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Medical radiation countermeasures for nuclear and radiological emergencies: Current status and future perspectives  [cached]
Arora Rajesh,Chawla Raman,Marwah Rohit,Kumar Vinod
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Nuclear and radiological emergencies (NREs) occurred globally and recent incidences in India are indicating toward the need for comprehensive medical preparedness required both at incident site and hospitals. The enhanced threat attributed toward insurgency is another causative factor of worry. The response capabilities and operational readiness of responders (both health and non-health service providers) in contaminated environment need to be supported by advancement in R & D and technological efforts to develop prophylactics and radiation mitigators. It is essential to develop phase 1 alternatives of such drugs for unseen threats as a part of initial preparedness. At the incident site and hospital level, external decontamination procedures need to be standardized and supported by protective clothing and Shudika kits developed by INMAS. The medical management of exposure requires systematic approach to perform triage, resuscitation and curative care. The internal contamination requires decorporation agents to be administered based on procedural diagnostics. Various key issues pertaining to policy decisions, R & D promotion, community awareness, specialized infrastructure for NREs preparedness has been discussed. The present review is an attempt to provide vital information about the current status of various radiation countermeasures and future perspective(s) ahead.
Radiological safety status and quality assurance audit of medical X-ray diagnostic installations in India  [cached]
Sonawane A,Singh Meghraj,Kumar J. V. K.,Kulkarni Arti
Journal of Medical Physics , 2010,
Abstract: We conducted a radiological safety and quality assurance (QA) audit of 118 medical X-ray diagnostic machines installed in 45 major hospitals in India. The main objective of the audit was to verify compliance with the regulatory requirements stipulated by the national regulatory body. The audit mainly covered accuracy check of accelerating potential (kVp), linearity of tube current (mA station) and timer, congruence of radiation and optical field, and total filtration; in addition, we also reviewed medical X-ray diagnostic installations with reference to room layout of X-ray machines and conduct of radiological protection survey. A QA kit consisting of a kVp Test-O-Meter (ToM) (Model RAD/FLU-9001), dose Test-O-Meter (ToM) (Model 6001), ionization chamber-based radiation survey meter model Gun Monitor and other standard accessories were used for the required measurements. The important areas where there was noncompliance with the national safety code were: inaccuracy of kVp calibration (23%), lack of congruence of radiation and optical field (23%), nonlinearity of mA station (16%) and timer (9%), improper collimator/diaphragm (19.6%), faulty adjustor knob for alignment of field size (4%), nonavailability of warning light (red light) at the entrance of the X-ray room (29%), and use of mobile protective barriers without lead glass viewing window (14%). The present study on the radiological safety status of diagnostic X-ray installations may be a reasonably good representation of the situation in the country as a whole. The study contributes significantly to the improvement of radiological safety by the way of the steps already taken and by providing a vital feed back to the national regulatory body.
Towards case-based medical learning in radiological decision making using content-based image retrieval
Petra Welter, Thomas M Deserno, Benedikt Fischer, Rolf W Günther, Cord Spreckelsen
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6947-11-68
Abstract: We investigated didactic concepts and appraised methods appropriate to the radiology domain, as follows: (i) Adult learning theories stress the importance of work-related practice gained in a team of problem-solvers; (ii) Case-based reasoning (CBR) parallels the human problem-solving process; (iii) Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) can be useful for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). To overcome the known drawbacks of existing learning systems, we developed the concept of image-based case retrieval for radiological education (IBCR-RE). The IBCR-RE diagnostic training is embedded into a didactic framework based on the Seven Jump approach, which is well established in problem-based learning (PBL). In order to provide a learning environment that is as similar as possible to radiological practice, we have analysed the radiological workflow and environment.We mapped the IBCR-RE diagnostic training approach into the Image Retrieval in Medical Applications (IRMA) framework, resulting in the proposed concept of the IRMAdiag training application. IRMAdiag makes use of the modular structure of IRMA and comprises (i) the IRMA core, i.e., the IRMA CBIR engine; and (ii) the IRMAcon viewer. We propose embedding IRMAdiag into hospital information technology (IT) infrastructure using the standard protocols Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) and Health Level Seven (HL7). Furthermore, we present a case description and a scheme of planned evaluations to comprehensively assess the system.The IBCR-RE paradigm incorporates a novel combination of essential aspects of diagnostic learning in radiology: (i) Provision of work-relevant experiences in a training environment integrated into the radiologist's working context; (ii) Up-to-date training cases that do not require cumbersome preparation because they are provided by routinely generated electronic medical records; (iii) Support of the way adults learn while remaining suitable for the patient- and problem-oriented nat
Economy and science behind the use of medical abbreviations in health records  [PDF]
Jesús Peinado
Revista Peruana de Epidemiologia , 2009,
Abstract: Objective: To describe the abbreviations found in health records in a university hospital from Lima. Methods: Abbreviations were collected by manual reviewing of health records (HR) from every health department of the hospital. A total of 606 abbreviations were collected from 350 HR. Results: 94.7% from the abbreviations have a Spanish language source. The median of every abbreviation was 3 characters with a range from 1 to 10. These abbreviations come from medical words with a range from 10 to 52 string characters with a median of 20 characters with a reduction of 85% (80-90 IC95%). Conclusions: These findings indicate that abbreviation is a phenomenon of word economy and medical language coding. Understanding acronyms and abbreviations will result in better design of expert clinic information systems in the management of health records and clinic coding.
Radiological emergencies and the medical physicist
W Hendee
Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.2349/biij.7.4.e29
Recycling Economy and Ecological Economy  [cached]
Chunyan Shao
Asian Social Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v5n6p129
Abstract: Recycling economy is a kind of economy that melts clean production and the comprehensive utilization of waste. Its nature is a kind of ecological economy. Ecological economy is a kind of economy of sustainable development. It emphasizes the co-adaptation and mutual promoting and coordination of recycling economy and ecological economy. By analyzing the difference and relation of recycling economy and ecological economy, the article points out that it is necessary to develop recycling economy in order to realize ecological economy.
The Effect of Chinese Medical Gargle Combined with Point Application on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients with Xerostomia after Radiological Therapy

何艳英, 姚娟, 梁飞立
Nursing Science (NS) , 2015, DOI: 10.12677/NS.2015.44014
Objective: To observe the effect of Chinese medical gargle combined with point application on nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with xerostomia after radiological therapy. Method: 30 cases with xerostomia after radiological therapy were treated by Chinese medical gargle combined with point application for 45 days, and then the treatment effect was evaluated. Result: After 45-day treatment, 3 cases (10.0%) showed excellent effect, and 22 cases (73.3%) showed effect, and there was no effect on 5 cases (16.7%). Therefore, the total effect rate was 83.3%. Conclusion: The Chinese medical gargle combined with point application shows good effect on xerostomia in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiological therapy.
Physics for radiological workers
Premysl Zaskodny
Journal of Applied Biomedicine , 2003,
Abstract: The graduate of the undergraduate course "Imaging Methods and Applications of IonizingRadiation" can work as a Radiological assistant (e.g. at the hospitals), a Radiological technologist(e.g. at the nuclear power stations) or a Radiological specialist (e.g. for the municipal authorities).The profile of the graduate will be elaborated on the basis of analytical-synthetic modelling.Analytical-synthetic model of the profile enables to find out the role of physics for radiologicalworkers in the framework of the relevant undergraduate course. It will be presented by means ofseveral illustrations of partial topics of physics for radiological workers.
Adaptation Aftereffects in the Perception of Radiological Images  [PDF]
Elysse Kompaniez, Craig K. Abbey, John M. Boone, Michael A. Webster
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076175
Abstract: Radiologists must classify and interpret medical images on the basis of visual inspection. We examined how the perception of radiological scans might be affected by common processes of adaptation in the visual system. Adaptation selectively adjusts sensitivity to the properties of the stimulus in current view, inducing an aftereffect in the appearance of stimuli viewed subsequently. These perceptual changes have been found to affect many visual attributes, but whether they are relevant to medical image perception is not well understood. To examine this we tested whether aftereffects could be generated by the characteristic spatial structure of radiological scans, and whether this could bias their appearance along dimensions that are routinely used to classify them. Measurements were focused on the effects of adaptation to images of normal mammograms, and were tested in observers who were not radiologists. Tissue density in mammograms is evaluated visually and ranges from "dense" to "fatty." Arrays of images varying in intermediate levels between these categories were created by blending dense and fatty images with different weights. Observers first adapted by viewing image samples of dense or fatty tissue, and then judged the appearance of the intermediate images by using a texture matching task. This revealed pronounced perceptual aftereffects – prior exposure to dense images caused an intermediate image to appear more fatty and vice versa. Moreover, the appearance of the adapting images themselves changed with prolonged viewing, so that they became less distinctive as textures. These aftereffects could not be accounted for by the contrast differences or power spectra of the images, and instead tended to follow from the phase spectrum. Our results suggest that observers can selectively adapt to the properties of radiological images, and that this selectivity could strongly impact the perceived textural characteristics of the images.
Radiological Diagnosis of Horn Cancer
S.V.Udharwar,V.D.Aher,G.U.Yadav,A.U.Bhikane and B.P.Dandge
Veterinary World , 2008,
Abstract: Twelve clinical cases of horn cancer in bovine were explored for radiological examination. The tentative diagnosis based on clinical sign and percussion was confirmed on radiological findings. There was loss of architecture of sinus plates with negative air contrast indicating osteolytic changes in horn. In advanced cases, there was dense soft tissue occupying horn core without demarcating the osseous landmarks. Whereas, in normal and healthy horn the septal plates with negative air contrast and normal architecture was visualized. Thus radiological examination will be helpful for confirmatory diagnosis of horn cancer in early stage also. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(3.000): 75-76]
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