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Relationship between tea drinking and bone mineral density in Bushehr population  [cached]
Somayeh Amiri,Abbasali Keshtkar,Hamidreza Aghaie-Meybodi,Bagher Larijan
Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Tea consumption is common throughout the world, especially in Iran and it was known as the most common beverages. Several studies evaluated negative effect of coffee and relationship between its caffeine content with bone density. But relationship between tea drinking and bone mineral density is less observed. Considering high amount of tea consumption and prevalence of osteoporosis in Iran, it is important to investigate this relationship.Materials and Method: Population study includes 1125 subjects (aged 20- 72 years) randomly selected by cluster sampling in Bushehr, who participated in general project of prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The participants were categorized based on degree of tea consumption: high tea drinkers (more than 4 cups of tea per day) and low tea drinkers (equal or less than 4 cups of tea per day).Results: In high tea drinkers, mean score for bone density was significantly higher in neck and total femur. But this difference in isolated groups (according to sex, age and both of them) was not seen.Conclusion: The result of this study indicates on a direct relationship between tea drinking and increasing of bone mineral density. Moreover, it shows the prevalence of osteoporosis is lower in people who have a regular daily habit of tea consumption
Bacterial Transfer to Cups and Water by Drinking  [PDF]
Paul Dawson, Hayley Thorson, Kelly Hooton, Justin Runey, David Hughes, Sally Foster, Melissa Roskosky, Sutton Fain-Swartz, Danielle Lynn, Inyee Han
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2018.912100
Abstract: Bacterial transfer is a concern when sharing food and drink, so to address this concern, this study examined the bacterial transfer onto and into plastic drinking cups. Two experiments were performed to: 1) test bacterial transfer to the rim of a plastic drinking cup, and 2) test residual bacteria in the liquid that was consumed from the cup. Bacteria were enumerated from the cup rim and the water in the cup. The results for both types of transfer showed higher bacterial populations on cups exposed to drinking compared to those where no drinking occurred. However, there was more bacterial transfer to the rim of the plastic cup than the liquid inside the cup.
Phosphorus limitation on bacterial regrowth in drinking water
SANG Jun-qiang,Zhang Xi-hui,YU Guo-zhong,WANG Zhan-sheng,
SANG Jun-qiang
,ZHANG Xi-hui,YU Guo-zhong,WANG Zhan-sheng

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2003,
Abstract: Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) test and bacterial regrowth potential (BRP) analysis were used to investigate the effect of phosphorus on bacterial regrowth in the drinking water that was made from some raw water taken from a reservoir located in northern China. It was shown that AOC of the drinking water samples increased by 43.9%-59.6% and BRP increased by 100%-235% when 50 microg/L PO4(3-)-P(as NaH2 PO4) was added alone to the drinking water samples. This result was clear evidence of phosphorus limitation on bacteria regrowth in the drinking water. This investigation indicated the importance of phosphorus in ensuring biological stability of drinking water and offered a novel possible option to restrict microbial regrowth in drinking water distribution system by applying appropriate technologies to remove phosphorus efficiently from drinking water in China.
Fluoride and bacterial content of bottled drinking water versus municipal tap water
Mythri H,Chandu G,Prashant G,Subba Reddy V
Indian Journal of Dental Research , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Water is a divine gift. People quench their thirst without questioning the source of water. But, apprehension about contaminants in municipal water supplies along with increased fear of fluorosis made bottled drinking water as one of the important tradable commodities. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine and compare the fluoride and bacterial contents of commercially available bottled drinking water and municipal tap water in Davangere city, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Fifty samples of 10 categories of bottled drinking water with different batch numbers were purchased and municipal water from different sources were collected. Fluoride levels were determined by an ion-selective electrode. Water was cultured quantitatively and levels of bacteria were calculated as colony-forming units (CFUs) per milliliter. Results: Descriptive analysis of water samples for fluoride concentration was in the range of 0.07-0.33 for bottled drinking water, Bisleri showing the highest of 0.33. A comparison of the mean values of microbial count for bottled drinking water with that of municipal tap water showed no statistically significant difference, but was more than the standard levels along with the presence of fungus and maggots. Conclusion: The fluoride concentration was below the optimal level for both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water. CFUs were more than the recommended level in both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water.
Bacterial Analysis of Selected Drinking Water Sources in Mbarara Municipality, Uganda  [PDF]
Ben Lukubye, Morgan Andama
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2017.98066
Abstract: Surveillance of water quality to ensure microbiological safety is a vital public health function to prevent water borne diseases. Bacterial total coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) examination provide indication of the hygienic condition of drinking water and are major tools in the assessment of the health risk borne by pathogen in water. Unfortunately, there is insufficient information on the total coliform and E. coli amounts in the common drinking water sources in Mbarara Municipality, Uganda despite the eminent anthropogenic sources of contamination. Hence the study established the sanitary risk and quantified the total coliform and E. coli load in selected drinking water sources in Mbarara Municipality, Uganda. A total of 70 water samples were collected from selected boreholes, springs, wells and rainwater in Nyamitanga, Kamukuzi and Kakoba divisions of Mbarara municipality. The water samples were analysed for total coliform and E. coli abundance using the American Public Health Association (APHA) standard method. The total coliform and Escherichia coli counts were compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard guidelines. The findings indicate that all the studied groundwater sources (boreholes, springs and wells) in Mbarara Municipality were not compliant to either both or one of the WHO total coliform (<10 CFU/100 ml) and E. coli (0 CFU/100 ml) criteria for drinking water hence they are unsuitable for drinking without treatment e.g. boiling etc. Only rainwater collected from Mbarara University of Science and Technology met the WHO total coliform and E. coli criteria for drinking water thus is suitable for drinking without any treatment. There is a strong linkage between bacterial (total coliforms and E. coli) water quality and water source sanitation, as well as the proximity of latrines, animal farms and landfills around the water sources. Mbarara municipal council should therefore ensure effective and regular operation and maintenance of the drinking water sources through the adoption and promotion of appropriate water safety plans.
Bushehr as an Energic City  [PDF]
Nasser Sabatsani
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Bushehr city is one of the famous city in the south of Iran which is situated in the coastal part of Persian Gulf. This paper try to discuss one of the most important theme which threat the sustainability and comfortability of tomorrow’s life. Changing Bushehr into an Energic city is one of the effective ways to solve the cities problem. For this purpose, we try to answer these questions: what is called as an energic city?; What are its main characteristics?; What are the aims of changing a city into an energic city? And what should be done to obtain the aims? For these purposes we offer a model which responds to the sustainability of Bushehr. This model uses 3 levels of activity that each level should respond to 5 significant characteristics of an energic city. For this purpose we present some applied ways in each category to obtain those characteristics.
Use of Bacterial Indicators for Contamination in Drinking Water of Qom, Iran  [PDF]
N. Shamabadi,M. Ebrahimi
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: This study is performed to investigate the bacterial contamination of the water resources and the pipeline networks of the city. Faecal coliforms (such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) as the most important indicator of water contamination), non-faecal coliforms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (which have recently been introduced as a new indicator of water contamination) as well as the number of phototrophic bacteria are examined. Samples collected from all wells, a big reservoir supplying big part of the city’s water (called Khordad 15 Dam), main pipeline networks, settling and resting reservoirs and finally treated water consumed by people under a sterile condition. The results showed 25% of samples from main water resources of Qom city were contaminated with confirm but no contamination detected in treated water. 16.7% of were samples were contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa after subculturing to Acetamid broth, but 11.8% of treated water samples confirmed to be contaminated with this bacterium in the second subculture. Although the results of this study demonstrated the potential threats of bacterial contamination (such as coliforms) in water resources, Qom’s fresh water is safe and water treatment facilities there work quietly efficient and remove all coliform contaminations. The appearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa contamination in drinking water is a sign of pipeline network cracks and erosions which require new efforts to repair and renew them.
Intercity Bus Scheduling for the Saudi Public Transport Company to Maximize Profit and Yield Additional Revenue  [PDF]
Mohamad K. Hasan, Ahmad A. Al Hammad
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2010.33044
Abstract: The Saudi Public Transport Company (SAPTCO) intercity bus schedule comprises a list of 382 major trips per day to over 250 cities and villages with 338 buses. SAPTCO operates Mercedes 404 SHD and Mercedes 404 RI-IL fleet types for the intercity trip. The fleet assignment model developed by American Airlines was adapted and applied to a sample of the intercity bus schedule. The results showed a substantial saving of 29% in the total number of needed buses. This encourages the decision makers at SAPTCO to use only Mercedes 404 SHD fleet type. Hence, the fleet assignment model was modified to incorporate only one fleet type and applied to the sample example. Due to the increase in the problem size, the model was decomposed by stations. Finally, the modified decomposed model was applied to the whole schedule. The model results showed a saving of 16.5% in the total number of needed buses of Mercedes 404 SHD. A sensitivity analysis was carried out and showed that the predefined minimum connection time is critical for model efficiency. A modification to the connection time for 11 stations showed a saving of 14 more buses. Considering our recommendation of performing a field study of the trip connection time for every station, the expected saving of the total number of needed buses will be about 27.4% (90 buses). This will yield a net saving of 16.44 million Saudi Riyals (USD 4.4 million) per year for SAPTCO in addition to hiring new employees. The revenue analysis shows that these 90 surplus buses will yield about USD 20,744,000 additional revenue yearly.
Has the expansion of car sales in Brazil any impact on the demand for buses? An econometric study of demand for commuting [paper in Portuguese]  [cached]
Jacqueline Elhage Ramis
Journal of Transport Literature , 2012,
Abstract: New vehicles retail sales increased three times over the last seven years in Brazil. In order to assess the impact on bus demand caused by this increase, Brazilian intercity bus passengers` movement was analyzed from the year 1996, when the country went trough an important period of economical development, after the implementation of Plano Real. During this period, there were significant changes in all economy sectors, specially with the GDP`s ascending performance. Intercity buses` prices, vehicle maintenance costs, aid access in acquiring new vehicles and seasonality, were analyzed through econometric models. These models indicated a cyclic and ascending performance, mainly influenced by the whole economy and summer vacation.
Suitability of Optical, Physical and Chemical Measurements for Detection of Changes in Bacterial Drinking Water Quality  [PDF]
Jenni Ikonen,Tarja Pitk?nen,Ilkka T. Miettinen
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10115349
Abstract: In this study, different optical, physical and chemical measurements were tested for their capacity to detect changes in water quality. The tests included UV-absorbance at 254 nm, absorbance at 420 nm, turbidity, particle counting, temperature, pH, electric conductivity (EC), free chlorine concentration and ATP concentration measurements. Special emphasis was given to investigating the potential for measurement tools to detect changes in bacterial concentrations in drinking water. Bacterial colony counts (CFU) and total bacterial cell counts (TBC) were used as reference methods for assessing the bacterial water quality. The study consists of a series of laboratory scale experiments: monitoring of regrowth of Pseudomonas fluorescens, estimation of the detection limits for optical measurements using Escherichia coli dilutions, verification of the relationships by analysing grab water samples from various distribution systems and utilisation of the measurements in the case of an accidentally contaminated distribution network. We found significant correlations between the tested measurements and the bacterial water quality. As the bacterial contamination of water often co-occurs with the intrusion of matrixes containing mainly non-bacterial components, the tested measurement tools can be considered to have the potential to rapidly detect any major changes in drinking water quality.
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