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Filariasis in Travelers Presenting to the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network  [PDF]
Ettie M. Lipner,Melissa A. Law,Elizabeth Barnett,Jay S. Keystone,Frank von Sonnenburg,Louis Loutan,D. Rebecca Prevots,Amy D. Klion,Thomas B. Nutman ,for the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000088
Abstract: Background As international travel increases, there is rising exposure to many pathogens not traditionally encountered in the resource-rich countries of the world. Filarial infections, a great problem throughout the tropics and subtropics, are relatively rare among travelers even to filaria-endemic regions of the world. The GeoSentinel Surveillance Network, a global network of medicine/travel clinics, was established in 1995 to detect morbidity trends among travelers. Principal Findings We examined data from the GeoSentinel database to determine demographic and travel characteristics associated with filaria acquisition and to understand the differences in clinical presentation between nonendemic visitors and those born in filaria-endemic regions of the world. Filarial infections comprised 0.62% (n = 271) of all medical conditions reported to the GeoSentinel Network from travelers; 37% of patients were diagnosed with Onchocerca volvulus, 25% were infected with Loa loa, and another 25% were diagnosed with Wuchereria bancrofti. Most infections were reported from immigrants and from those immigrants returning to their county of origin (those visiting friends and relatives); the majority of filarial infections were acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. Among the patients who were natives of filaria-nonendemic regions, 70.6% acquired their filarial infection with exposure greater than 1 month. Moreover, nonendemic visitors to filaria-endemic regions were more likely to present to GeoSentinel sites with clinically symptomatic conditions compared with those who had lifelong exposure. Significance Codifying the filarial infections presenting to the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network has provided insights into the clinical differences seen among filaria-infected expatriates and those from endemic regions and demonstrated that O. volvulus infection can be acquired with short-term travel.
Sentinel surveillance for travellers' diarrhoea in primary care
Gemma Northey, Meirion R Evans, Tinnu S Sarvotham, Daniel R Thomas, Tony J Howard
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-7-126
Abstract: A sentinel surveillance scheme of 30 volunteer general practices distributed throughout Wales provides weekly reports of consultations for eight infectious diseases to the national Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre. Travellers' diarrhoea was introduced as a new reportable infection in July 2002.Between 1 July 2002 and 31 March 2005 there were 90 reports of travellers' diarrhoea. The mean annual consultation rate was 15.2 per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval: 12.2–18.7), with the highest rates in summer, in people aged 15–24 years, and in travellers to Southern Europe. A higher proportion of travellers than expected had visited destinations outside Europe and North America when compared to the proportion of all United Kingdom travellers visiting these destinations (38% vs. 11%; Chi2 = 53.3, p < 0.0001).Sentinel surveillance has the potential to monitor secular trends in travellers' diarrhoea and to help characterise population groups or travel destinations associated with higher risk.Over 60 million visits abroad are now made by United Kingdom (UK) residents each year, including 12 million visits to countries other than those in the European Union or North America [1]. Travellers can act as couriers, sentinels, and transmitters of disease [2], and can provide useful information about the presence and level of risk from infections in other countries [3-6]. Clustering of infection in travellers may alert public health authorities to a disease outbreak, or can be used to promptly warn outbound travellers of a particular hazard. Systematic collection of information about infections in travellers is therefore important. Two multinational surveillance schemes for imported infection have been established: GeoSentinel, a network of 22 sentinel travel clinics (14 in the United States and 8 in other countries) [3], and TropNetEurop based on 37 clinical sites (mostly hospital infectious diseases departments) in 14 European countries [4]. However, neither of th
Australian Expatriates: Who Are They?  [PDF]
David Calderón Prada
Coolabah , 2007,
Abstract: Australia is made up of 20 million people and, interestingly enough, overone million of the total population live overseas. Australians living abroadare known as `expatriates′ and they have a particular profile: highlyeducated and better skilled than their counterparts at home. Thus, on theone hand, a general division may be established between expatriates andAustralians living at home; on the other, a particular division betweenexpatriates themselves, which depends on the individual reasons that pushthem to leave Australia. At this point, it is important to outline the generalreasons that lead expatriates to go overseas. To begin with, in terms ofmigration, Australia is both historically and contemporarily linked to othercountries. Secondly, Australia is geographically isolated and, therefore, faraway from the main global markets. Finally, it is quite right to concludethat although the logical assumption of expatriation is distance, expatriatesare mentally, and often emotionally, linked to Australia and, therefore, theunderstanding of their situation is more positive than negative.
Training Global Managers to Prepare and Train Expatriates for More Efficiency and Effectiveness  [PDF]
Bob G. Barrett
Journal of Economics, Business and Management , 2014, DOI: 10.7763/joebm.2014.v2.124
Abstract: While many employees have become expatriates and traveled thousands of miles to represent their companies and organizations in overseas ventures and start-up new locations, a common problem experienced by many is the lack of proper training and preparation. The cause for this ill-preparation or training can be linked to many different causes, but the aim of this paper will be to focus on what can be done to break down the barriers of miscommunication or improper training (or lack of it) in order to help prepare and training global managers to better prepare their expatriate staff or better efficiency and effectiveness. The paper will examine the past and current ways expatriates have been recruited, selected, and trained for overseas placement. Then there will be a focus on what happens to the expatriate once he or she is overseas and the role and function of the global manager. Finally, the last segment of this paper will look at how expatriates deal with the process of repatriation and if it is effective or note. While some organizations have developed best practices in this area, not all organizations take the time to benchmark what other organizations have been doing to better prepare expatriates and global managers in these areas.
Self-Initiated Expatriates: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Professional Female Expatriates
Ceili Fitzgerald,Liza Howe-Walsh
International Journal of Business and Management , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v3n10p156
Abstract: This study is an original piece of work that offers the opportunity to ascertain and comprehend the experiences of professional female self-initiated expatriates in the Cayman Islands, and presents a valuable insight into what is now an important dimension of international careers and the contexts within which they evolve. Analysis and interpretation of data was achieved through use of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) a distinctive approach to conducting qualitative research that is concerned with understanding lived experiences. Findings suggest that several contributory factors exist in influencing the female expatriates’ decision to expatriate and that they maintained positive perceptions of the effects their overseas experience would bring to their career prospects. Findings also suggest that while gender discrimination was not commonly experienced, discrimination because of their expatriate identity was.
Laboratory based surveillance of travel-related Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri in Alberta from 2002 to 2007
Steven J Drews, Chris Lau, Marnie Andersen, Christina Ferrato, Kim Simmonds, Liala Stafford, Bev Fisher, Doug Everett, Marie Louie
Globalization and Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8603-6-20
Abstract: Shigella is a common cause of diarrheal illness in North America with a rate of 2.0 per 100,000 in Canada [1] and a rate of 3.2 per 100,000 in the United States [2,3]. Imported cases of Shigella infections have been reported in developed countries following travel to a foreign or developing country [4,5] and may be impacted by factors including socio-economic factors [6], food distribution networks [5] and microbiologic factors [7]. Across multiple geographic regions, high rates of antimicrobial resistance to multiple agents (e.g. sulfonamides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) have limited the choices for empiric antimicrobial therapy required to manage Shigella infections and reduce fecal excretion of the bacteria [8-10] with descriptions of shifting species dominance and changes in antimicrobial susceptibility [10,11]. Generally, Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei are the dominant species and are heavily impacted by changes in antimicrobial susceptibility [12,13].This study identifies the global regions associated with travel-related cases of S. flexneri and S. sonnei in Alberta, Canada and compares antibiotic resistance patterns of these isolates for 2002 to 2007 inclusive.Specimens collected 2002-2007 (inclusive) from S. flexneri and S. sonnei infections in Alberta, Canada were included for study. Data collected at time of specimen submission included: date of specimen collection, outbreak association if present, travel history and antibiogram (data source-ProvLab Information Systems; Communicable Disease Report at Alberta Health and Wellness). Outbreaks were defined by public health officials as ≥ 2 epidemiologically related cases. Each outbreak was assigned a unique incident number. Repeat isolates received within six months of original case infections were excluded. Only one representative case for each outbreak was included, unless the isolates had different antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Based on travel h
A Study on Cross-Cultural Adjustment of Japanese and American Expatriates in China  [cached]
Xingying Zhou,Jie Qin
International Journal of Business and Management , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v4n12p197
Abstract: A survey has been made on Japanese and American business expatriates who are currently working in China in order to explore the relationship between cultural distance and expatriate adjustment. Based on the reviewed literature and the theory, the authors put forward two hypotheses which are tested by a specially designed 34-item questionnaire distributed to 41 Japanese subjects and 53 American subjects. The results partly prove the expectation that cultural distance is negatively correlated with adjustment of business expatriates. The Japanese business expatriates working in China demonstrate higher degree of adaptability than the American business expatriates in general adjustment and interaction adjustment, but not in work or psychological adjustment.
Impact of English-language Proficiency on Chinese Expatriates’ Adjustment to Overseas Assignments  [PDF]
Xu, Xiaofei,Du-Babcock, Bertha
Global Advances in Business Communication , 2012,
Abstract: With the emergence of Chinese multinationals, increasingly large number of Chinese expatriates work overseas. However, little research has been conducted to investigate Chinese expatriates’ adjustment to overseas assignments. Drawing on prior studies in the areas of linguistics, communication, and business, the current study examines the impact of the English-language proficiency on the Chinese expatriates’ adjustment to overseas assignments.A Chinese multinational in the information technology industry, Company ABC, was selected as a subject company. Quantitative research method was adopted. The quantitative data were collected through a survey of 190 Chinese expatriates from Company ABC. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient was performed to examine the relationships between English-language proficiency and variables related to the Chinese Expatriates’ Adjustment to Overseas Assignments. The findings show that English-language proficiency was found to enhance Chinese expatriates’ adjustment moderately. Moreover, further analysis indicates that different type of English-language proficiency affects different aspect of Chinese expatriates’ adjustment.
Pesticide-related illness reported to and diagnosed in Primary Care: implications for surveillance of environmental causes of ill-health
Lesley Rushton, Vera Mann
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-219
Abstract: A checklist, completed by General Practitioners (GP) for all patients aged 18+ who attended surgery sessions, identified patients to be interviewed in detail on exposures and events that occurred in the week before their symptoms appeared.The study covered 59320 patients in 43 practices across GB and 1335 detailed interviews. The annual incidence of illness reported to GPs because of concern about pesticide exposure was estimated to be 0.04%, potentially 88400 consultations annually, approximately 1700 per week. The annual incidence of consultations where symptoms were diagnosed by GPs as likely to be related to pesticide exposure was 0.003%, an annual estimate of 6630 consultations i.e. about 128 per week. 41% of interviewees reported using at least one pesticide at home in the week before symptoms occurred. The risk of having symptoms possibly related to pesticide exposure compared to unlikely was associated with home use of pesticides after adjusting for age, gender and occupational pesticide exposure (OR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.51 – 2.35).GP practices were diverse and well distributed throughout GB with similar symptom consulting patterns as in the Primary Care within the UK. Methods used in this study would not be feasible for a routine surveillance system for pesticide related illness. Incorporation of environmental health into Primary Care education and practice is needed.Pesticides, pesticide products and related chemicals have been found to have a wide range of health effects. They include: mutagenic substances, carcinogens or probable carcinogens, endocrine disrupters, reproductive toxic substances and neurotoxic substances [1,2]. The effect of low-level, long-term exposure has been of recent concern, with the organophosphate pesticides as a group receiving a great deal of medical research interest, particularly with regard to their potential effects on farmers using sheep dips [2-4]. Although pesticides have undoubted acute health effects, these usually occur as
Facilitating Expatriates Cross Cultural Adjustment (A Case study of Expatriates from Pakistani Organization on Foreign  [cached]
Shahzad Ghafoor,Uzair Farooq Khan
Journal of Asian Scientific Research , 2011,
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to illustrate the importance of expatriates (employees)from Pakistani organizations on foreign assignment by critically analyzing thesignificance of their strategic roles. Then it reveals that why expatriates fail and effectof cultural distance on them. Finally, what MNE’s and Institutions can do forfacilitating their successful adjustment? The significance of Management in theorganization is inevitable after the emergence of the new concept of the“Amalgamation”. A detail study was conducted to observe the prevailing KnowledgeManagement practices and constraints related to it in the selected organization ofPakistan Habib Rafiq Limited (HRL). A case study methodology was adopted forthe research purpose. On the basis of the developed conceptual frame workobservation was made and interviews were conducted to find out the currentknowledge management practices at Habib Rafiq Limited (HRL) Lahore. After dataanalysis a model was developed for facilitating cross cultural adjustment. It issuggested that if implemented this model can help the organizations and Institutions inimproving its current status. This study provided strong evidence to suggest that thereshould be further research in this field.
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