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Differential Proteomic Analysis of Anthers between Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Maintainer Lines in Capsicum annuum L.  [PDF]
Zhiming Wu,Jiaowen Cheng,Cheng Qin,Zhiqun Hu,Caixia Yin,Kailin Hu
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms141122982
Abstract: Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3) and its maintainer (designated NB3) in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3- O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS), annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper.
Transcriptome Sequencing and De Novo Analysis of a Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line and Its Near-Isogenic Restorer Line in Chili Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)  [PDF]
Chen Liu, Ning Ma, Ping-Yong Wang, Nan Fu, Huo-Lin Shen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065209
Abstract: Background The use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in F1 hybrid seed production of chili pepper is increasingly popular. However, the molecular mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration remain poorly understood due to limited transcriptomic and genomic data. Therefore, we analyzed the difference between a CMS line 121A and its near-isogenic restorer line 121C in transcriptome level using next generation sequencing technology (NGS), aiming to find out critical genes and pathways associated with the male sterility. Results We generated approximately 53 million sequencing reads and assembled de novo, yielding 85,144 high quality unigenes with an average length of 643 bp. Among these unigenes, 27,191 were identified as putative homologs of annotated sequences in the public protein databases, 4,326 and 7,061 unigenes were found to be highly abundant in lines 121A and 121C, respectively. Many of the differentially expressed unigenes represent a set of potential candidate genes associated with the formation or abortion of pollen. Conclusions Our study profiled anther transcriptomes of a chili pepper CMS line and its restorer line. The results shed the lights on the occurrence and recovery of the disturbances in nuclear-mitochondrial interaction and provide clues for further investigations.
Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase and F1Fo-ATPase Dysfunction in Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) with Cytoplasmic Male Sterility and Its Association with orf507 and Ψatp6-2 Genes  [PDF]
Jiaojiao Ji,Wei Huang,Chuanchuan Yin,Zhenhui Gong
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms14011050
Abstract: Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) has been associated with novel genes in the mitochondria, such as orf507 and Ψatp6-2. Plant sterility has been proved to result from the rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome. Previous studies have demonstrated that orf507 is co-transcribed with the cox II gene, and Ψatp6-2 is truncated at the 3' region of the atp6-2 that is found in the maintainer line. Until this time, little has been known about the relationship between the novel gene and the function of its corresponding enzyme in mitochondria from the CMS pepper line. Moreover, the aberrant function of the mitochondrial enzymes is seldom reported in pepper. In this study, we observed that anther abortion occurred after the tetrad stage in the CMS line (HW203A), which was accompanied by premature programmed cell death (PCD) in the tapetum. The spatiotemporal expression patterns of orf507 and Ψatp6-2 were analyzed together with the corresponding enzyme activities to investigate the interactions of the genes and mitochondrial enzymes. The two genes were both highly expressed in the anther. The orf507 was down-regulated in HW203A (CMS line), with nearly no expression in HW203B (the maintainer line). In contrast, the cytochrome c oxidase activity in HW203A showed the opposite trend, reaching its highest peak at the tetrad stage when compared with HW203B at the same stage. The Ψatp6-2 in the CMS line was also down-regulated, but it was up-regulated in the maintainer line. The corresponding F1F o-ATPase activity in the CMS line was gradually decreased along with the development of the anther, which showed the same trend for Ψatp6-2 gene expression. On the contrary, with up-regulated gene expression of atp6-2 in the maintainer line, the F1F o-ATPase activity sharply decreased after the initial development stage, but gradually increased following the tetrad stage, which was contrary to what happened in the CMS line. Taken together, all these results may provide evidence for the involvement of aberrant mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase and F 1F o-ATPase in CMS pepper anther abortion. Moreover, the novel orf507 and Ψatp6-2 genes in the mitochondria may be involved in the dysfunction of the cytochrome c oxidase and F 1F o-ATPase, respectively, which are responsible for the abortion of anthers in the CMS line.
Influence of the heat treatment on the color of ground pepper (Capsicum annuum)
Vra?ar Ljubo O.,Tepi? Aleksandra N.,Vuji?i? Biserka L.,?olaja Sr?an
Acta Periodica Technologica , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/apt0738053v
Abstract: Red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the most important vegetables in the world. The main ground pepper quality attributes are extractable color, surface color, qualitative and quantitative carotenoid content. In this work, the influence of heat treatment on ground pepper quality was investigated. Microbiological status was examined in non-sterilized and sterilized ground pepper. Color changes were assessed by measuring the extractable color (ASTA) and surface color, using a photocolorimeter. The obtained results showed that at the end of experiment, non-sterilized samples had higher color values in comparison to the sterilized ones. Also, color deterioration was heightened at room temperature.
Genetic variability of mineral elements concentration in pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum L.)  [PDF]
Krsti? Borivoj ?.,Gvozdenovi? ?uro J.,Nikoli? Nata?a P.
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Prirodne Nauke , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/zmspn1018079k
Abstract: Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the major members of the vegetable kingdom. The differences between the individual varieties in mineral nutrition and the uptake of mineral elements have provoked our interest for the investigations of their genotype specificity. The chemical composition of pepper leaves at flowering and at the end of the growing season was analyzed. On the average, the content of total ash was app. 22%, namely 19-20% (soluble) and 2-3% (insoluble) at both stages. The highest accumulation values were obtained with nitrogen, then potassium, calcium and phosphorus, whereas the lowest with sodium. The most remarkable genotypic differences were recorded at the end of the growing season. The results obtained clearly demonstrate the chemical heterogeneity of pepper varieties. This crop may be grown successfully only if specificity of its mineral nutrition is known.
Pepper EST database: comprehensive in silico tool for analyzing the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) transcriptome
Hyun-Jin Kim, Kwang-Hyun Baek, Seung-Won Lee, JungEun Kim, Bong-Woo Lee, Hye-Sun Cho, Woo Taek Kim, Doil Choi, Cheol-Goo Hur
BMC Plant Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-8-101
Abstract: We built the Pepper EST database to mine the complexity of chili pepper ESTs. The database was built on 122,582 sequenced ESTs and 116,412 refined ESTs from 21 pepper EST libraries. The ESTs were clustered and assembled into virtual consensus cDNAs and the cDNAs were assigned to metabolic pathway, Gene Ontology (GO), and MIPS Functional Catalogue (FunCat). The Pepper EST database is designed to provide a workbench for (i) identifying unigenes in pepper plants, (ii) analyzing expression patterns in different developmental tissues and under conditions of stress, and (iii) comparing the ESTs with those of other members of the Solanaceae family. The Pepper EST database is freely available at http://genepool.kribb.re.kr/pepper/ webcite.The Pepper EST database is expected to provide a high-quality resource, which will contribute to gaining a systemic understanding of plant diseases and facilitate genetics-based population studies. The database is also expected to contribute to analysis of gene synteny as part of the chili pepper sequencing project by mapping ESTs to the genome.Pepper is a member of the family Solanaceae, which is one of the largest families in the plant kingdom and includes more than 3,000 species [1]. The Solanaceae family includes important crops, such as pepper, tomato, tobacco, potato, and eggplant and has been highly cultivated over the years for human nutrition and health. Capsicum species are consumed worldwide and are valued because of their unique color, pungency, and aroma. Capsicum peppers include C. annuum, C. chinense, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, and C. pubescens and are cultivated in different parts of the world. Of these, the varieties of the chili pepper plant species C. annuum, having a modest-sized diploid genome (2n = 24), are the most heavily consumed due to their nutritional value and spicy taste [2]. The chemical that is primarily responsible for the pungency of C. annuum has been identified as capsaicin [3], which elicits numerous b
Mathematical Modeling in the Estimation of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Fruit Volume
Kadri Bozokalfa,M; Kilic,Murat;
Chilean journal of agricultural research , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-58392010000400013
Abstract: peppers (capsicum annuum l.) are an important horticultural crop and are used fresh and processed. fruit size estimation is used to describe the fruit?s growth curve, monitor individual plant growth, predict yield, and conduct physiological studies. water displacement techniques are used to determine fruit volume, but these are time-consuming and impractical under field conditions. the aim of this study was to devise a mathematical model to analytically determine the non-destructive pepper fruit volume. fruit volume was described as a dependent variable, while length, weight, and diameter were independent variables in the model which was formulated as yi = 19.226859 + 0.139562 xi - 0.256142 zi + 1.429122 ti, where yi = fruit volume (cm3), and xi, zi, and ti are fruit diameter (mm), length (mm), and weight (g) , respectively. this equation can be easily used to predict the accuracy of pepper fruit volume. a significant relationship (p ≤ 0.01) was found between dependent and independent variables. the correlation coefficient describing the relationship between the actual fruit volumes and the model solution was 0.9516. consequently, it was determined that pepper fruit volume can be described as depending on fruit length, weight, and diameter.
Classification of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Accessions by RAPD Analysis
Kassinee Sitthiwong,Toshiyuki Matsui,Sutevee Sukprakarn
Biotechnology , 2005,
Abstract: Ten pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) germplasm accessions from Thailand were screened using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Twelve dodecamer oligonucleotide primers, singly and in combination were used. The similarity values among the studied genotypes range from 0.209 to 0.891. The resulting dendrogram divided the accessions into two major groups. The first group which include 8 accessions with white corolla was further divided into two subgroups. The first subgroup included 4 long-fruited (CA849, CA958, CA1107 and CA1118) and 1 medium-fruited (CA365). The second subgroup included 1 medium-fruited (CA367) and 1 short-fruited (CA398). However, the medium-fruited CA020 could not be clustered into any subgroup. The second group included a short-fruited with 1 white having green margin corolla (CA024) and a yellow green with green-yellow spots corolla (CA034). The obtained clustering based on RAPD markers was consistent with morphological characteristics of the different pepper accessions.
In vitro answer of Bulgarian pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
Rodeva Velichka,Grozeva Stanislava,Todorova Velichka
Genetika , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/gensr0602129r
Abstract: Callusogenesis and regeneration ability of cotyledon and hypocotyl explants from three Bulgarian pepper varieties in MS basal medium supplemented with l-3mg/l BAP. l.0mg/1 IAA and 0.5mg/l GA3 was studied. In the different variants of culture medium was registered high level of callusogenesis and organogenesis in both type of explants from the all varieties. The highest percentage of plant-regenerants is established in cotyledon explants (from 3.3 to 18.3) in variant 3 of the culture medium containing 3mg/l BA. In the process of micropropagation by stem explants of the same studied pepper varieties the addition of the vitamins C. B12. Casein hydrolysate and Ferulic acid had a stimulation effect on the plant growth in height and rooting. In result of anther cultivation from three pepper varieties and four breeding lines the highest percentage of embryo structure formation was registered in varieties Albena and Strjama (12.0 and 13.8 respectively). The Bulgarian peppers are recalcitrant and their in vitro answer is different depending from the explants type, genotype and the culture media composition.
Colour change in pepper (Capsicum annuum) during storage
Tepi? Aleksandra N.,Vuji?i? Biserka L.
Acta Periodica Technologica , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/apt0435059t
Abstract: Powders of pepper were stored at ambient temperature, exposed to daylight The final quality was evaluated by measuring the extractable colour by the American Spice Trade Association (ASTA). Also, the possibility of using surface colour measurement, as a supplement to extractable colour measurement was investigated. The use of the chromatic attributes L, a and b, suggested by the Commision Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE), i.e., of the CIELAB space, made it possible to find the correlation between ASTA and apparent colour of paprika.
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