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Under-representation of developing countries in the research literature: ethical issues arising from a survey of five leading medical journals
Athula Sumathipala, Sisira Siribaddana, Vikram Patel
BMC Medical Ethics , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6939-5-5
Abstract: A retrospective survey of articles published in the BMJ, Lancet, NEJM, Annals of Internal Medicine & JAMA in a calendar year to examine the contribution of the developing world to medical literature. We categorized countries into four regions: UK, USA, Other Euro-American countries (OEAC) and (RoW). OEAC were European countries other than the UK but including Australia, New Zealand and Canada. RoW comprised all other countries.The average contribution of the RoW to the research literature in the five journals was 6.5%. In the two British journals 7.6% of the articles were from the RoW; in the three American journals 4.8% of articles were from RoW. The highest proportion of papers from the RoW was in the Lancet (12%). An analysis of the authorship of 151 articles from RoW showed that 104 (68.9%) involved authorship with developed countries in Europe or North America. There were 15 original papers in these journals with data from RoW but without any authors from RoW.There is a marked under-representation of countries in high-impact general medical journals. The ethical implications of this inequity and ways of reducing it are discussed.National and international bodies concerned with research ethics need to confront the greatest ethical challenge-the enormous inequities in global health research [1]. Thus, less than 10% of the world's research resources are earmarked for 90% of the health problems [2]. Though 93% of the world's burden of preventable mortality occurs in developing countries, too little research funding is targeted to health problems in those countries [3]. This divide in research funding is mirrored by concerns regarding a divide in the proportion of publications arising from medical research in developing countries. A recent survey of six leading psychiatric journals revealed that only 6% of the articles originated from, or described data arising from, regions of the world that accounted for over 90% of the global population [4]. Following this paper,
Current dialectological research in Serbian linguistics and language contact issues  [PDF]
Vu?kovi? Marija
Ju?noslovenski Filolog , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/jfi0965405v
Abstract: Examined in this paper is the attitude of current Serbian dialectology towards phenomena that are the subject matter of contact linguistics. The aim of the study is to show which types of contact situations and their outcomes are investigated by dialectologists and which are, by applying certain methodological procedures, excluded or at least minimised. The survey of the scholarly production in the field reveals that the attention has been given to the dialectal lexical and structural borrowings from the neigh bouring languages, as well as the interdialectal interference, the contact-induced Balkan innovations and analytic tendency in dialects (which are of particular significance for the study of the Balkan Sprachbund), the mutual influences of standard language and dialects, the sociolinguistic factors determining the dialectal variations that result from language contact, urban dialects and even bilingualism. It should be noted that not all issues have been equally addressed: some of them are well established in the field, while the others only give hints of possible future trends within the discipline. The observed changes in the focus as well as in methodology of its investigations make dialectology more open to the issues contact linguistics is interested in.
A Simple Test Rig for Modeling the Bioarticular Friction
DOCT-US , 2009,
Abstract: This paper advances a simple test rig devised for modeling the bioarticular friction in human joints in general, and knee joints in particular. The biolocomotive system allows locomotion, the movement from one place to another. The key components of this system are the bones that are the framework of the skeleton, the joints that hold the bones together and make movement possible, and the muscles that contract and relax for movement. This paper describes a simple test rig devised for modeling the bioarticular friction in relative motion. The friction force and the friction coefficient between a bone end covered by cartilage and a glass disc are evaluated during motion.
Demographics and Asset Markets: A Survey of the Literature  [PDF]
Wasanthi Thenuwara, Mahinda Siriwardana, Nam Hoang
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.74057
Abstract: This paper surveys the theoretical and empirical literature examining the effects of population age structure on financial asset prices, including critical reviews of the methodologies used and an evaluation of contradictory results. The survey focuses on the effects of the Baby Boom generation on asset prices, and in particular, the question of the asset meltdown hypothesis (AMH). The existing literature reveals that an asset meltdown may never eventuate nevertheless it remains plausible that ageing of the Baby Boomers will have a significant negative impact on asset prices. The previous studies were based on where the proportion of the old age population is relatively low. With the first Baby Boomers reaching 65 years of age in 2011 this proportion is projected to increase substantially and hence the effect is reinforced. Thus new research is needed to address the unresolved issues given that population ageing has serious policy issues in the developed economies.
Survey on European Psychology Publication Issues  [PDF]
Psychology Science Quarterly , 2009,
Abstract: Open access, open review, language diversity and online publishing are the new paradigms and challenges in scientific communication. In order to collect data on these European Psychology publica-tion issues, to raise awareness and to find co-operation partners, an online survey was designed. Data were collected from 11th of February till 30th of May 2008. The survey was answered by 493 persons from 24 European countries.It was possible to show that international journals play an important role to obtain information and to foster careers. European language diversity and time delay are important aspects, which should be given more consideration. Open access still lacks awareness, especially in terms of support by authors. But we found many interested in contributing to open access journals and a journal that would ease the language barrier with a broad European focus would be very welcome.
Karen Kow Yip Cheng
K@ta : a Biannual Publication on the Study of Language and Literature , 2007,
Abstract: The Curriculum Development Centre of Malaysia implemented a Children's Contemporary Literature Programme to promote reading among pupils in year 4, 5 and 6 in schools. This paper explores some issues in the teaching and learning of children's literature in Malaysia. It also looks at the role of the teacher as well as the functions of children's literature. Further the English Language textbook and its role with reference to the teaching and learning of literature is analysed in this paper.
A survey of Floer homology for manifolds with contact type boundary or Symplectic homology  [PDF]
Alexandru Oancea
Mathematics , 2004,
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to give a survey of the various versions of Floer homology for manifolds with contact type boundary that have so far appeared in the literature. Under the name of ``Symplectic homology'' or ``Floer homology for manifolds with boundary'' they bear in fact common features and we shall try to underline the principles that unite them. Once this will be accomplished we shall proceed to describe the peculiarity of each of the constructions and the specific applications that unfold out of it: classification of ellipsoids and polydiscs in $\CC^n$, stability of the action spectrum for contact type boundaries of symplectic manifolds, existence of closed characteristics on contact type hypersurfaces and obstructions to exact Lagrange embeddings. The computation of the Floer cohomology for balls in $\CC^n$ is carried by explicitly perturbing the nondegenerate Morse-Bott spheres of closed characteristics.
A Survey on Frequent Pattern Mining: Current Status and Challenging Issues  [PDF]
A. Tiwari,R.K. Gupta,D.P. Agrawal
Information Technology Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Discovering association rules in huge databases is a core topic of data mining. This survey study aims at giving an overview of the previous researches done in this field, evaluating the current status of the work done and envisioning gaps in the current knowledge. The problem of mining association rules can be generalized in to two steps: (1) Finding all frequent itemsets and (2) generating rules from these itemsets. The first sub-task, which is to determine the frequent itemsets, is computationally expensive process. Counting the occurrences of itemsets requires a considerable amount of processing time. As a consequence, number of algorithms are proposed in literature for mining the frequent itemsets. Present study reviews frequent pattern mining algorithms and other related issues available in the literature.
Survey of Security and Privacy Issues of Internet of Things  [PDF]
Tuhin Borgohain,Uday Kumar,Sugata Sanyal
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: This paper is a general survey of all the security issues existing in the Internet of Things (IoT) along with an analysis of the privacy issues that an end-user may face as a consequence of the spread of IoT. The majority of the survey is focused on the security loopholes arising out of the information exchange technologies used in Internet of Things. No countermeasure to the security drawbacks has been analyzed in the paper.
A Survey on BGP Issues and Solutions  [PDF]
Amit Narayanan
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: BGP is the de facto protocol used for inter-autonomous system routing in the Internet. Generally speaking, BGP has been proven to be secure, efficient, scalable, and robust. However, with the rapid evolving of the Internet in the past few decades, there are increasing concerns about BGS's ability to meet the needs of the Internet routing. There are two major limitations of BGP which are its failure to address several key security issues, and some operational related problems. The design and ubiquity of BGP have complicated past efforts at securing inter-domain routing. This paper surveys the past work related to BGP security and operational issues. We explore the limitations and advantages of proposed solutions in these two limitations.
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