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Contribution of Bacterial Infection to Male Infertility in Nigerians  [cached]
Emokpae MA,Uadia PO,Sadiq NM
Online Journal of Health & Allied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: There is disagreement as to the influence of certain microbial infection on male infertility and such agents are ignored. The incidence of these microbial agents in seminal fluid isolates is on the increase. This study therefore evaluates the prevalence of male factor infertility and contribution of microbial infection to male infertility in Kano, northern Nigeria. Seminal fluid analysis in five hundred males who were investigated for infertility was evaluated using the 5th generation SQ AII C-P sperm quality analyzer and the Neubaeur counting chamber. The result indicates that 58.2% had sperm density less than twenty million per millilitre. The oligospermic subjects (sperm density 2-19 millions/ml) were 27.6%, severe oligospermic (sperm density less than 2 million) 13.2% and azoospermia, 17.4%. Asthenospermia (motility less than 50%) decrease from 44.8% in oligospermia to 24.0% in severe oligospermia. Teratospermia (abnormal morphology greater than 50%) also deteriorated from 46.3% to 35.4% in oligospermic and severe oligospermic males respectively. Seminal fluid infection increases with decreasing sperm density, motility and morphology. The prevalence of abnormal sperm indices and bacterial infection is high and Staphylococcus aureus infection should be treated and no longer ignored in the management of male factor infertility.
Association between the JC Polyomavirus Infection and Male Infertility  [PDF]
Manola Comar, Nunzia Zanotta, Eleonora Croci, Immacolata Murru, Roberto Marci, Cecilia Pancaldi, Ornella Dolcet, Stefania Luppi, Monica Martinelli, Elena Giolo, Giuseppe Ricci, Mauro Tognon
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042880
Abstract: In recent years the incidence of male infertility has increased. Many risk factors have been taken into consideration, including viral infections. Investigations into viral agents and male infertility have mainly been focused on human papillomaviruses, while no reports have been published on polyomaviruses and male infertility. The aim of this study was to verify whether JC virus and BK virus are associated with male infertility. Matched semen and urine samples from 106 infertile males and 100 fertile males, as controls, were analyzed. Specific PCR analyses were carried out to detect and quantify large T (Tag) coding sequences of JCV and BKV. DNA sequencing, carried out in Tag JCV-positive samples, was addressed to viral protein 1 (VP1) coding sequences. The prevalence of JCV Tag sequences in semen and urine samples from infertile males was 34% (72/212), whereas the BKV prevalence was 0.94% (2/212). Specifically, JCV Tag sequences were detected in 24.5% (26/106) of semen and 43.4% (46/106) of urine samples from infertile men. In semen and urine samples from controls the prevalence was 11% and 28%, respectively. A statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in JCV prevalence was disclosed in semen and urine samples of cases vs. controls. A higher JC viral DNA load was detected in samples from infertile males than in controls. In samples from infertile males the JC virus type 2 strain, subtype 2b, was more prevalent than ubiquitous type 1. JCV type 2 strain infection has been found to be associated with male infertility. These data suggest that the JC virus should be taken into consideration as an infectious agent which is responsible for male infertility.
Chlamydial Infection and Its Role in Male Infertility  [PDF]
Mary K. Samplaski,Trustin Domes,Keith A. Jarvi
Advances in Andrology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/307950
Abstract: Introduction. Chlamydia trachomatis is an established cause of tubal factor infertility; however its role in male fertility is not as clear. We sought to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia in infertile men and evaluate its impact on male reproductive potential. Materials and Methods. We compared the incidence of Chlamydia in our infertile male population with that reported in the literature. We then reviewed the impact of Chlamydia infection on male fertility. Results. The incidence of Chlamydia infection in our population of infertile men was 0.3%. There is considerable variability in the reported incidence, likely due to variation in the population studied, and detection technique. The optimal testing method and sample are presently unclear. The effect of Chlamydia on male reproductive function is also variable in the literature, but appears to be relatively minimal and may be related primarily to sperm DNA fragmentation or female partner transmission. Conclusions. The prevalence of Chlamydia in the infertile male population is low and routine testing is not supported by the literature. For high-risk infertile men, nucleic acid testing of urine +/? semen is the most sensitive method to detect Chlamydia. A validated testing system for semen needs to be developed, so that a standardized methodology can be recommended. In this way the full implications of Chlamydia on male fertility can be elucidated. 1. Introduction Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in the world and a common cause of pathology in both men and women, causing urethritis, epididymitis, prostatitis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy, and tubal factor infertility [1]. While there are regional differences in the prevalence, it remains a common cause of genitourinary pathology in both men and women. In women C. trachomatis is a well-established cause of tubal factor infertility. In men it is a known common genitourinary pathogen, and electron microscopy has clearly demonstrated that C. trachomatis attach to spermatozoa [2–5], both on the surface and in the nucleus [6]; however its role in male fertility (sperm function, pregnancy rates, and live birth rates) is not clear. As the etiology of approximately 55% of male factor infertility is unknown, it is possible that Chlamydia is contributory in some of these cases. In our study in a Canadian clinic, we identified a very low prevalence of Chlamydia in the infertile male population of only 0.3% [7]. This is the largest study of the prevalence of C.
Urogenital Tract Infection in Asymptomatic Male Patients with Infertility in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State
Ibadin, K. O.,Osemwenkha, A. P.,Ibeh, I. N.
Malaysian Journal of Microbiology , 2012,
Abstract: Aims: Urogenital tract infection (UTI) contributes to the commonest single defined cause of infertility worldwide. To evaluate the role of urogenital tract infection in male with infertility and its association with sperm quality. Methodology and Results: Three hundred and twenty three (323) samples from infertile male subject were screened microbiologically for microorganisms associated with urogenital tract infection with seventy-two (72) age-matched male as controls using microbiological standard procedure. 164 (50.8%) infection rate was recorded. The dorminant uropathogen detected or isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (14.0%), Chlamydia trachomatis (11.4%), Escherichia coli (4.3%), Micoplasma genitalium (4.0%) Klebsielli aerogenes (4.0%). Others were Staphylococus saprophyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Protein mirabilis with 2.7% each respectively, Protein vulgaria treponema pallidum (2.1%), Schistosoma haematobium (0.9%) Wulchereria Bancrofti (0.3%), Human immune virus (2.7%). Semen profile of the male patients with urogenital tract infection had abnormal semen quality in this study P<0.05. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Oligospermic infertile male subjects should be screened for urogenital tract infection to further enhance good quality sperms and functions.
Non-specific seminal tract infection and male infertility : a bacteriological study.  [cached]
Mogra N,Dhruva A,Kothari L
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 1981,
Abstract: 70 infertile males with epididymal tenderness, pus cells in the semen, and/or history of urinary tract infection were studied by semen culture examination. Significant growth of Streptococcus fecalis, Escherichia coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Proteus valgaris, Pseudomonas pyocyanea, and beta hemolytic Strepticocci was found in 42.9% of the cases. Most of the tested strains were sensitive to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol. In a control group of 20 healthy fertile males, only an insignificnat growth of Staphylococcus albus and Streptococcus facalis was found in 65% of the samples. Nonspecific seminal tract infection can be an important cause of male infertility. These infections may affect fertility in several ways: by damaging sperm, hampering their motility, altering the chemical composition of the seminal fluid, or by producing an inflammatory structure in the tract. Seminal infection could also be the cause of the chronicity of urinary tract infection by acting as the reservoir of infection.
Effect of bacterial isolates on the seminal indices of men investigated for infertility in Gombe
B.M Audu, A.A Massa, M Bukar, G.S Melah, A Kudi
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2010,
Abstract: The significant contribution of the male partner to infertility is no longer in doubt. There is however little disagreement regarding the frustrating experience with medical management of male infertility. The effect of infection as a contributor to abnormalities in semen parameters has been reviewed. The study was aimed at identifying male factor contribution to infertility and the influence of bacterial infection on seminal parameters. All 202 patients were spouses of infertile women who presented to the Gynaecological clinic of the FederalMedicalCentreGombe over a one-year period, fromJanuary toDecember 2001 inclusive. The density of spermatozoa ranged from 0-844x10 /ml with a mean of 44.588.5 x10 /ml. Only 94 (46.5%) of the patients had the reference lower limit normal density of 20 million spermatozoa/ml or more. However, 111 (55%) were normozoospermic for total count with 64 (31.7%) being oligozoospermic. There were bacterial isolates from the seminal fluid of 134 (66.3%) patients thatwas predominantly accounted for by S. aureus 67.2% (90/134). The seminal fluid produced was 1-8mls, with a mean of 3.11.7mls of which 45 (22.3%)were oligospermic.ThemeanpHwas 7.10.3, in 16 (7.9%) patients the seminal fluidpHwas 8-9.There were 27 (13.4%) azoospermic men, in 163 (80.7%) the spermatozoa had normal morphology of 70% or more while 12 (5.9%) men had abnormal morphology of 30% or more i.e. were teratozoospermic.All cases with no abnormal (or normal)morphologywere actually azoospermic.There was a significant association between the presence of bacterial isolate in the seminal fluid and oligozoospermia.However themotility,morphology or the count do not seemto be affected by the presence of infection. Bacterial presence contribute significantly to poor semen quality in our environment. Primary prevention and prompt treatment of urogenital infections could reduce the infectious contribution to male infertility.
Factors affecting male infertility  [PDF]
P. Raj Pant
Journal of Institute of Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/joim.v31i3.2972
Abstract: Introduction: Infertility is commonly defined as the failure of conception after at least 12 months of unprotected intercourse. 1 Accurate assessment of the prevalence of infertility has always been difficult because of the large scale population based studies. 2 Male factor is the only cause of infertility in about 20 % of infertile couples, but it may be a contributing factor in as many as 30 % to 40 % of cases.3 Factors like diabetes, bronchiectasis, high grade fever, long term medication, urinary tract infection, sexually transmitted infection, epididymitis, testicular injury, un-descended testis, mumps, orchitis, excessive alcohol, smoking, exposure to heat and certain chemicals effect in the spermatogenesis. Impotence or erectile dysfunction remains one of the important contributors in the male infertility. Methods: This is a prospective descriptive study conducted during the health camps in Sindhupalchowk, Manang, Baitedi, Rauthat and Darchula districts of the Nepal. The objective of the study is to find out the factors contributing to male infertility. Couples who were unable to conceive after regular, unprotected coitus of at least one year were included in the study. Detail history, clinical examination and semen analysis was done. Results: There was limited facility of investigation and treatment of infertility in the health camps. The diagnosis was based only on history, examination and semen analysis. Various factors like mumps, chemical exposure like men working in carpet factory, testicular trauma and smoking were found as contributing factor of male infertility in these districts. Conclusions: Testicular trauma, mumps, smoking is common in all the districts. Exposure to chemicals such as dyes, used in carpet factories seems to be responsible for infertility in some men of Sindhupalchowk and Darchula. Keywords: Azospermia; male infertility; oligospermia. DOI: 10.3126/joim.v31i3.2972 Journal of Institute of Medicine, December, 2009; 31(3) 10-12
Cytogenetic of Male Infertility  [cached]
Lutfiye Ozpak,Ayfer Pazarbasi
Arsiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi , 2011,
Abstract: Infertility by definition, is not to get pregnant within one year of regular sexual relationship without protection, affects 15-20% of reproductive age couples. Approximately 30% of infertility cases are male originated. Male infertility is caused by endocrine-related genetic defects affecting urogenital system function. These defects adversely affect subsequent spermatogenesis, sexual function, fertility, early embryonic stage of sexual maturation. Autosomal and gonosomal, numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities and related syndromes rank at the top causes of male infertility. Similar chromosome abnormalities are detected in male infertility and as the rate of these abnormalities increase, it was found to reduce sperm count especially in azospermic and oligozoospermic men. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(4.000): 230-245]
Focus Issue on Male Infertility  [PDF]
Hideyuki Kobayashi,Koichi Nagao,Koichi Nakajima
Advances in Urology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/823582
Abstract: Male infertility problems can occur when sperms are limited in number or function. In this paper, we describe the clinical evaluation of male infertility. A detailed history, physical examination, and basic semen analysis are required. In addition, ultrasound, karyotyping, and hormonal studies are needed to determine specific causes of infertility. In addition, the World Health Organization (WHO, 2009) has developed a manual to provide guidance in performing a comprehensive semen analysis. Among the possible reasons for male infertility, nonobstructive azoospermia is the least treatable, because few or no mature sperm may be produced. In many cases, men with nonobstructive azoospermia typically have small-volume testes and elevated FSH. Although treatment may not completely restore the quality of semen from men with subnormal fertility, in some cases a successful pregnancy can still be achieved through assisted reproductive technology. 1. Introduction About 1 in 7 couples have problems conceiving, with a similar incidence worldwide. Over 80% of couples who have regular sexual intercourse and do not use contraception will achieve a pregnancy within one year, and approximately 92% can achieve a pregnancy within 2 years [1]. Infertility affects males and females equally, although many people believe that infertility is a female problem. In Japan, especially, couples oppose insemination or adoption as an alternative to having a child carrying both parents’ genes, which means that males are likely to seek infertility evaluations when a couple has difficulty conceiving. The clinical evaluation of male infertility includes a detailed history, physical examination, laboratory tests, ultrasound study, and karyotyping. The two main purposes of the evaluation are (1) to identify any modifiable factors that can improve the man’s fertility status and (2) to identify any serious underlying conditions, such as testis cancer, osteoporosis, and endocrine or genetic problems that present first as infertility [2]. 2. History-Taking for the Male Infertility Workup The infertility history should include a detailed account of the patient’s reproductive and sexual history, developmental, family, medical, and surgical history. The information to be included in each portion of the history is detailed below. 2.1. Reproductive and Sexual History For the reproductive history, any prior conceptions for the male with present or past partners, details of any prior difficulty achieving conception, past evaluations and treatments for infertility, and previous use of contraception
Novel concepts in male infertility
Esteves, Sandro C.;Agarwal, Ashok;
International braz j urol , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-55382011000100002
Abstract: extraordinary advances have been achieved in the field of male infertility in the last decades. there are new concepts in sperm physiology and several modern tools for the assessment of spermatogenesis kinetics in vivo. new tests using molecular biology and dna damage assays allow the clinician to correctly diagnose men so far classified as having idiopathic male infertility. in the field of treatment, microsurgery has increased success rates either for reconstruction of the reproductive tract or the retrieval of spermatozoa for assisted conception. emerging evidence suggests that life-style and environmental conditions are of utmost importance in male fertility and subfertility. this review discusses several concepts that have changed over the last years, such as the duration of the spermatogenic cycle in humans, y-chromosome infertility, the reproductive potential of non-mosaic klinefelter syndrome men, the impact of paternal age and sperm dna in male infertility, the role of antioxidants in the treatment of infertile men, the predictive factors and techniques for sperm retrieval in non-obstructive azoospermia, and the microsurgical treatment of clinical varicoceles. whenever possible, levels of evidence are provided as suggested by the oxford center of evidence-based medicine.

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