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Osmolalidad de bebidas de consumo frecuente
Dini-G,Elizabeth; De Abreu-C,Jorge; López-M,Emeris;
Investigación Clínica , 2004,
Abstract: the objective of this work was to determine the osmolality of beverages frequently consumed by children and adolescents due to the scarce information available in our country. the samples were grouped as follows: milks; refreshments; beverages based on fruits, vegetables, cereals, and tubers; sport drinks; energizing drinks; oral rehydrating solutions; reconstituted drinks and infusions. a vapor pressure digital osmometer was used, five samples of each beverage from different lots were analyzed. four osmolality determinations were made on each sample and the average of such values was calculated. when the variation coefficient of the osmolality measurements of the five samples was higher than 10%, five additional samples were analyzed. as many samples as possible were used with breast milk in the time period of the study. osmolality averages, standard deviation, and the osmolality confidence intervals (95% reliability) were calculated. the osmolality (mmol/kg) of breast milk and that of cow milk were between 273 and 389; refreshments, white, black and flavored colas, and malts ranged between 479-811; and soda and light drinks: 44-62; fresh fruit and commercial drinks (coconut, peach, apple, orange, pear, pineapple, grape, plum, tamarind): 257-1152 and light juices: 274; sports beverages: 367; energizing drinks: 740; drinks based on vegetables and cereals: 213-516; oral rehydrating solutions: 236-397; reconstituted drinks: 145; infusions: 25. beverages with adequate osmolality levels for children were: milks, light refreshments, soda, fresh and light juices, oral rehydrating, soy, and reconstituted drinks and infusions.
Osmolalidad de productos y fórmulas para la terapia nutricional Osmolality of products and formulas for nutritional therapy
Jorge De Abreu,Emeris López,Elizabeth Dini
Investigación Clínica , 2009,
Abstract: Se determinó la osmolalidad de fórmulas y productos para la terapia nutricional disponibles en Venezuela. Las muestras se agruparon en fórmulas infantiles de inicio, neonatos de bajo peso, infantiles de continuación, 1 a 4 a os, a base de soya, sin lactosa, antirreflujo, hipoalergénicas, dietas con nutrientes intactos basadas en leche (DNIBL), fórmulas poliméricas, semielementales, módulos calóricos y proteicos. Se utilizó un osmómetro digital de presión de vapor, analizando cinco muestras por producto, preparadas por medida y por peso, de lotes diferentes. Cuando el coeficiente de variación de las medidas de osmolalidad fue mayor a 10%, se analizaron 5 muestras adicionales. Se calcularon promedios, desviación estándar y coeficiente de variación de los valores de osmolalidad (95% confiabilidad). La osmolalidad (mmol/kg) de las fórmulas de inicio y de neonatos de bajo peso estuvieron entre 258 y 309; las de continuación: 256-390; de ni os de 1 a 4 a os: 343-399; a base de soya: 155-252; sin lactosa: 163-248; antirreflujo: 230-292; hipoalergénica: 220-335; DNIBL: 205-454; poliméricas: 247-588; semielementales: 238-289; módulo calórico: 89-99; y proteico: 30-60. Se encontró que generalmente las fórmulas preparadas con medidor tenían mayor osmolalidad y variabilidad que las preparadas según el peso. Algunas fórmulas de continuación, poliméricas, fórmulas para ni os de 1 a 4 a os y con nutrientes intactos basadas en leche tuvieron osmolalidades elevadas por lo que no deben ser administradas a lactantes, y con precaución a ni os y adolescentes cuando el tracto gastrointestinal esté comprometido. The objective was to determine the osmolality of products and formulas for nutritional therapy available in Venezuela. The samples were grouped as follows: infant formulas, premature infant, follow up, 1 to 4 years, soy based, lactose free, anti-reflux, hypoallergenic, complete beverages, polymeric formulas, semi-elemental, caloric and protein modules. A vapor pressure digital osmometer was used, analyzing five samples of each product from different lots, prepared by weigth or with scoop. When the variation coefficient of the osmolality measurements was higher than 10%, five additional samples were analyzed. Averages, standard deviation, and the variation coefficient of the osmolality measures (95% reliability) were calculated. The osmolality (mmol/kg) of infant and premature infant formulas were between 258 and 309; follow up formulas ranged between 256-390; 1 to 4 years: 343-399; soy based: 155-252; lactose free: 163-248; anti-reflux: 230-292; hypoallergenic: 220-33
Contenido de flúor en bebidas de consumo frecuente por ni os peque os con riesgo de fluorosis dental. Medellín, 2006 Fluoride content in beverages of frequent intake by young children with risk of dental fluorosis. Medellín, 2006  [cached]
Diego Andrés López,Jeisson Javier Estrada,Jonathan Andrés Zapata,ángela María Franco
Revista Facultad de Odontología Universidad de Antioquia , 2008,
Abstract: INTRODUCCIóN: igual a lo sucedido en otros lugares del mundo, la prevalencia de la fluorosis dental se ha incrementado en Medellín concomitantemente con la reducción de la caries dental. Estos cambios han sido atribuidos al amplio uso, tanto sistémico como tópico, del flúor. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el contenido de flúor en las bebidas consumidas por ni os y ni as en edad de riesgo para la fluorosis dental. MéTODOS: varios tipos de bebidas (agua embotellada, bebidas lácteas, jugos naturales, gaseosas, refrescos, energizantes y té) de 40 marcas comerciales distintas, compradas en supermercados y tiendas de barrio, fueron analizadas. El contenido de flúor de todas las muestras de bebidas fue determinado por duplicado mediante el método de microdifusión, usando un electrodo selectivo para el ion flúor. RESULTADOS: las concentraciones de flúor oscilaron entre 0,010 a 4,285 mg/L. La mayoría de las bebidas presentaron concentraciones de flúor por debajo de 0,058 mg/L. La más alta concentración de flúor fue encontrada en las bebidas a base de té (3,45 ± 1,49 mg/L; rango 1,54-4,28 mg/L). Las etiquetas de los fabricantes no informaban acerca de la concentración de flúor en las bebidas analizadas. CONCLUSIONES: la mayoría de las bebidas no alcanzaban concentraciones de flúor que pudieran ser consideradas de riesgo para la fluorosis, sin embargo algunas de las bebidas analizadas podrían hacer una contribución importante a la ingestión diaria de flúor. Su consumo por los ni os y ni as en edad de riesgo de sufrir fluorosis debe ser evitado. El contenido de flúor de estos productos debería ser informado por el fabricante en las etiquetas de presentación. INTRODUCTION: like others cities in the world, the prevalence of dental fluorosis has increased in Medellin, along with a reduction in dental caries. These changes have been attributed in part to the widespread use of systemic and topical fluorides. The purpose of this study was to analyze the fluoride content of beverages consumed by boys and girls of age susceptible to dental fluorosis. METHODS: several kinds of beverages of 40 commercial brands (bottled waters, milk, natural juices, carbonated drinks, soft drinks and teas), purchased from supermarkets and grocery stores were analyzed. The fluoride content of all samples was determined in duplicate, using a Fluoride Ion Selective Electrode. RESULTS: fluoride ion concentrations ranged from 0.010 to 4.285 mg/L. The majority of beverages presented fluoride levels below 0.058 mg/L. The highest mean concentration of fluoride was found in teas (3.45 ± 1
Osmolalidad de productos y fórmulas para la terapia nutricional
De Abreu,Jorge; López,Emeris; Dini,Elizabeth;
Investigación Clínica , 2009,
Abstract: the objective was to determine the osmolality of products and formulas for nutritional therapy available in venezuela. the samples were grouped as follows: infant formulas, premature infant, follow up, 1 to 4 years, soy based, lactose free, anti-reflux, hypoallergenic, complete beverages, polymeric formulas, semi-elemental, caloric and protein modules. a vapor pressure digital osmometer was used, analyzing five samples of each product from different lots, prepared by weigth or with scoop. when the variation coefficient of the osmolality measurements was higher than 10%, five additional samples were analyzed. averages, standard deviation, and the variation coefficient of the osmolality measures (95% reliability) were calculated. the osmolality (mmol/kg) of infant and premature infant formulas were between 258 and 309; follow up formulas ranged between 256-390; 1 to 4 years: 343-399; soy based: 155-252; lactose free: 163-248; anti-reflux: 230-292; hypoallergenic: 220-335; complete beverages: 205-454; polymeric formulas: 247-588; semi-elemental: 238-289; caloric module: 89-99 and protein module: 30-60. we found that almost all the formulas prepared with scoop had higher osmolality and variability than the same products prepared by weight. some follow up, polymeric, 1 to 4 years formulas and complete beverages had high osmolalities and therefore should not be administered to infants, and must be administered with caution to children and adolescents when the gastrointestinal tract is compromised.
Contenido de flúor en bebidas de consumo frecuente por ni?os peque?os con riesgo de fluorosis dental. Medellín, 2006
López,Diego Andrés; Estrada,Jeisson Javier; Zapata,Jonathan Andrés; Franco,ángela María;
Revista Facultad de Odontología Universidad de Antioquia , 2008,
Abstract: introduction: like others cities in the world, the prevalence of dental fluorosis has increased in medellin, along with a reduction in dental caries. these changes have been attributed in part to the widespread use of systemic and topical fluorides. the purpose of this study was to analyze the fluoride content of beverages consumed by boys and girls of age susceptible to dental fluorosis. methods: several kinds of beverages of 40 commercial brands (bottled waters, milk, natural juices, carbonated drinks, soft drinks and teas), purchased from supermarkets and grocery stores were analyzed. the fluoride content of all samples was determined in duplicate, using a fluoride ion selective electrode. results: fluoride ion concentrations ranged from 0.010 to 4.285 mg/l. the majority of beverages presented fluoride levels below 0.058 mg/l. the highest mean concentration of fluoride was found in teas (3.45 ± 1.49 mg/l; range 1.54-4.28 mg/l). the manufacturers? labelling did not inform about the content of fluoride concentration. conclusions: the majority of beverages did not reach the fluoride level to be considered a risk for fluorosis; however, some of the analyzed beverages may be important contributors to the total daily f intake. their consumption by children at the age of risk for dental fluorosis should be avoided. the f content in these products should be informed on their labels.
Caracterización del consumo de bebidas alcohólicas en adolescentes de un consultorio médico
Rita Campillo Motilva,Vladimir Vizcay Basabe
Revista Cubana de Medicina General Integral , 2003,
Abstract: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal sobre la ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas en adolescentes. Se tomaron como muestras 104 adolescentes de un consultorio médico perteneciente al Policlínico Docente "Mario Escalona Reguera" del municipio Habana del Este, a los cuales se les realizó una encuesta que incluyó la clasificación de alcoholismo del doctor González Menéndez para determinar la prevalencia de ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas, además de otros parámetros relacionados con el tema como la edad de inicio de la ingestión, las motivaciones psicosociales, los eventos relacionados con la ingestión, los tipos de bebidas alcohólicas más consumidas y otros. Para analizar los datos se utilizó el método estadístico Chi cuadrado para asociar variables y el método porcentual. Se encontró que la prevalencia fue de 75 % de consumidores, con predominio del bebedor social, la edad de inicio más frecuente fue a los 15 a os, con un inicio más temprano en el sexo masculino. La bebida alcohólica más consumida fue la cerveza, y la motivación psicosocial más frecuente fue la diversión en tiempo libre. A descriptive cross-sectional study was made on the alcohol consumption by teenagers. One-hundred and four teenagers from a physician’s office subordinated to "Mario Escalona Regueira" teaching polyclinics located in Habana del Este municipality were taken as samples. They were administered a survey that included the classification of alcoholism by Doctor González Menéndez to determine the prevalence of alcohol drinking in addition to other parameters related to the topic such as age at the first alcohol drinking, psychosocial motivations, events associated with consumption, the most consumed types of alcohol beverages and others. For data analysis, Chi square statistical method was used to associate variables and also the percentage method. It was found that 75 % of the sample were alcohol drinkers, with predominance of the social drinker, the most frequent age at first consumption was 15 years old, being the males the earlier consumers. The most taken alcohol beverage was beer and the most frequent psychosocial motivation was to have fun.
Changes in plasma osmolality in food poisoning  [PDF]
?anovi? Predrag,Ne?i? Ljiljana,Gajovi? Olgica,Mijailovi? ?eljko
Medicinski Pregled , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/mpns0608365c
Abstract: Introduction. Changes in plasma osmolality may occur during acute intestinal infections due to dehydration (loss of water and/or electrolytes). Depending on whether the water and electrolyte deficit is primary, or a proportional loss of water and electrolytes, dehydration can be classified into three categories: hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic. Material and methods. Thirty (30) patients with food poisoning were included in this research. All patients were hospitalized because of frequent vomiting, with resultant dehydration. A diagnosis of food poisoning was made based on the clinical picture, short incubation period and positive epidemiological history. Plasma osmolality was measured by a freezing point depression with an osmometer, while effective plasma osmolality was determined by using the following formula: EPO (eff. plasma osmolality) = 2 x serum sodium concentration + serum glucose level. Apart from plasma osmolality, other parameters were also measured in patients' sera: sodium, chloride, potassium, urea, glucose and hematocrit. In order to follow-up the changes in these parameters, they were also measured after treatment of the gastrointestinal disorder. Statistical analysis was performed using the equality of mean values for 2 basic groups. Results. The statistical results showed that the values of total and effective plasma osmolality (TPO and EPO) among patients with gastrointestinal disorders were not significantly higher than values after the alimentary infection. Discussion. Such results suggest that food poisoning is associated with disorders of water and electrolyte metabolism, that is isotonic type of dehydration. .
Serum Osmolality is Elevated in Metabolic Syndrome Cases  [PDF]
Demirci, Hakan,??nar, Y?ld?r?m
The Turkish Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.5262/tndt.2013.1002.03
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: It has previously been shown that renal function is impaired in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Microalbuminuria, elevated serum osmolality, and decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may indicate some degree of renal impairment. Among these, microalbuminuria and GFR have already been shown to be related with MetS. This study aimed to investigate the relation between MetS and serum osmolality.MATERIAL and METHODS: A cross-sectional case control study was designed. The study group was composed of 115 persons who were diagnosed as having MetS according to ATP III criteria and 123 persons who did not have MetS. The diagnosis of MetS was based on the presence of three or more of the following factors: hypertension; abdominal obesity; fasting serum triglycerides; low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose. Serum osmolality and GFR values were estimated by using appropriate formulations.RESULTS: A total of 238 persons aged between 18-65 years were included in the study. MetS and serum osmolality were significantly correlated (P=0.001). Serum osmolality was also correlated with systolic blood pressure (P=0.000), fasting plasma glucose (P=0.000), and waist circumference (P=0.000).CONCLUSION: Serum osmolality is correlated with metabolic syndrome and its parameters. The reason for increased serum osmolality values in MetS patients needs to be investigated.
Potencial erosivo de las bebidas industriales sobre el esmalte dental Erosive potential of industrial beverages on the dental enamel
Olga Patricia López Soto,María del Pilar Cerezo Correa
Revista Cubana de Salud Pública , 2008,
Abstract: Objetivos Determinar el potencial erosivo de varias bebidas por medio de la determinación del pH y de su concentración de fosfatos y de fluoruros. Métodos Para el análisis, las bebidas se agruparon en gaseosas colas, gaseosas de naranja-lima-limón, gaseosas rojas, jugos de naranja, jugos de frutas, bebidas deportivas y bebidas con contenido de alcohol. Para medir el pH se utilizó un equipo calibrado y verificado. Las mediciones se realizaron por triplicado. La concentración de fosfatos se determinó por el método gravimétrico de molybdato de quinolina y la de flúor, mediante la utilización de un electrodo específico para el ión fluoruro. Resultados Las bebidas colas, una de las gaseosas de naranja-lima-limón y un jugo de naranja, registraron pH inferiores a 2,14. El contenido más alto de fosfato lo presentó el vino blanco (6,44 mmol/L). Las bebidas deportivas, dos de las bebidas de naranja, una de las cervezas, una de las gaseosas rojas, el vodka y el vino blanco, no registraron contenidos de fluoruros. Las demás estuvieron por debajo de 0,23 partes por millón de fluoruros. Conclusiones De acuerdo al pH las bebidas con posible potencial erosivo serian las gaseosas colas, las gaseosas de naranja-lima-limón, una de las gaseosas rojas, los jugos de naranja, los jugos de fruta y una de las cervezas. Ninguna de las bebidas registró una cantidad suficiente de fluoruros para reducir su potencial erosivo. Sólo tres bebidas, la cerveza, un jugo de naranja y el vino blanco, tenían valores de fosfatos que podrían prevenir en algo la disolución del esmalte según la referencia científica considerada. Objectives To determine the erosive potential of several beverages by means of pH determination and phosphate and fluoride concentrations. Methods For their analysis, beverages were grouped into sprinkling colas, orange/lime/lemon sprinkling beverages orange juices, sports drinks and alcohol-containing beverages. A calibrated and verified piece of equipment was used to measure pH three times. Phosphate concentration was estimated by gravity method of kinoline molybdate whereas fluoride concentration was measured with a fluoride ion-specific electrode. Results Colas, one of the sprinkling beverage flavoured orange-lime-lemon and one orange juice recorded pH values lower than 2,14. The highest contents of phosphate was found in white wine (6,44 mmol/L). Sports drinks, two orange beverages, one beer, one red sprinkling drink, vodka and white wine, did not show any fluoride contents. The rest of beverages was under 0,23 parts per million fluorides. Conclusions According to p
Influencia de la congelación sobre la osmolalidad urinaria en perros sanos  [PDF]
Beristain-Ruiz, D.M,Zaragoza-Bayle, C.,Rodríguez-Alarcón, C.A,Barrera-Chacón, R.
REDVET , 2009,
Abstract: ResumenLa gravedad urinaria específica (GUE) y la osmolalidad urinaria (OsmU)son herramientas utilizadas para medir la capacidad de concentraciónrenal. Perros con un estado normal de hidratación presentan una GUEentre 1.015-1.045 y una OsmU de 800-2500 mOmol/Kg. La determinaciónde OsmU es el mejor método para evaluar la concentración urinaria yaque la GUE depende, no sólo del número de partículas presentes en laorina, sino también de su peso molecular. Esto es de suma importancia en pacientes con da o renal. Con el fin de determinar si la congelación tiene alguna influencia sobre la osmolalidad urinaria, se realizó el presente estudio. Este trabajo se llevó a cabo a partir de 12 muestras de orina de pacientes sanos a las que se les determinó sucesivamente la OsmU tras 5 congelaciones. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la congelación no altera sustancialmente la osmolalidad urinaria.
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