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Checks and Balances on Executive Compensation  [PDF]
Mai Iskandar-Datta
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2014.21003
Abstract: Checks and Balances on Executive Compensation
Persistently erected penis in a child for 6 months: A management dilemma  [cached]
Das Sukanta,Ghosh Dipak,Agarwal Akhilesh,Haldar Suranjan
Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons , 2008,
Abstract: Priapism is the presence of a persistent, usually painful, erection of the penis unrelated to sexual stimulation or desire. It is a true emergency requiring urgent intervention. Priapism is frequently idiopathic in etiology, but it is associated with a number of important medical conditions and pharmacologic agents. Cases have been reported in world literature on children having priapism, the etiology of these cases are mostly hematological. Our case is a child having persistently erected penis for more than 6 months. Despite a thorough search, no report of similar case could be found in world literature.
A New Genus Bifidunguiglenea gen. nov. Is Erected for the Species Glenea gestroi Gahan (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae: Saperdini)  [PDF]
Mei-Ying Lin, Gérard Luc Tavakilian
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040768
Abstract: Bifidunguiglenea gen. nov. is erected for the species Glenea gestroi Gahan, 1894. Bifidunguiglenea gestroi (Gahan, 1894) comb. nov. is redescribed. The genitalia descriptions are reported for the first time and it is newly recorded from Thailand.
Norms for copulas  [cached]
William F. Darsow,Elwood T. Olsen
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 1995, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171295000536
Abstract: We consider several norms on the span of the set C of all copulas. Dominance and equivalence relationships among the norms are discussed, and completeness issues are addressed. The motivation for the study is discussed. Applications to the study of one parameter semigroups of copulas are also addressed.
Executive Control of Attention in Narcolepsy  [PDF]
Sophie Bayard, Muriel Croisier Langenier, Valérie Cochen De Cock, Sabine Scholz, Yves Dauvilliers
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033525
Abstract: Background Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) is a disabling sleep disorder characterized by early loss of hypocretin neurons that project to areas involved in the attention network. We characterized the executive control of attention in drug-free patients with NC to determine whether the executive deficits observed in patients with NC are specific to the disease itself or whether they reflect performance changes due to the severity of excessive daytime sleepiness. Methodology Twenty-two patients with NC compared to 22 patients with narcolepsy without cataplexy (NwC) matched for age, gender, intellectual level, objective daytime sleepiness and number of sleep onset REM periods (SOREMPs) were studied. Thirty-two matched healthy controls were included. All participants underwent a standardized interview, completed questionnaires, and neuropsychological tests. All patients underwent a polysomnography followed by multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT), with neuropsychological evaluation performed the same day between MSLT sessions. Principal Findings Irrespective of diagnosis, patients reported higher self-reported attentional complaints associated with the intensity of depressive symptoms. Patients with NC performed slower and more variably on simple reaction time tasks than patients with NwC, who did not differ from controls. Patients with NC and NwC generally performed slower, reacted more variably, and made more errors than controls on executive functioning tests. Individual profile analyses showed a clear heterogeneity of the severity of executive deficit. This severity was related to objective sleepiness, higher number of SOREMPs on the MSLT, and lower intelligence quotient. The nature and severity of the executive deficits were unrelated to NC and NwC diagnosis. Conclusions We demonstrated that drug-free patients with NC and NwC complained of attention deficit, with altered executive control of attention being explained by the severity of objective sleepiness and global intellectual level. Further studies are needed to explore whether medications that promote wakefulness can improve the executive functions in narcolepsy.
On generalizations of Gowers norms and their geometry  [PDF]
Hamed Hatami
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: Motivated by the definition of the Gowers uniformity norms, we introduce and study a wide class of norms. Our aim is to establish them as a natural generalization of the $L_p$ norms. We shall prove that these normed spaces share many of the nice properties of the $L_p$ spaces. Some examples of these norms are $L_p$ norms, trace norms $S_p$ when $p$ is an even integer, and Gowers uniformity norms. Every such norm is defined through a pair of weighted hypergraphs. In regard to a question of Laszlo Lovasz, we prove several results in the direction of characterizing all hypergraph pairs that correspond to norms.
Forgotten constructions erected for mining and salt-works activities in Zlatá Baňa  [PDF]
Ján Brehuv,Rudolf Magula
Acta Montanistica Slovaca , 2008,
Abstract: Village Zlatá Baňa is known for the mining activities for gold, silver, mercury and antimony in the past. This article is devoted notto mining activities but to forgotten 2 dams, which were erected on the Delňa brook. The first was constructed above Zlatá Baňa fromwood in 1691 and does not exist presently. The second one was erected beneath Zlatá Baňa between 1802 – 1807 from stone and cementmortar. It exists up to this day but it is not working. The mentioned dams enabled to create water reservoirs. The first one enabled the water transport of wood trunksfrom latá Baňa to So ná Baňa in 1691 for a mining output of a salt-stone (or stone-salt). In the years 1807-1917, water from the second reservoir enabled the water transport of wood by a wooden flume 18,9 km long from Zlatá Baňa to the salt-works in Solivar. The mentioned dams and their water reservoirs enabled the high economical effectivity of the mining output of salt and salt-production of the salt-works in Solivar.
On Minimal Norms on  [PDF]
Madjid Mirzavaziri,Mohammad Sal Moslehian
Abstract and Applied Analysis , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/52840
Abstract: We show that for each minimal norm N(⋅) on thealgebra ℳn of all n×n complex matrices, there existnorms ‖⋅‖1 and ‖⋅‖2 on ℂn such that N(A)=max{‖Ax‖2:‖x‖1=1, x∈ℂn} for all A∈ℳn. This may be regarded as an extension of a known result on characterization of minimal algebra norms.
Representing Knowledge about Norms  [PDF]
Daniel Kayser,Farid Nouioua
Computer Science , 2006,
Abstract: Norms are essential to extend inference: inferences based on norms are far richer than those based on logical implications. In the recent decades, much effort has been devoted to reason on a domain, once its norms are represented. How to extract and express those norms has received far less attention. Extraction is difficult: as the readers are supposed to know them, the norms of a domain are seldom made explicit. For one thing, extracting norms requires a language to represent them, and this is the topic of this paper. We apply this language to represent norms in the domain of driving, and show that it is adequate to reason on the causes of accidents, as described by car-crash reports.
Institutionalism and Commission s Executive Discretion: an Empirical Analysis  [cached]
Fabio Franchino
European Integration Online Papers , 1998,
Abstract: Theory: The adoption of EC secondary legislation can be analyzed from the perspective of agency theory whereby Member States and the Parliament delegate policy authority to the Commission and design ex-post control procedures (i.e. Comitology). Rational choice and sociological institutionalisms differ in their predictions on the way rules and norms affect the extent of executive discretion. Hypothesis: Three institutionalist hypotheses are tested. The rationalist one derives from a Bayesian game developed by the author. It posits that Commission s executive discretion in non amending secondary legislation is a function of: 1) formal legislative procedure, 2) information asymmetry and 3) distribution of principals preferences. A fourth variable, legislative instrument, is also included. The diluted rationalist hypothesis substitutes formal with informal procedure in one policy area. The socio-rational hypothesis adds two new variables, that is the opinions of the Parliament and the Economic and Social Committee. A final co-graduation test is conducted on whether more discretion leads to more stringent ex-post control. Methods: Given the bimodal error structure of the regression model, I have bootstrapped the regression coefficients and computed the 95% confidence intervals of the null hypothesis. Bootstrapping has also been used to test the role of the European Parliament, of opinions and the co-graduation between discretion and ex-post control. A stratified sample of non amending secondary legislation adopted from 1987 to 1993 has been drawn to test the hypotheses. Results: The diluted rationalist hypothesis is the most accurate. Information asymmetry, informal legislative procedures and legislative instruments are statistically and substantively relevant in explaining executive discretion. Distribution of preferences has weak explanatory power probably because of the lack of reliable data and appropriate measurement. The Parliament and opinions do not relevantly affect Commission s discretion. More discretion leads to more confining ex-post control.
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