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Relational Uncertainty, Perceived Fairness, and the Division of Household Labor in Cohabiting and Married Couples
Yen-Chi Le,Krystyna S. Aune
Interpersona : An International Journal on Personal Relationships , 2011,
Abstract: This study examined the relationship between relational uncertainty and perceptions of division of household labor (DHL) in cohabiting and married couples. Specifically, research questions explored perceived fairness in DHL and relational uncertainty, perceptual convergence of contributions, convergence of perceptions and relational uncertainty, and convergence of perceptions and relationship satisfaction. A behavioral methodology called the Household Portrait Technique was employed to examine how couples discuss how they decide who does what in the household. A total of 33 couples independently completed a self-report instrument and jointly participated in the Household Portrait activity. Results showed that husbands and wives were agreed in their perceptions of fairness. Couples agreed that husbands do more of the outdoor work and automobile maintenance whereas wives do more of the childcare. Convergent perceptions regarding DHL was positively associated with relational certainty and marginally associated with relationship satisfaction.
There's Something about a Fair Split: Intentionality Moderates Context-Based Fairness Considerations in Social Decision-Making  [PDF]
Sina Radke, Berna Güro?lu, Ellen R. A. de Bruijn
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031491
Abstract: Fairness considerations are a strong motivational force in social decision-making. Here, we investigated the role of intentionality in response to unfair offers in the Ultimatum Game by manipulating both proposers' degree of control over the selection of offers and the context pertaining to the outcomes of offers proposers can choose from. As a result, the design enabled us to disentangle intention- and context-based decision-making processes. Rejection rates were higher when an unfair offer was intentionally chosen over a fair alternative than when it was chosen by the computer, outside proposers' control. This finding provides direct evidence for intention-based decision-making. Also, rejection rates in general were sensitive to the context in which an offer was made, indicating the involvement of both intention- and context-based processes in social decision-making. Importantly, however, the current study highlights the role of intention-based fairness considerations in basic decision-making situations where outcomes are explicitly stated and thus easy to compare. Based on these results, we propose that fairness can be judged on different, but additive levels of (social-) cognitive processing that might have different developmental trajectories.
Immediation as process and practice of signaletic mattering  [cached]
Christoph Brunner
Journal of Aesthetics & Culture , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/jac.v4i0.18154
Abstract: How is perception a constitutive force in interactive media environments and how does it effect its cultural and social conditions? This question provides the ground for a conceptual and practical development of the term immediation. Immediation describes the immediacy of esthetic sensation and locates the event of immediated experience in everyday life. It highlights the immediacy with which digital processes enhance or delimit perception and affect through directly shaping experience. The immersive and interactive media environment Panoscope—a 360° hemispheric and fully immersive projection space—offers ways for developing two main aspects of immediation: (1) immediation underlining the creative role of perception as neither subjective nor objective but relational, embodied, and located in everyday life and (2) the reconsideration of the digital not as pure abstraction but a relational process immanent to perception. By unfolding the concept of digital or signaletic mattering, the coemergence of material conditions and processes of thinking will be emphasized.
Political Ideology and Perceptions of Bias Among University Faculty  [cached]
Susan Bullers,Melissa Reece,Christy Skinner
Sociation Today , 2010,
Abstract: The goal of the study was to examine the political ideology and perceptions of bias among the faculty in a university in the southeast U.S.A. Findings regarding the overall dominance of a liberal political ideology as well as ideological differences among disciplines are consistent with previous research. Respondents did distinguish between political dominance and political bias and were relatively accurate in their perceptions of a liberal dominance. Reports of bias were much lower overall but all groups were more likely to report a bias against conservatives than against Liberal and Moderates. Reports of bias against conservatives were quite high among conservatives themselves (48.7%). Conservatives were more likely to report a need to conceal their political beliefs, while Moderates and Liberals were slightly more likely to report harassment or attacks for their political beliefs. The gender differences in political ideology show that women are significantly more likely to hold a liberal political ideology.
Exam fairness  [PDF]
Mathieu Bouville
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: It is widely agreed that exams must be fair; yet what this exactly means is not made clear. One may mean fairness of treatment, but this merely propagates the fairness or unfairness of pre-existing rules. Fairness of opportunity on the other hand necessarily leads to identical grades for everyone, which clearly makes it inapplicable. Neither view is helpful to make decisions on competing claims: fairness of treatment ignores the problem and fairness of opportunity holds all claims to be equally valid. To escape this deadlock one needs an external criterion to replace fairness viewed as student-student comparison. Keywords: assessment; bias; engineering education; examinations; grading; justice; tests
Metaphor and ideology Metaphor and ideology
Andrew Goatly
Ilha do Desterro , 2010,
Abstract: Since metaphor in language and thought might be glossed as ‘metaphor and meaning’ and as ideology has been defined as ‘meaning in the service of power’, this paper explores some of the ways in which metaphor is used for ideological purposes. It begins by discussing the salient and topical metaphor themes POWER/IMPORTANCE IS HEIGHT, RACE IS COLOUR, DISEASE IS INVASION and SEX IS VIOLENCE. It proceeds to introduce the theoretical question of the extent of physiological and cultural influences on metaphor theme. To illustrate the importance of the cultural it shows how early capitalism established, selected or nurtured a constellation of metaphor themes to convey and reinforce its ideological position and how these were elaborated in a genealogy stretching from the British (economic) philosophers Hobbes, Hume, Smith, Malthus through to Darwin. This genealogy forms the basis for current neo-conservative sociobiological political and economic theories. The most important metaphor themes in this ideological project are identified as ACTIVITY IS FIGHTING, ACTIVITY (COMPETITION) IS RACE, QUALITY IS QUANTITY,and QUALITY IS MONEY/WEALTH. The paper shows how these reinforce a culture of competitiveness, survival of the fittest, and the equation of wealth possessed with personal value. It also shows how PERIOD IS LENGTH DISTANCE and TIME IS ONEY/COMMODITY were recruited for purposes of capitalist in dustrialisation. Since metaphor in language and thought might be glossed as ‘metaphor and meaning’ and as ideology has been defined as ‘meaning in the service of power’, this paper explores some of the ways in which metaphor is used for ideological purposes. It begins by discussing the salient and topical metaphor themes POWER/IMPORTANCE IS HEIGHT, RACE IS COLOUR, DISEASE IS INVASION and SEX IS VIOLENCE. It proceeds to introduce the theoretical question of the extent of physiological and cultural influences on metaphor theme. To illustrate the importance of the cultural it shows how early capitalism established, selected or nurtured a constellation of metaphor themes to convey and reinforce its ideological position and how these were elaborated in a genealogy stretching from the British (economic) philosophers Hobbes, Hume, Smith, Malthus through to Darwin. This genealogy forms the basis for current neo-conservative sociobiological political and economic theories. The most important metaphor themes in this ideological project are identified as ACTIVITY IS FIGHTING, ACTIVITY (COMPETITION) IS RACE, QUALITY IS QUANTITY,and QUALITY IS MONEY/WEALTH. The paper shows how these
Fairness in society  [PDF]
Ophir Flomenbom
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: Models that explain the economical and political realities of nowadays societies should help all the world's citizens. Yet, the last four years showed that the current models are missing. Here we develop a dynamical society-deciders model showing that the long lasting economical stress can be solved when increasing fairness in nations. fairness is computed for each nation using indicators from economy and politics. Rather than austerity versus spending, the dynamical model suggests that solving crises in western societies is possible with regulations that reduce the stability of the deciders, while shifting wealth in the direction of the people. This shall increase the dynamics among socio-economic classes, further increasing fairness.
The Sexual Division of Household Labor  [PDF]
Thomas V. Frederick, Jack O. Balswick
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.25079
Abstract: Mounting evidence from both historical and social-psychological perspectives is pointing to the conclusion that evangelicals are relying upon patriarchal gender ideologies, specifically the male breadwinner and female domestic family roles, as identity markers to distinguish themselves from others in mainstream America. One would expect that gender ideology as an identity boundary marker would have little to no effect on the actual gendered behavior of evangelicals. The evidence from this study supports this notion in that three gender ideology scales constructed of attitudinal items were utilized, with limited success, to understand their impact on the actual performance of household labors.
Conservatism and the understandings of ideology  [cached]
Gabriela T?n?sescu
Sfera Politicii , 2011,
Abstract: The paper aims to outline the perspective of the most important conservative author of this century on the adequate understanding of ideology – ideology as abbreviation of a tradition – and his typical conservative arguments of defining the inadequate understanding of ideology – ideology as premeditation in advance of a manner of attending to the arrangements of a society.
Mihaela Frunza, Ideology and Feminism  [cached]
Ana Elena Ilinca
Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies , 2004,
Abstract: Mihaela Frunza, Ideology and Feminism Ed. Limes, Cluj Napoca, 2004
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