oalib
Search Results: 1 - 10 of 100 matches for " "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item
Temperature biofeedback and sleep: limited findings and methodological challenges
Forest G, van den Heuvel C, Lushington K, De Koninck J
ChronoPhysiology and Therapy , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CPT.S33147
Abstract: ature biofeedback and sleep: limited findings and methodological challenges Original Research (758) Total Article Views Authors: Forest G, van den Heuvel C, Lushington K, De Koninck J Published Date October 2012 Volume 2012:2 Pages 59 - 66 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CPT.S33147 Received: 20 April 2012 Accepted: 13 June 2012 Published: 10 October 2012 Geneviève Forest,1,2 Cameron van den Heuvel,3 Kurt Lushington,4 Joseph De Koninck2 1Sleep Laboratory, Département de Psychoéducation et de Psychologie, Université du Québec en Outaouais, Gatineau, Québec, Canada; 2Sleep and Dreams Laboratory, School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 3Research Branch University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; 4School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, South Australia, Australia Abstract: Given the close link between body temperature and sleep, the perspective of manipulating core and peripheral temperature by self-regulation techniques is very appealing. We report here on a series of attempts conducted independently in two laboratories to use self-regulation (biofeedback) of oral (central) and hand (peripheral) temperature, and measured the impact on sleep-onset latency, sleep architecture, and circadian phase. We found that hand temperature was more successful than oral temperature biofeedback. Moreover, an increase in hand temperature was associated with reduced sleep-onset latency. However, most participants found the procedure difficult to implement. The temperature response to biofeedback was reduced in the aged and weakest at the time of sleep onset, and there was not a systematic relationship between the change in temperature and change in sleep latency. Methodological limitations and individual differences may account for these results. Recommendations for future research are presented.
Temperature biofeedback and sleep: limited findings and methodological challenges  [cached]
Forest G,van den Heuvel C,Lushington K,De Koninck J
ChronoPhysiology and Therapy , 2012,
Abstract: Geneviève Forest,1,2 Cameron van den Heuvel,3 Kurt Lushington,4 Joseph De Koninck21Sleep Laboratory, Département de Psychoéducation et de Psychologie, Université du Québec en Outaouais, Gatineau, Québec, Canada; 2Sleep and Dreams Laboratory, School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 3Research Branch University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; 4School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Given the close link between body temperature and sleep, the perspective of manipulating core and peripheral temperature by self-regulation techniques is very appealing. We report here on a series of attempts conducted independently in two laboratories to use self-regulation (biofeedback) of oral (central) and hand (peripheral) temperature, and measured the impact on sleep-onset latency, sleep architecture, and circadian phase. We found that hand temperature was more successful than oral temperature biofeedback. Moreover, an increase in hand temperature was associated with reduced sleep-onset latency. However, most participants found the procedure difficult to implement. The temperature response to biofeedback was reduced in the aged and weakest at the time of sleep onset, and there was not a systematic relationship between the change in temperature and change in sleep latency. Methodological limitations and individual differences may account for these results. Recommendations for future research are presented.Keywords: biofeedback, core body temperature, sleep, circadian rhythm, sleep onset
School Programs and Characteristics and Their Influence on Student BMI: Findings from Healthy Passages  [PDF]
Tracy K. Richmond, Marc N. Elliott, Luisa Franzini, Ichiro Kawachi, Margaret O. Caughy, M. Janice Gilliland, Courtney E. Walls, Frank A. Franklin, Richard Lowry, Stephen W. Banspach, Mark A. Schuster
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083254
Abstract: Background Little is known about the contribution of school contextual factors to individual student body mass index (BMI). We set out to determine if school characteristics/resources: (1) are associated with student BMI; (2) explain racial/ethnic disparities in student BMI; and (3) explain school-level differences in student BMI. Methods Using gender-stratified multi-level modeling strategies we examined the association of school characteristics/resources and individual BMI in 4,387 5th graders in the Healthy Passages Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Additionally, we examined the association of race/ethnicity and individual BMI as well as the between-school variance in BMI before and after adding individual and school characteristics to test for attenuation. Results The school-level median household income, but not physical activity or nutrition resources, was inversely associated with female BMI (β = ?0.12, CI: ?0.21,?0.02). Neither school demographics nor physical activity/nutrition resources were predictive of individual BMI in males. In Black females, school characteristics attenuated the association of race/ethnicity and BMI. Individual student characteristics—not school characteristics/resources-reduced the between-school variation in BMI in males by nearly one-third and eliminated it in females. Conclusions In this cohort of 5th graders, school SES was inversely associated with female BMI while school characteristics and resources largely explained Black/White disparities in female weight status. Between-school differences in average student weight status were largely explained by the composition of the student body not by school characteristics or programming.
Learning Assistant Supported Student Outcomes (LASSO) study initial findings  [PDF]
Ben Van Dusen,Laurie Langdon,Valerie Otero
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: This study investigates how faculty, student, and course features are linked to student outcomes in Learning Assistant (LA) supported courses. Over 4,500 students and 17 instructors from 13 LA Alliance member institutions participated in the study. Each participating student completed an online concept inventory at the start (pre) and end (post) of their term. The physics concept inventories included Force and Motion Concept Evaluation (FMCE) and the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment (BEMA). Concepts inventories from the fields of biology and chemistry were also included. Our analyses utilize hierarchical linear models that nest student level data (e.g. pre/post scores and gender) within course level data (e.g. discipline and course enrollment) to build models that examine student outcomes across institutions and disciplines. We report findings on the connections between students' outcomes and their gender, race, and time spent working with LAs as well as instructors' experiences with LAs.
Effectively Measuring Student Leadership  [PDF]
Barry Z. Posner
Administrative Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/admsci2040221
Abstract: With a worldwide sample of students (N = 77, 387), this paper reviews and analyses the psychometric properties of the Student Leadership Practices Inventory [1]. Modest to strong internal reliability coefficients are found across a number of different dimensions. Predictive validity of the instrument is supported, with the instrument being able to differentiate between effective and ineffective leaders using both self-reported and observer (constituent) data. Few significant differences are found on the basis of respondent gender, ethnicity, nationality, or institutional level (high school versus college). Implications for developing student leaders and future research are offered.
Basic human needs achievment by nursing undergraduated students  [cached]
Jo?o FFL Sim?es,Eugênio S Franco,M?nica OB Oriá
Online Brazilian Journal of Nursing , 2007,
Abstract: The fourteen human basic needs (HBN) described by Henderson define the Nursing care spectrum. It is a nurse duty, regarding the basic human needs, to support and improve the health status, in helping the patient to raise self awareness of the HBN. The present article is the result of a descriptive-exploratory study that aims at evaluating the time that the first year-students of the Nursing course from the Health School of the University of Aveiro - Portugal, spend to satisfy their basic human needs throughout a week. An exploratory study was developed based on a quantitative approach. For data collection, a diary instrument built of seven record sheets for registering of the student time was elaborated. By the data analyses, it was concluded that students had spent more time to sleep, resting and learning, reaching 60,06% of the weekly total occupation time. Although variations in the time spent for the satisfaction of the diverse needs throughout the week do exist, those are not significant. The need to prevent harm and to follow according to beliefs and values were the ones that students had spent less time.
Investigation of Methodological Factors Potentially Underlying the Apparently Paradoxical Findings on Body Mass Index and All-Cause Mortality  [PDF]
Grace Joshy, Rosemary J. Korda, Adrian Bauman, Hidde P. Van Der Ploeg, Tien Chey, Emily Banks
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088641
Abstract: Introduction Findings regarding the association between overweight and all-cause mortality range from significantly lower to higher risk, compared with body-mass-index (BMI) within the “normal” range. Methods We examined empirically potential methodological explanations for these apparently conflicting results using questionnaire and linked mortality data from 246,314 individuals aged ≥45 years in the Australian 45 and Up Study (11,127 deaths; median follow-up 3.9 years). Hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality associated with BMI were modelled according to different methods of accounting for illness at baseline, finer versus broader gradations of BMI and choice of reference group, adjusting for potential confounders. Results In analyses using the broad World Health Organization (WHO) categories, the all-cause mortality HR was significantly lower in the overweight category (25.0–29.99 kg/m2), than the normal weight (18.5–24.99 kg/m2) category. However, in analyses accounting for baseline illness, which excluded those with pre-existing illness at baseline, ever-smokers and the first 2 years of follow up, absolute age-standardised mortality rates varied up to two-fold between finer BMI categories within the WHO normal weight category; rates were lowest at 22.5–24.99 kg/m2 and mortality HRs increased steadily for BMI above (ptrend<0.02) and below (ptrend<0.003) this reference category. Hence, the breadth of the BMI categories used and whether or not baseline illness is accounted for explain the apparent discrepancies between reported BMI-mortality associations. Conclusion Using fine BMI categories and the category with the lowest absolute rates as the reference group and accounting for the potential confounding effects of baseline illness is likely to yield the most reliable risk estimates for establishing the independent relationship of BMI to all-cause mortality. These results and those of other studies indicate that a BMI of 22.5–24.99 kg/m2, not the broad “overweight” category of 25–29.99 kg/m2, was associated with the most favourable mortality risk.
Ortopedia: origem histórica, o ensino no Brasil e estudos metodológicos pelo mundo = Orthopedics: historical origin, teaching in Brazil, and methodological studies worldwide  [PDF]
Karam, Francisco Consoli,Lopes, Maria Helena Itaqui
Scientia Medica , 2005,
Abstract: Objetivos: Relatar uma breve história da ortopedia, descrever como funciona o ensino no Brasil e verificar a preocupa o que autores de outros países têm com a metodologia do ensino desta especialidade. Métodos: Foram realizadas pesquisas no Pubmed, nos últimos 10 anos de publica o da Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia e nos sites das sociedades Gaúcha e Brasileira de Ortopedia. Resultados: A história da ortopedia inicia com o homem primitivo, passando por egípcios, gregos, romanos e árabes. Após anos de pouca importancia na idade média ressurge no século XII e chega ao século XX, contraditoriamente, ganhando desenvolvimento com as grandes guerras. No século XXI o ensino no Brasil é ancorado pela Sociedade Brasileira de Ortopedia e pelo mundo os autores mostram preocupa o em identificar as falhas nos métodos de ensino para proporem solu es que acompanhem a velocidade da tecnologia e quantidade de novos conhecimentos. Conclus o: A longa história do ensino da ortopedia, que come ou com o homem primitivo, prossegue atualmente com desafios crescentes, em busca de solu es. Objectives: To report a brief history of Orthopedics, describing its teaching in Brazil, and to check concerns from authors worldwide regarding teaching methodology of that specialty. Methods: A search was carried out at PubMed, from the latest 10 years of publication at Brazilian Journal of Orthopaedics [Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia], and at sites from Brazilian and regional Orthopedics societies. Results: The history of Orthopedics starts with the primitive man, passing through Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and Arabs. After years of little importance during Middle Age, it is reborn at the 12th Century, and arrives at the 20th Century, paradoxically developing with the Great Wars. During the 21st Century, teaching in Brazil is anchored by Brazilian Society of Orthopedics; worldwide, authors show concern to identify failures in teaching methods, so that solutions that follow the speed of technology and new sets of knowledge can be proposed. Conclusion: The long history of Orthopedics teaching, which started with the primitive man, currently proceeds with increasing challenges, in an ever lasting quest of viable solutions.
Physics Items and Student's Performance at Enem  [PDF]
Wanderley P. Gon?alves Jr,Marta F. Barroso
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: The Brazilian National Assessment of Secondary Education (ENEM, Exame Nacional do Ensino M\'edio) has changed in 2009: from a self-assessment of competences at the end of high school to an assessment that allows access to college and student financing. From a single general exam, now there are tests in four areas: Mathematics, Language, Natural Sciences and Social Sciences. A new Reference Matrix is build with components as cognitive domains, competencies, skills and knowledge objects; also, the methodological framework has changed, using now Item Response Theory to provide scores and allowing longitudinal comparison of results from different years, providing conditions for monitoring high school quality in Brazil. We present a study on the issues discussed in Natural Science Test of ENEM over the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. Qualitative variables are proposed to characterize the items, and data from students' responses in Physics items were analysed. The qualitative analysis reveals the characteristics of the exam in these years: long items, only a few of them demanding more complex reasoning, a characteristic of problem solving skills. The analysis of student performance also reveals that learning physics is not attained, with a percentage of correct answers on items that is almost always small, and that items that require some type of disciplinary knowledge or require use of mathematical reasoning presents a performance significantly weaker.
Possible impact of increase in female medical student admissions in Nepal: Findings from a qualitative study among medical undergraduates  [PDF]
PR Shankar,KK Singh,S Singh
Australasian Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: BackgroundIn Nepal, a developing country in South Asia, the number of female medical students has increased significantly.AimsThe present study was carried out to explore perceived perceptions for this increase, study the perceived impact on teaching-learning activities, medical school infrastructure and possible perceived changes in the doctor-patient relationship.MethodFirst, second and third year students were invited to participate in focus group discussions (FGDs). Fifty-four students were willing to participate. Twenty-five were from the first year, 20 from the second and 9 from the third year. The FGDs conducted over a 90 minute period were voice and video recorded. The groups consisted of both males and females from a particular intake. The findings were transcribed verbatim.ResultsParticipants felt more female students were taking up medicine in the country because of more colleges opening in the cities and towns making it easier for female students to enrol in the course. Also parents consider medicine as a safe, noble and dignified profession for their daughters. Participants suggested women are more empathetic doctors and the doctor-patient relationship might become more patient-focused. Women doctors can serve as a source of inspiration and the overall impact on Nepal would be positive.ConclusionParticipating students perceived the increasing number of female medical students may be due to changes in Nepalese society. This study was carried out only among three batches of students in a single medical school. Further studies among different batches of students and among interns in other medical schools are required. Studies among postgraduate students and doctors are also needed.
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.