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Swedish Schools and Gender Equality in the 1970s  [cached]
Maria Hedlin
International Education Studies , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/ies.v6n3p76
Abstract: In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys’ academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with work on a forthcoming curriculum. The empirical material examined consists of the preparatory work for the Swedish comprehensive school National Curriculum, LGR 80 and the publication L rartidningen [Teachers’ Journal]. In the material, the gender inequality problem was first and foremost discussed in terms of sex-role values that led to sex-linked choices of education and jobs. Hopes that girls would turn to technical education and technical career choices were highly connected to the issue of equality between the sexes. Attention was occasionally drawn to women’s second-rate position in society, but mainly the problem of gender inequality was considered to be pupils’ attitudes rather than structures and strong cultural norms. Through information and sex-mixed classes the problem would be solved. Thus, in the material examined the gender discussions were rather superficial.
Strategies and Results of the Equality-of-the-Sexes Programme in the Swedish Broadcasting Corporation  [cached]
Ulla B. Abrahamsson
MedieKultur : Journal of Media and Communication Research , 1986,
Abstract: Strategies and Results of the Equality-of-the-Sexes Programme in the Swedish Broadcasting Corporation
Katarzyna Szymoniak
Studia Humanistyczne (Kraków. 2003) , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of this article is to analyze the Swedish gender equality politics and its influence on the gender equality on the Swedish labour market and within families in period between 1970s and 2000s. Problems such as wage differentials, occupational sex segregation and unequal distribution of paid and unpaid work between the sexes were faced from the beginning of the 20th century up to 1960s. In order to address those issues gender equality politics was launched in 1970s including enacting of the law on separate taxation and law on gender equality. Moreover, a special family politics was launched encouraging men and women to divide childcare and housework equally. On one hand Swedish gender equality politics contributed to the growth of women’s participation in labour market, to minimize wage differentials and it also made sex distribution between the occupations and at the leading positions in companies and institutions more equal. Moreover, this politics led to more equal distribution of unpaid work between men and women at home. On the other hand it must be pointed out that none of these problems has been completely solved. Women’s wages are still generally lower than men’s and women and men tend to work in different sectors. Women still take greater part of parental leave and tend to do the bigger part of unpaid work. Although a significant change in the level of gender equality has been made since 1960s, which can be considered a success of the Swedish gender equality politics, there is still much that needs to be done in order to achieve gender equality both on labour market and in families.
Gender equality in couples and self-rated health - A survey study evaluating measurements of gender equality and its impact on health
Ann S?rlin, Lars Lindholm, Nawi Ng, Ann ?hman
International Journal for Equity in Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-9276-10-37
Abstract: This study was a cross-sectional survey with 1400 respondents. We measured gender equality using two different measures: 1) a self-reported gender equality index, and 2) a self-perceived gender equality question. The aim of comparison of the self-reported gender equality index with the self-perceived gender equality question was to reveal possible disagreements between the normative discourse on gender equality and daily practice in couple relationships. We then evaluated the association with health, measured as self-rated health (SRH). With SRH dichotomized into 'good' and 'poor', logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with the outcome. For the comparison between the self-reported gender equality index and self-perceived gender equality, kappa statistics were used.Associations between gender equality and health found in this study vary with the type of gender equality measurement. Overall, we found little agreement between the self-reported gender equality index and self-perceived gender equality. Further, the patterns of agreement between self-perceived and self-reported gender equality were quite different for men and women: men perceived greater gender equality than they reported in the index, while women perceived less gender equality than they reported. The associations to health were depending on gender equality measurement used.Men and women perceive and report gender equality differently. This means that it is necessary not only to be conscious of the methods and measurements used to quantify men's and women's opinions of gender equality, but also to be aware of the implications for health outcomes.Men and women have different patterns of morbidity and mortality [1]. In Sweden, as in most other countries, women live longer (83.3 yrs in Sweden) than men (78.6 yrs in Sweden) but report more ill-health and have higher healthcare utilization [2]. These differences between the sexes present a challenge to the field of public health. The questi
The Rhythm of the Unit Is the Pace of Life: A Study of Everyday Activities and Sleep in Swedish Residential Care  [PDF]
Amanda Hellstr?m, Anna Condelius, Ania Willman, Cecilia Fagerstr?m
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.58073
Abstract: Social and physical activities can improve sleep in older people. However, living in a residential care facility has been associated with a limited potential for activities and increased inactivity, reflected in poor sleep among residents. In turn, poor sleep can impair physical and mental functions. This paper explores sleep habits and everyday activities at three residential care facilities and investigates the link between sleep habits and everyday activities from the perspective of the residents. Data were collected through observations of daily life and interviews with residents. The results showed that fixed times during the day reduced daytime sleep and motivated them to go to the day room, thus enabling social interaction. More impaired residents spent more time in the day room napping or being less active. The residents stated that going outdoors was a desired activity, thought to improve sleep. However, the activity did not occur to the extent the residents wished for. Maintaining mobility and influence over daily activities together with regularity seemed to improve sleep. Awareness among staff of the need for stimulating and enriching activities, as well as access to bright light is requisite. Specific consideration should be given to residents who have difficulties communicating their wishes and/or impaired mobility.
Is There a Nordic Way? A Swedish Perspective on Achievements and Problems with Gender Equality in Newsrooms  [cached]
Maria Edstr?m
Medijske Studije , 2011,
Abstract: Over the last decades several achievements have emerged in Nordic state societies concerning gender equality, particularly with regard to political representation, salaries, and shared parental leave.In most newsrooms one may find a near equal distribution of women and men working alongside one another. Additionally, in the larger newsrooms of Sweden, there is a gender balance at the manageriallevel. Yet in terms of news content, women remain a minority. By using qualitative and quantitative data from two projects, The Global Media Monitoring Project and The Global Status of Women in the News Media, this article assesses some of the challenges and best practice solutions for gender equality in Scandinavian newsrooms. The major gender discrepancies between newsrooms can often be explained by the level of gender awareness at the societal-level. Further, capable leadership, policies, and gender monitoring seem to benefit a gender balance in the news. National legislation on parental leave and discrimination, additionally, appear to play a key role in creating gender equality in the newsroom.
On the Determination of Aspiration Utility in Negotiation
Ching-Fen Lee,Pao-Long Chang
International Journal of Electronic Business Management , 2004,
Abstract: Diverse types of negotiation support systems have been developed to fulfill the requirements during the pre-negotiation, negotiation, and post-settlement phases. However, to the researcher’s knowledge, there is no system that can provide an accurate suggestion for the negotiator to help determine aspiration utility. In this paper, an analytical approach based on the additive scoring model is proposed to provide the support for aspiration utility determination. In particular, no prior knowledge or assumption about the preferences of the opponent is needed. At present, the solution with equality and Pareto-optimality is chosen as the reference point for the aspiration utility. To understand the optimality and fairness of negotiation problems, a series of exhaustive simulations were performed on two-party, multi-issue negotiations. From the analysis results, it was found that it is possible to determine the range of the aspiration utility without knowing the preferences of either side of the negotiation. Furthermore, if the preferences of one side had been identified in the pre-negotiation stage, the results can be further restricted in a narrow range.
Could gender equality in parental leave harm off-springs' mental health? a registry study of the Swedish parental/child cohort of 1988/89
Lisa Norstr?m, Lene Lindberg, Anna M?nsdotter
International Journal for Equity in Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-9276-11-19
Abstract: The population consisted of Swedish parents and their firstborn child in 1988-1989 (N = 118 595 family units) and the statistical method was multiple logistic regression. Gender equality of childcare was indicated by the division of parental leave (1988-1990), and child mental ill-health was indicated by outpatient mental care (2001-2006) and drug prescription (2005-2008), for anxiety and depression.The overall finding was that boys with gender traditional parents (mother dominance in childcare) have lower risk of depression measured by outpatient mental care than boys with gender-equal parents, while girls with gender traditional and gender untraditional parents (father dominance in childcare) have lower risk of anxiety measured by drug prescription than girls with gender-equal parents.This study suggests that unequal parenting regarding early childcare, whether traditional or untraditional, is more beneficial for offspring's mental health than equal parenting. However, further research is required to confirm our findings and to explore the pathways through which increased gender equality may influence child health.Mental ill-health among children and young adults is a rapidly growing public health problem in Sweden and many parts of the world [1,2]. Among the eslished causes of depression and anxiety are factors associated with family life during grow up, such as parental neglect or overprotection, parents' mental ill-health and substance misuse, and loss of parent [3-6]. Further, since females generally suffer more from mental ill-health conditions than males [5,7,8], the search for explanations should consider the gender system. This refers to the spectrum of social structures leading boys and girls, men and women, to take on different attitudes, behaviors and works, and to an unequal division of power between the sexes [9]. Hence, a contributor to mental health may be experiences from growing up regarding gendered aspects of family life, in other words, from ho
Negotiation of Conflicts: Dialogue or Entente
Rik Pinxten
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 1998,
Abstract: The negotiation of conflicts should part from profound scientific analysis. This said, in the relations between Europe and Maghreb one may observe identity-based dynamics on both sides, new intercultural dynamics, and possible spaces for negotiation and conflict. The author indicates three vias for resolving conflicts: violent confrontation, dialogue, and entente. More than the other two, the latter via for conflict resolution takes into account the intercultural aspects and the principle of equality in the interaction. Entente is also characterized in three ways: first, for being minimalist -he willingness to submit to a common, and minimal, agreement; second, for being multilateral -no agent is superior to the other; and, third, for being based on scientific analysis -the interlocutors make use of reason and common sense to come to know and draw closer to the other. In this regard, the author specifies that there are two institutions which are fundamental in the negotiation of conflicts: the educative system, and the political structures of States and of those between States.
Negotiation Games  [PDF]
Philipp Hoffmann
Computer Science , 2015, DOI: 10.4204/EPTCS.193.3
Abstract: Negotiations, a model of concurrency with multi party negotiation as primitive, have been recently introduced by J. Desel and J. Esparza. We initiate the study of games for this model. We study coalition problems: can a given coalition of agents force that a negotiation terminates (resp. block the negotiation so that it goes on forever)?; can the coalition force a given outcome of the negotiation? We show that for arbitrary negotiations the problems are EXPTIME-complete. Then we show that for sound and deterministic or even weakly deterministic negotiations the problems can be solved in PTIME. Notice that the input of the problems is a negotiation, which can be exponentially more compact than its state space.
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