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Comparative Trypanocidal Efficacy of a New Commercial Brand of Diminazene in Trypanosoma congolense Infected Rats.
OC Ogbu, BM Anene, GI Jibike
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Nigerian Veterinary Journal, Vol. 32(2): 2011; 87 - 91
In Vivo Trypanocidal activity of Hydroethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in Rats
Adakole Hyacinth Abu and Chukwuka N. Uchendu
Veterinary World , 2011,
Abstract: The in vivo trypanocidal efficacy of Hydroethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark was evaluated in Wistar rats. Three groups of rats were treated orally with the extract at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight for 6 days. Two other groups received the vehicle and Diminazene accurate at 3.5 mg/kg to serve as negative and positive control respectively. The mean survival period of infected animals, daily level of parasitaemia, packed cell volume, total and differential leukocyte counts were evaluated. Oral administration of the extract did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect the packed cell volume. However, the extract reduced the level of parasitaemia and prolonged the life span of infected rats. This study shows in vivo potential of hydroethanolic extract of H. acida in the treatment of African trypanosomosis. [Vet. World 2011; 4(3.000): 113-116]
Efficacy of Terminalia avicennoides and its combination with diminazene aceturate (Berenil ) in rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei
LB Alayande, MO Alayande, AA Mohammed, T Adamu, U Abubakar, AL Daneji, Op Ajagbonna
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: A comparative study was carried out to investigate the efficacy of the aquous extract of Terminalia avecinnoides alone and its combination with diminazene aceturate. Thirty Wister albino rats of both sexes weighing between 250 -260gms were distributed into six groups (A-F) of five rats each. All the rats in groups A-E were infected with 0.5ml of blood containing 1x106 Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Rats in group F were uninfected and untreated (control). Rats in groups A -D were treated 5 days post-inoculation orally, with 3.5mg/kg Berenil alone, 80mg/kg plant extract alone, 80mg/kg extract plus 1.75 mg/kg Berenil and 1.75 mg/kg Berenil respectively were infected Group E, not treated. Treatment with extract alone resulted in reduction in parasitaemia, but was not curative. However, Berenil treatment alone and its combination with the extract resulted in the clearance of the parasite.The result obtained suggests that T. avecinnoides alone and its combination with Berenil offer great potentials as alternative products for the treatment of trypanosomiasis.
Efficacy of Diminazene Aceturate with and without Levamisole or Dimethyl Sulfoxide in Reducing Organ Weight and Parasitemia in T. congolense Infected Rats
Eghianruwa, K.I.,Anika, S.M.
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The efficacies of diminazene aceturate alone and in separate combinations with levamisole and Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) in the treatment of T. congolense infection in rats were assessed on day 7 post infection and days 7 and 14 post treatment using changes in the weights and histology of the liver, spleen, heart and brain as well as parasitemia as parameters. Infected rats were treated with 7.0 mg/kg diminazene aceturate on day 7 post infection following which DMSO (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg, respectively) and levamisole (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, respectively) were administered as daily supplements to different groups of rats. Trypanosoma congolense only caused significant increase in spleen weight. There were no histopathological lesions in any organ. Infection had no effect on heart weight. Liver and spleen weights were lower in the diminazene group by day 7 Post Treatment (PT), but this situation was reversed by day 14 PT. Increase in the dose of DMSO caused increased liver weight. Diminazene/DMSO combination was more effective at 14 days PT in reducing spleen weight than treatment with diminazene alone. On the contrary, diminazene/levamisole combination was less effective than diminazene alone in reducing spleen weight. Parasites disappeared after diminazene treatment but reappeared only in the diminazene and levamisole groups by day 14 PT. Early relapse and high virulence of the Basa strainof T. congolense used may be responsible for the ineffectiveness of the three treatment protocols.
Effects of DMSO on Diminazene Efficacy in Experimental Murine T. brucei Infection
K.I. Eghianruwa,S.M. Anika
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: This study evaluated the influence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) daily supplementation on diminazene treatment of trypanosomosis. Four groups of Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected rats received 7.0 mg/kg diminazene aceturate on day 7 post infection. Three of the four groups received different doses of DMSO (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg, respectively) in addition to diminazene treatment. The changes in hematological parameters and the weights of liver, spleen and heart caused by T. brucei infection were monitored and used to assess the efficacy of treatment. The prepatent period of infection was four days. Infection caused significant increases in WBC count, spleen and liver weights but it caused decreases in PCV, HB and RBC by day 7 post infection (PI7). By PI14, spleen weight and WBC counts were reduced from the PI7 level without treatment. Diminazene/DMSO combination did not reduce liver weight or increased hematological parameters more significantly than diminazene treatment alone. Increase in the dose of DMSO caused increases in liver weight. Diminazene/DMSO combination reduced spleen weight more significantly than diminazene treatment alone. Diminazene/DMSO combination delayed re-emergence of parasites beyond PT21 at which time parasites were detected in the blood of rats treated only with diminazene. The limited advantages of diminazene/DMSO combination over diminazene alone as well as the possible liver toxicity of DMSO at high doses would not make DMSO supplementation a viable addition to trypanosomosis chemotherapy.
Evaluation of Hypoglycaemic Efficacy of Aqueous Seed Extract of Aframomum melegueta in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats
AA Adesokan, MA Akanji, GS Adewara
Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research , 2010,
Abstract: The hypoglycaemic efficacy of aqueous seed extract of Aframomum melegueta was investigated in alloxaninduced diabetic rats. Twenty five albino rats (Rattus novergicus, average weight: 150g) were randomly divided into five groups of five (5) rats each. For the diabetic group, diabetes mellitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 5% solution of alloxan at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. Diabetes was confirmed 72 hours after alloxan injection if fasting blood glucose (FBG) was . 10 mmol/l. Two control groups: non-diabetic (positive) and diabetic (negative) were administered tap water as vehicle solvent, throughout the duration of the experiment. The remaining three groups received 100 mg/kg of metformin, 200 and 400 mg/kg orally and aqueous seed extract of Aframomum melegueta respectively and simultaneously. Fasting blood glucose was evaluated daily. The results showed that oral administration of aqueous extract of A. melegueta to diabetic rats lowered blood glucose to normal level within 6 days of administration, while metformin took 14 days. There was no significant difference in the duration of lowering the blood glucose by the two doses of extract administered. In conclusion, oral administration of aqueous seed extract of Aframomum melegueta has potent hypoglycaemic activity in alloxanised diabetic rats.
The efficacy of newly synthesised agent and natural antioxidant treatment in diabetic and hypertensive rats
S. Jankyová , A. Adameová , J. Sla neva , J. Navarová , V. Drobná , J. Csollei , E. Ra anská
Acta Facultatis Pharmaceuticae Universitatis Comenianae , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10219-011-0003-3
Abstract: Hypertension that develops as the result of cardiovascular damage in diabetes is one of the serious complications of diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in levels of oxidative stress and in endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) expressions after the treatment of diabetic rats with a newly synthesised heteroarylaminoethanolic derivative 4/1E with potentially beta-adrenergic blockade effects and a strong antioxidant Pycnogenol . The treatment of 6-weeks duration was indicated in the group of diabetic Wistar rats (DL; streptozotocin (STZ) 3×25 mg/kg i.p.) and hypertensive rats (HL, STZ) with 4/1E in the dose 10 mg/kg i.p. or with Pycnogenol (DP, HP) in the dose 20 mg/kg p.o. Animals in control groups (C, H, D) received vehiculum. The levels of oxidative stress were assessed in kidney andliver as the activity of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGA) and the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs). The expression of eNOS and Hsp90 was assessed from the hearts of all animals using SDS-Page and Western blotting. In our study the effects of newly synthesised drug 4/1E and Pycnogenol on the levels of oxidative stress were comparable only in diabetic animals. The expression of eNOS was decreased in diabetic, but not hypertensive animals. The treatment with 4/1E did not affect the expression of eNOS unlike the treatment with Pycnogenol after which the expression was significantly increased. The expression of Hsp90 was increased in both hypertensive and diabetic animals. The treatment with 4/1E was more effective in decreasing Hsp90 expression in both groups of animals than the treatment with Pycnogenol .
Khatoon Humera,Najam Rahila
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: The aim of this study is to compare metabolic effects of acarbose and rosiglitazone, especially in controlling hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia. We have selected acarbose and rosiglitazone for the present study among various currently approved oral hypoglycemics. As diet is also an important component in diabetic therapy, effects of resistant starch diets (e.g. cooked cornstarch) on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were also studied.The metabolic effects of the drugs were investigated and significant changes with respect to blood glucose levels, HbA1c along with lipids profile of drug-treated animals were compared with untreated animal after 7, 15 and 30 days. The experimental result showed excellent glycemic control when acarbose was administered alone. Acarbose along with cooked cornstarch diet produced a more favorable lipid profile, but with significant increased level (p<0.001) of triglycerides. These findings suggest that acarbose and acarbose along with cooked cornstarch are more effective in controlling hyperglycemia with more favorable lipid profile when compared with rosiglitazone.
Efficacy of Composite Extract from Leaves and Fruits of Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Diabetic Therapy against Oxidative Stress in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats  [PDF]
Brahm Kumar Tiwari,Dileep Kumar,A. B. Abidi,Syed Ibrahim Rizvi
ISRN Pharmacology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/608590
Abstract: Oxidative stress plays a vital role in diabetic complications. To suppress the oxidative stress mediated damage in diabetic pathophysiology, a special focus has been given on composite extract (CE) and making small dose of naturally occurring antidiabetic plants leaf and fruits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial role of CE against alloxan- (ALX-) induced diabetes of Wistar strain rats. A dose-dependent study for CE (25, 50, and 100?mg/kg body weight) was carried out to find the effective dose of the composite compound in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure elevated the blood glucose, plasma advanced oxidation product (AOPP), sialic acid demonstrating disturbed antioxidant status.CE at a dose of 100?mg/kg body weight restored/minimised these alterations towards normal values. In conclusion, small dose of CE possesses the capability of ameliorating the oxidative stress in ALX-induced diabetes and thus could be a promising approach in lessening diabetic complications. 1. Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and associated with absolute or relative deficiency in insulin secretion or insulin action [1]. Herbal medicine has been used as an antidiabetic therapy alone, along with insulin or other synthetic oral hypoglycemic agents. The use of synthetic agents is frequently associated with several undesirable side effects and fails to correct the fundamental biochemical lesion and diabetic complications [2]. The search for a cure for diabetes mellitus continues along with traditional and alternative medicine. Many herbal supplements have been used for the treatment of diabetes, but the scientific evidence to support their effectiveness has only been investigated for a few [3]. To suppress the oxidative stress mediated damage in diabetic pathophysiology, researchers usually look for naturally occurring antioxidants [4, 5]. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is strongly associated with oxidative stress [6]. Chronic hyperglycemia resulting from diabetes brings about a rise in oxidative stress due to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of glucose-autoxidation and protein glycosylation. Generation of ROS leads to oxidative damage of the structural components (such as lipids, DNA and proteins) of cells which culminate into complications affecting the eyes, kidney, nerves, and blood vessels [7]. Oxidative insult in cells is also created by the impairment in functioning of endogenous antioxidant enzymes because of nonenzymatic glycosylation and oxidation [8]. Aegle marmelos is a
Date Fruit Extract Is a Neuroprotective Agent in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: A Multimodal Analysis  [PDF]
Nasser Zangiabadi,Majid Asadi-Shekaari,Vahid Sheibani,Mandana Jafari,Mohammad Shabani,Ali Reza Asadi,Hale Tajadini,Morteza Jarahi
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/976948
Abstract: Background. To study the effects of an aqueous extract of date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae) diet on diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats. Methods. The effects of a date fruit extract (DFE) diet on diabetic neuropathy in STZ-induced diabetic rats were evaluated and compared with a nondiabetic control group, diabetic control group (sham), and vehicle group with respect to the following parameters: open field behavioral test, motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), and morphological observations. Results. In the model of STZ-induced of diabetic neuropathy, chronic treatment for 6 weeks with DFE counteracted the impairment of the explorative activity of the rats in an open field behavioral test and of the conduction velocity of the sciatic nerve (MNCV). In addition, pretreatment with DFE significantly reversed each nerve diameter reduction in diabetic rats. Conclusion. DFE treatment shows efficacy for preventing diabetic deterioration and for improving pathological parameters of diabetic neuropathy in rats, as compared with control groups.

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