networks have been reported. Here, we have proposed new energy efficient algorithms HADEEPS, based on the scheduling that allow sensor nodes can interchange its state into idle, sleep and active modes. The network lifetime increases with the number of sensors at different targets and sensing range. The simulation results for target supervising protocol, HADEEPS verify that with the adjustable sensing range, heterogeneous nodes and different targets, the overall network lifetime improved as compared with existing protocols.
Improved Topology Control Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks
一种适用于无线传感器网络的拓扑控制算法

ZHAO Xue-jian,ZHUANG Yi,OUYANG Jian,
赵学健
,庄毅,欧阳键

计算机科学 , 2009,
Abstract: Topology control algorithms for wireless sensor networks are significant for prolonging the network lifetime,reducing radio interference, increasing the efficiency of routing protocols and MAC protocols, among other things. Based on the analysis of the XTC (eXemplary Topology Control) algorithm, this paper proposed a modified local distributed topology algorithm M-XTC (Modified-XTC). The modified algorithm maintains the advantages such as simple, practical, available without node position information, applicable for nodes without special instruments, heterogeneous networks, three-dimensional space networks as the XTC; algorithm does. Moreover, it is also more conductive to prolong the network lifetime, and has much more real-time and robustness.
Energy Proficient Reliable Rim Routing Technique for Wireless Heterogeneous Sensor Networks Lifespan Fortification  [PDF]
S. G. Susila, J. Arputhavijayaselvi
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.78151
Abstract: Sensor nodes are mainly shielded in the field with limited power supply. In Wireless Sensor Networks, there must be a requirement of an efficient power management, because sensor nodes are deployed in unman attended area with non-rechargeable batteries. Power management can be done by different methods of routing protocols. The proposed Reliable Rim Routing (3R) technique is based on hybrid routing protocol for homogeneous and heterogeneous system for WSNs to ameliorate the performance of the overall system. In 3R, total node deployment area can be multipart in terms of rim and in each rim, and some of the sensor nodes transmit their sensed data directly to base station, and meanwhile remaining sensor nodes send the data through clustering technique to base station like SEP. Proposed 3R technique implementation proves its enhanced WSNs lifetime of 70% energy consumption and 40% throughput compared with existing protocols. Simulation and evaluation results outperformed in terms of energy consumption with increased throughput and network lifetime.
Computational Intelligence Routing For Lifetime Maximization in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Mrs. G. Umarani Srikanth,Ms. M.Akilandeswari
International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: In wireless sensor networks, sensor nodes are typically power-constrained with limited lifetime, and thus it is necessary to know how long the network sustains its networking operations. Heterogeneous WSNs consists of different sensor devices with different capabilities. One of major issue in WSNs is finding the coverage distance and connectivity between sensors and sink. To increase the network lifetime, this paper proposed Swarm Intelligence, routing technique called Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). Ant colony optimization algorithm provides a natural and intrinsic way of exploration of search space of coverage area. Ants communicate with their nest-mates using chemical scents known as pheromones, Based on Pheromone trail between sensor devices the shortest path is found. By finding the coverage distance and sensing range, the network lifetime maximized and reduces the energy usage. Extensive Java Agent Framework (JADE) multi agent simulator result clearly provides more approximate, effective and efficient way for maximizing the lifetime of heterogeneous WSNs.
Lack of Power Avoidance: A Fault Classification Based Fault Tolerant Framework Solution for Lifetime Enhancement and Reliable Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
V.R. Sarma Dhulipala,G.R. Kanagachidambaresan,R.M. Chandrasekaran
Information Technology Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Clustering provides an effective way to improve the lifetime in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) environment. Clustering protocols in WSN requires optimal grouping for cluster heads which further leads to inter cluster communication in reliable manner. In this study, Lack of Power Avoidance (LoPA) protocol is proposed and evaluated. By using heuristic algorithms, LoPA considers heterogeneous clustering and controls the network parameters significant in low power applications. Reduction in energy consumption using this algorithm is obtained by the use of fault classification methods. Inter cluster communication is made reliable by using conditional utilization of energy of the nodes in various model of operation. Simulation results indicate that the protocol can efficiently decrease the dead speed of the nodes and prolong the network lifetime.
HEER: Hybrid Energy Efficient Reactive Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
N. Javaid,S. N. Mohammad,K. Latif,U. Qasim,Z. A. Khan,M. A. Khan
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of numerous sensors which send sensed data to base station. Energy conservation is an important issue for sensor nodes as they have limited power.Many routing protocols have been proposed earlier for energy efficiency of both homogeneous and heterogeneous environments. We can prolong our stability and network lifetime by reducing our energy consumption. In this research paper, we propose a protocol designed for the characteristics of a reactive homogeneous WSNs, HEER (Hybrid Energy Efficient Reactive) protocol. In HEER, Cluster Head(CH) selection is based on the ratio of residual energy of node and average energy of network. Moreover, to conserve more energy, we introduce Hard Threshold (HT) and Soft Threshold (ST). Finally, simulations show that our protocol has not only prolonged the network lifetime but also significantly increased stability period.
Improved and Balanced LEACH for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks  [PDF]
BEN ALLA Said,EZZATI abdellah,,Abderrahim BENI HSSANE,,Moulay Lahcen
International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: While wireless sensor networks (WSN) is a power constrained system, since nodes run on limited power batteries which shorten its lifespan. Prolonging the network lifetime depends on efficient management of sensing node energy resource. Energy consumption is therefore one of the most crucial design issues in WSN. Hierarchical routing protocols are best known in regard to energy efficiency. By using a clustering technique hierarchical routing protocols greatly minimize energy consumed in collecting and disseminating data. In this paper we propose Improved and Balanced LEACH (IB-LEACH), a heterogeneous-energy protocol propose a new method to decrease probability of failure nodes and to prolong the time interval before the death of the first node (we refer to as stability period) and increasing the lifetime in heterogeneous WSNs, which is crucial for many applications. We study the impact of heterogeneity of nodes, in terms of their energy, in wireless sensor networks that are hierarchically clustered. In these networks some high-energy nodes called NCG nodes (Normal node/Cluster Head/ Gateway) become “cluster heads” to aggregate the data of their cluster members and transmit it to the chosen “Gateways” that requires the minimum communication energy to reduce the energy consumption of cluster head and decrease probability of failure nodes. The simulation results demonstrated that new protocol is more energy efficient and is more effective in prolonging the network life time and a stability period compared to LEACH and SEP.
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